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  • Jan 7,
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1 TOBACCO CONTROL COUNTRY PROFILES

2 The Tobacco Control Country Profiles is an initiative of the 11th World Conference postbox 5.0.22 crack Tobacco OR Health. Funding from SmithKline Beecham Consumer Healthcare and the American Cancer Society supported the development of the monograph. The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided, in kind, data and personnel resources to the project.

3 The 11th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health TOBACCO CONTROL COUNTRY PROFILES Editors: Marlo Ann Corrao G. Emmanuel Guindon Namita Sharma Dorna Fakhrabadi Shokoohi The American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, Georgia

4 COPYRIGHT WAIVER Because the Tobacco Control Country Profiles is intended to serve as a reference book and a resource for tobacco control advocates, any part of the book may be reproduced without seeking copyright permission from the editors or the American Cancer Society; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Suggested citation: Corrao MA, Guindon GE, Sharma N, Shokoohi DF (eds). Tobacco Control Country Profiles, American Cancer Society, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Atlanta, GA,

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7 Foreword John R. Seffrin Inthe American Cancer Society amended its official programs nationwide, we appreciate the immensity of this statement of purpose to include cooperation with other offi- volunteer effort. The individuals, organizations and govern- cial and non-official organizations interested in cancer, any- ments that assisted the development of the monograph, by where in the world, so that greater progress could be made sending data, completing questionnaires and lending their in the fight against the disease. Today, the Tobacco Control advice, share the American Cancer Societys commitment to Country Profiles project exemplifies this spirit of international fighting the global smoking pandemic. It is our hope that the cooperation in cancer surveillance, primarily through the momentum against postbox 5.0.22 crack use apparent at the 11th World aggregation of statistical information about the most signifi- Conference on Tobacco OR Health will continue to grow and cant risk factor for cancer: tobacco use. In the United States, will result in overwhelming support for a global policy on tobacco use causes 30% of cancer deaths among men and tobacco control. Progress in decreasing tobacco-related women, and as the tobacco postbox 5.0.22 crack intensifies its marketing morbidity and mortality worldwide will require every nation strategies in developing countries, we can expect the propor- to look beyond its geographic borders to develop new part- tion of tobacco-attributed deaths worldwide to increase. The nerships against the tobacco industry and its advocates. Tobacco Control Country Profiles is one step in the develop- ment of an information system to support global tobacco control efforts. More than tobacco control advocates, representing over countries and territories, contributed information to the Tobacco Control Country Postbox 5.0.22 crack mono- John R. Seffrin, PhD graph, and in turn, to the emerging global information sys- Chief Executive Officer tem for tobacco control. Since the American Cancer Society American Cancer Society relies heavily on volunteers to administer many of its 3

8 Acknowledgments This publication was prepared under the general direction of and Health for her assistance, including facilitating the the American Cancer Societys Department of Epidemiology exchange of legislative and other essential data between the and Surveillance Research, headed by Dr. Michael J. Thun. CDC and ACS and providing guidance in the selection of key Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Marlo Ann Corrao was the Program Manager for the indicators, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Tobacco Control Country Profiles project, supported by many The development of the Tobacco Control Country Profiles members of the Surveillance Research Branch. Ms. Dorna F. (Profiles) was made possible by collaborators in government Shokoohi postbox 5.0.22 crack the review and verification of all smoking and non-government organizations throughout the world that prevalence information, while Dr. Phyllis Wingo, Dr. Vilma provided data and information for, and comments and cor- Cokkinides, Ms. Cheryll Cardinez, and Dr. Robert Greenlee rections on, the drafts of the Profiles. A list of these collabo- provided guidance in epidemiologic and statistical analyses. rators and their countries or territories can be found in Ms. April Harris, Ms. Emily Brouwer, and Ms. Christy Appendix A. Special thanks are extended to two groups of Cianfrini provided assistance with data entry, data verifica- individuals: 1) those who assisted in the selection of key indi- tion, and document management, while Mr. Jayson Crump cators for the Profiles: Samira Asma, Simon Chapman, Greg and Mr. Jeff Clements provided computer and library sup- Connolly, Kourtney Johnston Davis, Allan Erickson, Michael port, respectively. Ms. Sherry Bolden, Ms. Mary Beth Hill- Eriksen, Nigel Gray, Prakash Gupta, Alan Lopez, David Harmon and Ms. Kate OBrien also assisted with Simpson, Ken Warner, and Derek Yach; 2) those who pro- proofreading the final data. Mr. Steven Tobin, an economist vided the monographs Regional Summaries: Prakash Gupta and independent contractor to the American Cancer Society (South-East Asia Region), Gonghaun Yang (Western Pacific (ACS), was responsible for the electronic processing and Region), postbox 5.0.22 crack, Margaretha Haglund (European Postbox 5.0.22 crack, Vera Luiza management of agricultural and trade data. Ms. Susan da Costa e Silva (Region of the Americas), Sherif Omar Summers, Ms. Janet Weaver, and Ms. Beverly Greene pro- (Eastern Mediterranean Region), and Yussuf Saloojee vided monograph design, typesetting, and production (African Region). assistance. The following organizations and individuals facilitated ACS gratefully acknowledges ongoing support from its data collection and analysis by providing access to postbox 5.0.22 crack data: primary collaborators: the World Health Organization (WHO) Mr. Joe Gitchell of PinneyAssociates, Dr. Judith Mackay of and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). the Asian Consultancy on Tobacco Control, Mr. Vasily The Tobacco Free Initiative (WHO), headed by Dr. Derek Yach, Romanovsky of the Industrial Statistics Section, United and the Office on Smoking and Health (CDC), headed by Dr. Nations Statistics Division, Mr. Thomas C. Capehart Jr, postbox 5.0.22 crack. and Michael Eriksen, provided in-kind data and personnel support Ms. Arnella Trent of the United States Department of to the project. Special thanks are due to Mr, postbox 5.0.22 crack. G. Emmanuel Agriculture, and Vronique Pecenka of the United Nations Guindon of the Tobacco Free Initiative for coordinating the Industrial Development Organization. preparation of all sociodemographic, economic, agricultural, Postbox 5.0.22 crack 11th World Conference offers a very special acknowl- and trade data included in this monograph. Mr. Guindon edgment to SmithKline Beecham Consumer Healthcare for served as a liason between the American Cancer Society and the generous financial support that made this project pos- WHO regional offices, postbox 5.0.22 crack, in addition to lending his expertise in sible, in addition to the financial and human resources the economics of tobacco control to the project. ACS also contributed by the American Cancer Society. acknowledges Ms. Namita Sharma of the Office on Smoking 4

9 Introduction Michael J. Thun, Derek Yach, Michael Eriksen Tobacco Control Country Profiles with accompanying increases in the number of workers This monograph provides the most current and comprehen- employed in tobacco manufacture. Investments in infrastruc- sive documentation of the status of the tobacco pandemic in ture invariably strengthen the political base for a tobacco countries and territories, virtually every country of the economy, postbox 5.0.22 crack. world. Like the World Health Organization (WHO) Stage 2 of the epidemic is characterized by increases in report, Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report, it reflects smoking prevalence to above 50% in men, an early increase the vast continuing toll of deaths from tobacco in industrial- in smoking prevalence among women, and rising death rates ized countries and the relentless increase in cigarette use and from lung cancer among men. Many countries in Asia, North the tobacco economy in developing countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Monitoring the Africa, and Latin America fit this pattern, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Tobacco control pandemic is an corel aftershot pro 4, multifaceted task. Three organiza- activities are usually not well developed, the health risks of tions, the American Cancer Society (ACS), WHO, and the tobacco not widely understood, and there is relatively low Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collabo- public and political support for the implementation of effec- rated to update these national and regional profiles of tive tobacco control measures. Here, as in Stage 1 of the tobacco consumption, production, postbox 5.0.22 crack, trade, and epidemic, regional and international collaboration is essential disease burden from tobacco use, postbox 5.0.22 crack. to accelerate the development of effective tobacco control. A critical problem confronted by health advocates in Stage 3 of the epidemic is characterized by a marked tobacco postbox 5.0.22 crack, much like the challenge of preventing downturn in smoking prevalence among men, a more grad- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired ual decline in women, and postbox 5.0.22 crack increases in mortality immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is how to communicate from smoking. Many countries in Eastern and Southern the present and future human costs of an evolving pandemic Europe are at this stage of the epidemic. Despite reductions to the public and to policy makers. The prolonged delay in the prevalence of current smoking, the increased numbers between the entrenchment of the causal agent, whether HIV of ex-smokers in middle age, and the narrowing gap in smok- infection or widespread cigarette smoking and nicotine ing prevalence between the sexes, smoking attributable addiction, and the disease and death caused by these agents deaths comprise 10% to 30% of all deaths, about three- circumvents natural human alarm systems. At the societal quarters of these being in men. Health education and media level, policymakers feel the immediate short-term appeal of coverage of diseases caused by smoking, begin to erode revenue and employment from cigarette production and public acceptance of tobacco use. The educated population marketing, whereas the diseases caused by tobacco are dis- increasingly views smoking as socially undesirable rather tant and largely unseen. Health advocates have the daunting than normal behavior. Public support grows for restrictions challenge of persuading policy makers to take preventive on smoking in public places and in transit. actions decades before the full crisis emerges. Stage 4 of the epidemic is marked by further declines in The conceptual framework that links the four stages of smoking prevalence in men and women, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Deaths attributable the cigarette epidemic as a continuum, rather than a series of to postbox 5.0.22 crack among men peak at 30% to 35% of all deaths isolated events, is the WHO paradigm of the evolving ciga- (40% to 45% of deaths in middle aged men) and subse- rette epidemic in developed countries (Figure 1). The power quently decline. Among women, smoking-attributable deaths of this model, as proposed by Lopez and others is that it rise to about 20% to 25% of all deaths. Countries in Northern allows virtually every country to find itself in relation to the and Western Europe, postbox 5.0.22 crack, North America, and Australia vary con- larger pandemic. Stage 1, characterized by smoking preva- siderably in their continuing progress against tobacco. lence below 20% in men and minimal smoking in women Finland achieved the largest and earliest reductions in ciga- encompasses many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. rette use among men beginning in the s, due to vigor- Typically, these countries have not yet been drawn into the ous national programs against heart disease. The subsequent global tobacco economy, postbox 5.0.22 crack conditions can change rapidly 25% decline in the death rate from all cancers combined in due to strategic expansion of transnational companies. For Finland from the intervals to was the example, in several African countries, the acreage devoted to earliest and largest decline in any industrialized country. tobacco growing has increased up to ten-fold sinceSmoking prevalence has since stabilized in Finland at 27% 5

10 and 20% among adult men and women respectively, whereas the WHO web site (omjanahindia.com) and CDCs it has continued to decrease in Sweden to % and % National Tobacco Online Systems (NATIONS) (omjanahindia.com, in men and women, respectively. Sustained national commit- keyword Office of Smoking and Health). While the current ment to reduce tobacco use is essential for continuing Monograph provides adult smoking prevalence data on progress. of countries and territories and youth prevalence on Thus, the challenge to health workers at the national level countries and territories, postbox 5.0.22 crack, residual gaps and inconsistencies is to translate the abstract indices of the tobacco pandemic will doubtlessly stimulate further efforts to improve the qual- into terms that local policy makers will understand. For ity and representativeness of future data collection. example, in many countries the retail price of cigarettes has There are currently over billion (thousand million) not kept pace with inflation. Cigarettes have become cheaper smokers worldwide and approximately four million deaths rather than more expensive in real currency, despite the from tobacco annually. Global progress against tobacco will proven deterrent effect of higher prices on cigarette con- require rapid development and implementation of regulatory sumption, and despite the increased revenue that tobacco measures that cut across national boundaries. Crucial for the taxes can bring to the state. This Monograph provides postbox 5.0.22 crack control of this man-made epidemic are the full negotiations eral resources that should facilitate the creation of stronger on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control national tobacco control coalitions. It lists the names and which begin in October The critical goal of these nego- addresses of organizations involved in tobacco control within tiations is to achieve universal support for the Convention no each country. The information will be available online through later than May Figure 1. 4 Stages postbox 5.0.22 crack the Tobacco Epidemic 70 40 STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 Percentage of deaths caused by smoking Percentage of smokers among adults 60 % male smokers 30 50 % female smokers 40 20 30 % male 20 deaths 10 10 % female deaths 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 sub-Saharan China Eastern Europe Western Europe, Africa Japan Southern Europe UK Southeast Asia Latin Postbox 5.0.22 crack USA Latin America Canada North Africa Australia Source: Lopez AD, Collishaw NE, Piha T. (). A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tobacco Control, 3, Reproduced by permission of BMJ Publishing Group. 6

11 Methods Marlo Ann Corrao, G. Emmanual Guindon, Steven M. Tobin Monitoring the Tobacco Epidemic: non-government organizations with an updated, standard- Past, Present, and Future ized reference source for information about postbox 5.0.22 crack and its use in their countries and territories. Second, it identifies Inthe World Health Organization (WHO) responded to gaps where very little or no information exists and where the World Health Postbox 5.0.22 crack and resolutions call- information does exist, but is not publicly accessible. Gaps in ing for periodic monitoring and reports on the tobacco or the data highlight priorities for future data collection and health situation in its Member States by publishing Tobacco tobacco surveillance efforts. or Health: A Global Status Report.1 The report used stan- dardized indicators to analyze the tobacco situation at Methods national, regional, and global levels. The Postbox 5.0.22 crack Status The data in the Tobacco Control Country Profiles are orga- Report consolidated a large amount of information about the nized into six categories: sociodemographic situation, smok- tobacco epidemic during the late s and the early s, ing prevalence, smoking-related disease impact, tobacco thus establishing a baseline for future global tobacco surveil- economy, infrastructure postbox 5.0.22 crack tobacco control, and available lance efforts.2 pharmaceutical treatments for tobacco dependence. The Following the Global Status Report and anticipating the information presented in the Profiles includes the most cur- demand for an information system to support new tobacco rent data available through May The data come from a control efforts, WHO postbox 5.0.22 crack the Centers for Disease Control and variety of national and international sources, including data Prevention (CDC) initiated development of the National warehouses, postbox 5.0.22 crack, such as those maintained by the United Nations Tobacco Information Online System (NATIONS) in December (UN) and the United States Department of Agriculture Additional partners in this on-going project include the (USDA), government agencies, such as Ministries of Health American Cancer Society (ACS), the World Bank (WB), the and national statistical offices, and individuals working in the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), and the fields of public health and tobacco control in each country. International Union Against Cancer (UICC). When develop- For some countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack, data in one or more of the Profiles six ment is complete, NATIONS will be an electronic system that categories are incomplete or missing. A short line () in tracks country-specific information across a variety of indi- postbox 5.0.22 crack of data signifies that no data were available for inclu- cators: smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, laws sion in the monograph. In addition, for some indicators such and regulations, morbidity and mortality, industrial organiza- as smoking prevalence and national legislation, different tions, tobacco economics, and programmatic interventions sources yielded contradictory data. Where possible, conflict- against tobacco use. NATIONS will report postbox 5.0.22 crack trend data for ing data were reconciled by reviewing historic data related to some of these topics, and the data will be updated periodi- the indicators and consulting with experts in the country. cally and available on the Internet. NATIONS will help moni- Decisions about the reliability of each information source tor the global tobacco epidemic by standardizing data were made on a case-by-case basis. Whenever possible, collection and distribution methods, providing the permanent postbox 5.0.22 crack control experts and non-government organizations electronic framework necessary to update the data, and mak- (NGOs) in each country or territory verified the data. Because ing information easily accessible to the public.3 the amount and the quality of data available in the Profiles This monograph, Tobacco Control Country Profiles varies by country, we encourage readers to compare their (Profiles) updates the Global Status Report and provides pre- countrys profile to their personal knowledge and impres- liminary data for NATIONS. Profiles reports on the current sions of their nations tobacco control situation. Readers who tobacco situation in countries and territories around the wish to contribute more recent data about their country to world: WHO Member States, 2 WHO associate Member the National Tobacco Information Online System should con- States (Puerto Rico and Tokelau), Hong Kong (special admin- tact either the Tobacco Free Initiative at WHO or the Office on istrative region of China), postbox 5.0.22 crack, Taiwan (province of China), the Smoking and Health at the CDC to become partners in postbox 5.0.22 crack West Bank and Gaza Strip (presented together). The Profiles project.4 has two overall objectives. First, it provides government and 7

12 Structure of the Monograph database. They are Andorra, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Antigua and Barbuda, Cook The methods section will provide readers with the informa- Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Kiribati, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Marshall Islands, tion necessary to navigate the monograph, to reproduce data Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Nauru, Niue, Palau, calculations, and to locate the primary and secondary San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, St. Kitts and sources used to develop the country profiles. The methods Nevis, St. Lucia, postbox 5.0.22 crack, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Taiwan are divided into six sections, corresponding to the six cate- (province of China), Tokelau, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, gories in the Profiles. Each section contains descriptions of and West Bank and Gaza Strip, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The alternative sources of each indicator and an outline of data collection methods and population data for these countries and territories are listed sources. If the data or additional information about sources below the corresponding table in their profiles. is available through the Internet, readers will find the appro- Real Gross Domestic Product. Real gross domestic product priate Internet addresses in the reference section (p. 21). The per capita derived from purchasing power parity calculations methods section also contains references for publications (GDP-PPP) postbox 5.0.22 crack real GDP per capita without PPP adjustment is that might supplement readers interpretation of the Profiles presented for the years, and data or provide insight into other topics that are important to GDP measures the total value of all final goods and services tobacco control. intended for use within the domestic territory of a given Following the methods section, six tobacco control country, during a single year. GDP per capita is a measure of experts representing each of the WHO regions provide their this output per person. GDP per capita serves as postbox 5.0.22 crack guide to insight into regional trends that may be inferred from the the standard of living in the nation, and is correlated with postbox 5.0.22 crack data in the Profiles. The WHO regions are other qualitative standard of living measures, such as health the African Region, the Region of the Americas, the Eastern status and literacy rates (although they are not directly Mediterranean Region, postbox 5.0.22 crack, the European Region, the South-East postbox 5.0.22 crack in the GDP computation).7 Increase in GDP per Asia Region, and the Western Pacific Region. The Table of capita over time suggests improvement in the nations eco- Contents lists the countries and territories included in each nomic health, and is likely to increase access to services like region. Each regional summary includes an overview of avail- health care and public education. GDP figures derived from able data and noteworthy trends, discussion of recent victo- PPP calculations use standardized international dollar price ries and setbacks in tobacco control activities, and a weights rather than conversions at official currency exchange description of future challenges to tobacco control. rates and provide a better comparison of economic health Two appendices at the end of the monograph supplement among countries. PPP adjusts output according to variations the information in the country profiles. Appendix A lists indi- in spending power, postbox 5.0.22 crack. For instance, $1, converted at PPP viduals and organizations that contributed information or edi- rates will purchase the same amount of goods and services torial guidance to the Profiles. Appendix B contains names in the United Kingdom as it purchases in Austria. Conversely, and short descriptions of the laws, regulations and voluntary GDP data derived from conversions at official currency agreements included in each profile, in addition to their exchange rates can fluctuate as a result of domestic and sources. international financial events that are mostly unrelated to the domestic output of goods and services, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Sociodemographic Situation While there are four sources of GDP data in the Profiles, Population. Population data by age and sex are presented for the primary source is the Penn World Tables.8 When coun- the years,and Figures in the table tries were not included in the Penn World Tables, the source are expressed in millions (1,) and the data are for GDP was the World Bank,9 followed by the United divided into two age groups: All adults (persons aged 15 Nations,10 and lastly, the United States Central Intelligence years and older) and All youth (persons aged 14 years and Agency Whenever possible, real GDP-PPP per capita data younger). The number of females is shown under the total for are presented postbox 5.0.22 crack each country. When real GDP-PPP per each population group. Figures for the years, and capita data were not available, real GDP is presented without are projections generated by the UN Population the PPP conversion. Real GDP-PPP per capita data from the Division in the revision of World Population Prospects: Penn World Tables are expressed in constant dollars, inter- 5 The UN Population Division prepares these national prices, base year Real GDP-PPP per capita figures biannually for most countries in order to provide a data from the World Bank or Central Intelligence Agency are consistent set of population data for UN program planning expressed in current dollars, international prices; the PPP and activities.6 Twenty-four countries and territories that conversion rates used in the calculations are based on the appear in the Profiles are not included in the UN population World Banks World Development Report Because 8

13 there are three sources of real GDP-PPP per capita data, Is the survey conducted annually or less frequently? comparisons between countries whose GDP source is differ- The first two questions relate to how the survey distin- ent are likely to be inaccurate. Furthermore, GDP per capita guished between smokers postbox 5.0.22 crack non-smokers; smoking data for several countries do not incorporate PPP conversion behavior in two countries may not be comparable if the rates. The title of the GDP table in these country profiles is answers to these questions are different. Whenever possible, GDP per capita, US Dollars instead of Real GDP per capita survey data that adhered to the WHO definitions of smoking (PPP), postbox 5.0.22 crack, US Dollars. The source of these data is the UN were selected to increase comparability between studies. The Statistics Division-National Accounts Section, Economic WHO guidelines state that respondents who report smoking Statistics Branch. In cases where no GDP data were reported at the time of the survey, or current smokers should be fur- in any of the years, ora sta- ther categorized as daily or occasional smokers. Daily tistic from the year closest to the missing postbox 5.0.22 crack was used in smokers are individuals who smoke any tobacco product at its place to maintain a time series. least once a day, including those who smoke everyday except Other sociodemographic indicators relevant to the days of religious postbox 5.0.22 crack. Occasional smokers are individu- assessment of tobacco use include life expectancy, literacy als who smoke any tobacco product, but not every day rates, labor force structure, and human development The last three questions relate to the selection of survey indexes Data related to these indicators are not presented respondents. Surveys vary in their ability to describe an in the Profiles. Readers may wish to refer to the Central entire nations smoking behavior depending on the sample Intelligence Agencys World Factbook and the United Nations design. The most reliable estimates of smoking prevalence Human Development Report to augment the sociodemo- come from population-based, cross-sectional surveys and graphic profiles presented in this monograph, 16 that data can be inferred as representative of the countrys population at a given point in time. Specific criteria were Smoking Prevalence established for including smoking prevalence data in the As smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in Profiles, based on the principles of survey research. Priority most countries, the extent of the tobacco epidemic can be was given to the most current and nationally representative reasonably measured through the prevalence of cigarette or estimates of smoking prevalence in each countrys adult, other tobacco smoking. The prevalence of tobacco or ciga- youth, and health professional populations. rette smoking among adults, youth, and health professionals Smoking prevalence studies were collected from several (physicians, nurses and/or medical students) is presented in sources, including articles from Medline literature searches, three separate tables. Smoking prevalence refers to the pro- personal contacts with investigators and non-government portion (expressed as a percent) of the study population who organizations engaged in tobacco control, and reports from are smokers. Where possible, prevalence is presented sepa- Ministries of Health, national statistical offices, and WHO rately for males and females within the adult, youth, and country representatives. Inclusion criteria for these preva- health professional populations. The age range that defines lence surveys required the following minimum information: adult and youth and the year that the data were collected 1) date of the survey or its publication, 2) characteristics of appear in the title of each table, as these information differ visual studio 2018 respondents (age and/or gender distribution), 3) details among sources and across countries. The footnotes under about sampling techniques and data collection, and 4) some the prevalence tables include information about how the sur- description of the questions used in assessing smoking vey defined smokers, where the survey was conducted (if behavior. If several studies from the same country met these not nationally representative), and the original source of the criteria, they were compared with respect to geographic cov- prevalence data. The source is provided so that readers can erage (national, postbox 5.0.22 crack, regional or other), date of the study, sample obtain a copy of the publication and independently assess size, response rates, and methods. If different sources data quality and validity. Before comparing smoking preva- yielded contradictory data on prevalence, the authors lence across several countries or territories, the following reviewed historical data and consulted with experts working questions should be considered: in the country. The most current and representative studies Postbox 5.0.22 crack type of tobacco do respondents report smoking? of smoking prevalence were included. What frequency of smoking defines a smoker? Table 1 lists the countries and territories for which smok- What is the age range defining adult and youth and how ing prevalence information was available and the year in were the respondents selected? which the data were collected. Italicized postbox 5.0.22 crack denote the Where was survey conducted? Was the survey conducted publication year and not the data collection year; the year of throughout the country or territory? data collection for these studies is not known, postbox 5.0.22 crack. 9

14 Table 1.

15 Countries and Territories Adult Youth Health Professional Smoking-Related Disease Impact Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova The Profiles includes estimates of smoking-attributed deaths Romania in 44 developed countries. The data were prepared by the Russian Federation Rwanda WHO Collaborating Center for Chronic Disease Control at the Saint Kitts and Nevis University of Oxford, in collaboration with ACS, the Imperial Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & Grenadines Cancer Research Fund and WHO. The estimates first Samoa appeared in Mortality from Smoking in Developed San Marino s Countries, and the original paper, including Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia discussion of the methods used to derive tobacco-attributed Senegal mortality, was published in Lancet In the Profiles, the num- Seychelles Sierra Leone bers of deaths attributed to smoking in or are cat- Singapore egorized by ExpressVPN Free Activate, age group, and sex. Trends in total Slovakia Slovenia smoking-attributed mortality among men and women, aged Solomon Islands 35 to 69, between and are shown graphically, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Somalia South Africa Only mortality during middle age (35 to 69 years) is pre- Spain sented in postbox 5.0.22 crack graph because in developed countries, smoking Sri Lanka causes few deaths before middle age, while it is responsible Sudan Suriname for about one-third of deaths among men during middle age Swaziland and a growing proportion of deaths among women during Sweden Switzerland middle age Syrian Arab Republic The Profiles also includes smoking-attributed mortality Tajikistan s Thailand estimates for China, prepared by the Chinese Academy of The former Yugoslav Republic Medical Science, the Clinical Trial Service Unit and of Macedonia Epidemiological Studies Unit at Oxford University, Cornell Togo Tokelau University, and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Tonga Medicine Smoking-attributed mortality estimates, how- Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia ever, were not calculated for other developing countries. Postbox 5.0.22 crack The Profiles presents the crude numbers of deaths and Turkmenistan Tuvalu age-standardized mortality rates for diseases most com- Uganda monly associated with postbox 5.0.22 crack use. The CDC developed this Ukraine list of smoking-related diseases through previous analyses postbox 5.0.22 crack United Arab Emirates United Kingdom of Great Britain the impact of cigarette smoking on mortality and years of and Northern Ireland & potential life lost postbox 5.0.22 crack age 65 in the United States United Republic of Tanzania United States of America Because this categorization of disease better reflects the Uruguay proportion of deaths due to smoking in developed countries Uzbekistan Vanuatu than in developing countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack, some modifications were made Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) to the CDCs list under the advice of the WHO and ACS The Viet Nam West Bank and Gaza Strip goal of these changes was to concentrate on the effects of Yemen tobacco postbox 5.0.22 crack in developing countries. First, pediatric diseases, Yugoslavia Zambia such as low birth weight, respiratory distress, sudden infant Zimbabwe death syndrome and burns were eliminated from the list so that the mortality tables for developing countries include only Despite the focus on cigarette smoking in the Profiles, the adult diseases and mortality among persons in middle age. prevalence of other smoking tobacco and oral tobacco use Second, acute respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and better reflects the tobacco situation in some countries and influenza, were eliminated from the list. In developing coun- sub-regions within countries. The South-East Asia regional tries, these conditions may have weaker associations with summary discusses bidis and other forms of tobacco use tobacco use. Those diseases for which the causal roles of that are more prevalent than cigarette smoking. Prevalence tobacco use are well established and are likely to have at least estimates for tobacco use other than cigarette smoking are moderate mortality rates attributable to tobacco were also provided in this regional summary (p. 36). selected from the remaining conditions. 11

16 Table 2 lists the disease categories, the conditions institutional death registration are not included in the included in each category, and the ICD-9 or ICD codes Profiles. that correspond to the data in the World Health Statistics Cancer statistics for countries not in the World Health Annual. With the exception of five countries, the numerical Statistics Annual were derived from the International codes in the Annual correspond to ICD-9 codes. Data for Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). These estimates of Croatia, Republic of Korea, Malta, Qatar, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and Thailand corre- annual cancer mortality in are available through the spond to ICD codes. electronic database, GLOBOCAN The methods used to derive these estimates are described in the International Table 2. Select smoking-attributed diseases Journal of Cancer Disease Category Included Filmora by wondershare ICD-9 ICD Readers should not confuse these mortality statistics Trachea, lung & bronchus Trachea, lung & cancer bronchus cancer, TBL with smoking-attributed postbox 5.0.22 crack estimates. Mortality num- Lip, oral cavity, and Lip, oral cavity, and bers and rates provide valuable information about the differ- pharynx cancer pharynx cancer, 08 LOP ential burden of disease around sidify music converter reddit world and allow some Ischemic heart disease Acute myocardial infarction, MYI comparison among countries; however, they do not reflect Other ischemic heart the true burden of disease caused by smoking alone. disease, ISC/CIH Stroke Cerebrovascular Tobacco Economy disease, 29 CEV Embolism, thrombosis The Profiles presents data related to the economics of and other diseases of tobacco control, including trade and agricultural production the arteries, arterioles & capillaries, & ART statistics and tobacco prices, postbox 5.0.22 crack, taxes and duties. Several pub- Atherosclerosis, lications, listed below, may assist readers in interpreting the Phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, data and provide a broader view of the economic issues sur- venous embolism & thrombosis, PTV rounding the adoption of new tobacco control policies. These Other diseases of the Hypertensive disease, 26 HYP publications also discuss the economic merits of tobacco circulatory system Diseases of the pulmonary control and respond to arguments that tobacco control activ- circulation & other forms PHD ities might negatively impact nations economic health: of heart disease, 28 HDD Respiratory disease Bronchitis, chronic & Chaloupka, FJ & Warner, postbox 5.0.22 crack, KE. (forthcoming). The Economics unspecified, emphysema of Smoking. In Newhouse J, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and Culyer (Eds.), The Hand- & asthma, COP book of Health Economics. Amsterdam: North Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Other diseases of the respiratory system, EMP Warner, KE. (), postbox 5.0.22 crack. The economics of tobacco: myths and, postbox 5.0.22 crack,AST realities. Tobacco Control, 9, Total (All Causes) Total (All Causes) The World Bank. (). Curbing the epidemic: govern- ments and the economics of tobacco control. Series: Mortality data come from the World Health Statistics Development in practice. Washington, D.C. Annual, which reports the statistics submitted to WHO by Annual Trade and Agriculture Statistics. The Profiles pre- individual Member States According to WHO, postbox 5.0.22 crack, the data are sents both tobacco leaf and cigarette import, export and pro- limited to those countries that report cause of death infor- duction figures for, and Two mation in an appropriate format and have reasonably ade- databases from the United Nations Statistical Division quate death registration coverage. Where information was (UNSD) provided data for the Profiles. First, the Commodity available, death rates age-adjusted to the World standard Trade Statistics (COMTRADE) database contains trade population and truncated to ages 35+ were calculated, postbox 5.0.22 crack. It is (import and export) statistics for more than a dozen tobacco very important to note that in countries with low population products, to include cigarettes, cigars, postbox 5.0.22 crack, manufactured and size, small changes in the number of deaths can cause sub- unmanufactured tobacco The UNSD also collects com- stantial variability in rates from one year to another. modity production statistics through its Industrial Furthermore, WHO does not provide death rates for some Commodity Production Statistics Database These produc- countries because of low coverage by their death registration tion data correspond to the information published in the systems. Thus, death rates for the following countries should Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook Similarly, the be interpreted with caution: Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Food and Agricultural database (FAOSTAT) provides informa- Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, Guyana, Malta, Mongolia, Nicaragua, tion related to the production of tobacco leaves, trade in cig- Paraguay, Philippines, and Qatar. Data for countries and ter- arettes, cigars, manufactured tobacco and tobacco leaves, ritories whose reports to WHO were based on hospital or 12

17 and the land area harvested annually in tobacco farming Table 3 lists the sources of production, import, and export Apart from the UN, the USDA maintains tobacco-related pro- data used in each country or territorys cigarette consump- duction, trade and land statistics in an electronic database. tion calculation. When no data were available from COMTRADE, postbox 5.0.22 crack, FAOSTAT or Table 3. Sources used in caluculating cigarette consumption USDA, figures from national statistical agencies and private Cigarette Postbox 5.0.22 crack imports research firms were used. Countries and Territories production & exports Land devoted to tobacco & Employment in tobacco manu- Afghanistan No production FAO Albania UN Not Available facturing. The amount of land devoted to tobacco growing is Algeria UN FAO presented both in total hectares and as a percent of the total Andorra Not Available Not Available Angola UN/USDA FAO agricultural land in, andwhen Antigua and Barbuda No production FAO available. The source of these data is the United Nations Argentina USDA FAO Armenia UN FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Employment in Australia USDA USDA tobacco manufacturing is reported for,postbox 5.0.22 crack, Austria UN/USDA UN Azerbaijan UN/USDA USDAandwhen available. The employment figures Bahamas No production FAO were taken from the United Nations Industrial Development Bahrain No production UN Bangladesh UN FAO Organizations (UNIDO) Industrial Statistics Database. Barbados UN FAO UNIDO collects information from four sources in order to Belarus UN FAO postbox 5.0.22 crack the database: 1) industry data from country ques- Belgium (Includes Luxembourg) UN UN Belize UN FAO tionnaires, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 2) national postbox 5.0.22 crack, including industrial cen- Benin Not Available FAO suses and annual surveys, 3) published and unpublished Bhutan No production FAO Bolivia UN FAO international sources, and 4) national data compiled by stat- Bosnia and Herzegovina USDA FAO isticians working in each country Botswana Not Available FAO Brazil UN/USDA FAO Annual per capita and total cigarette consumption. Total Brunei Darussalam No production FAO Bulgaria UN FAO and per capita cigarette consumption figures were calculated Burkina Faso UN FAO using production, import, and export figures found in the Burundi UN FAO Cambodia UN FAO aforementioned postbox 5.0.22 crack. The best source for each coun- Cameroon (Trade data exclude trade trys indicators was selected according to the following with Central African Republic, Congo and Gabon) UN/USDA FAO process. Production and trade data from the UNSD, FAO- Canada UN/ERC UN STAT, USDA and ERC Statistics International 32 were com- Cape Verde Not Available FAO pared and contrasted. When the data were identical or very Central African Republic (Trade data exclude trade with Cameroon, Congo similar, the most complete source (the one with the most and Gabon) UN FAO data points) was utilized. On a few occasions, similar data Chad UN FAO Chile UN FAO from different sources were merged to expand the data cov- China USDA FAO erage. When data from any of the four sources conflicted Hong Kong (special administrative region of China) UN/ERC FAO/USDA with another, they were compared and contrasted with data Taiwan (province of China) USDA USDA reported in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report, the Colombia UN FAO Comoros Not Available FAO Pan American Health Organizations Tobacco or Health: Congo UN FAO Status in the Americas 33 and Market Tracking International Cook Islands Not Available FAO Costa Rica UN FAO If no consensus emerged, the data were not reported. On rare Cte dIvoire UN/USDA FAO occasions, cigarette consumption calculations yielded unre- Croatia UN/USDA USDA alistic estimates (for instance, negative consumption num- Cuba UN FAO Cyprus UN UN bers), postbox 5.0.22 crack. These estimates were also not reported. Czech Republic UN/ERC UN The formulas for consumption calculations are as Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Not Available FAO Democratic Republic of the Congo follows: (Trade data exclude trade with Cameroon, Total Cigarette Consumption = Central African Republic and Gabon) UN/ERC FAO Denmark UN/USDA UN Production + Imports Exports Djibouti Not Available FAO Per Capita Cigarette Consumption = Dominica UN FAO Dominican Republic (Assumed negligible (Production + Imports Exports) / Population aged 15+ exports to estimate consumption postbox 5.0.22 crack to ) UN FAO/USDA For the purposes of the calculations, one cigarette stick Ecuador UN FAO was equivalent to one postbox 5.0.22 crack in weight. 13

18 Table 3. (cont.

19 Cigarette Cigarette imports cigarettes, as only manufactured cigarettes are included in Countries and Territories production & exports the UN and USDA databases. In countries where the pre- Togo Not Available FAO Postbox 5.0.22 crack Not Available Not Available ferred cigarette types are other than manufactured, the for- Tonga Not Available FAO mula will underestimate the populations cigarette Trinidad and Tobago UN FAO Tunisia UN FAO consumption. This is most relevant to the Postbox 5.0.22 crack Turkey USDA Postbox 5.0.22 crack Mediterranean Region and Central and Southern Asia. Third, Turkmenistan (Assumed negligible exports to estimate consumption) USDA USDA the calculation does not account for cigarette stocks held in Tuvalu Not Available FAO reserve by cigarette wholesalers and retailers. This is less Uganda UN FAO Ukraine UN FAO significant because it would only postbox 5.0.22 crack apparent when the United Arab Emirates Not Available FAO net change in stock volume is very large between years. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland USDA USDA Finally, the per capita consumption calculation includes only United Republic of Tanzania UN FAO adults aged 15 years and older in its denominator, and thus, United States of America USDA USDA does not account for smokers younger than 15 years. This Uruguay UN/ERC FAO Uzbekistan USDA USDA factor is more important in selected developing countries, Vanuatu Not Available FAO where the largest proportion of postbox 5.0.22 crack population is youth under Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) UN/USDA FAO Viet Nam UN FAO 15 years of age, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The advantages and disadvantages of calcu- West Bank and Gaza Strip Not Available Not Available lating tobacco consumption statistics are discussed at length Yemen UN FAO Yugoslavia UN FAO in many publications Zambia UN FAO Zimbabwe UN/USDA FAO Manufactured Tobacco Consumption. Per capita manufac- tured tobacco consumption statistics provide some sense of The accuracy of the per capita consumption estimates is the total volume of tobacco consumed, not only that of man- limited by the information not included in each countrys offi- ufactured cigarettes. Based on the data available from the UN cial trade and production statistics. The calculations in the and USDA, only 24 countries had data sufficient to calculate Profiles did not account for factors that increase or decrease manufactured tobacco consumption. Table 4 presents the the true volumes of trade and production, such as smuggling available data. Methods for making these estimates were and tax exemption. The consumption formula does not identical to the per capita cigarette consumption calculations. account for the production of roll-your-own, bidi, and kretek Table 4. Per Capita ConsumptionManufactured Tobacco (grams per person) Production Source Trade Source Algeria 1 UN FAO Austria UN FAO Belgium 2 UN FAO Canada 3 UN FAO Denmark UN UN Egypt UN FAO Fiji Islands UN FAO Finland UN UN Iceland 4 5 UN UN Iran (Islamic Republic of) UN FAO Israel 6 UN FAO Italy UN UN Madagascar UN UN New Zealand UN FAO Norway UN UN Philippines UN FAO Portugal UN FAO South Africa 7 UN FAO Spain UN FAO Sweden UN UN Switzerland UN UN United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 8 UN FAO United States USDA USDA Note: 1. Denotes 2. Include data from Luxembourg. 3. Denotes postbox 5.0.22 crack. Denotes 5. Denotes 6. Denotes 7. Denotes 8. Denotes 15

20 Taxes & Duties. Tax and duty data are presented in a table on SACU South Africa Customs Union (Namibia, the first page of each country or territorys profile. Since most Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland) taxes and duties are established through legislation or regula- SADC South African Development TeamViewer 14.1.18533.0 License Code tions, more information about the imposition of tax and duty SPARTECA South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic fees may appear in Appendix B, the Legislative Appendix. Cooperation Agreement Information regarding the taxes levied on cigarettes was gath- UEMOA Economic and Monetary Union of West ered from three main sources, ERC, USDA, and the Tobacco Africa Merchants Association (TMA) The information is broken UMA Union Maghreb Arabe (Libya, Mauritania, down into three categories. The first is excise tax that covers Morocco and Tunisia) taxes levied within each postbox 5.0.22 crack on cigarettes, usually in the WTO World Trade Postbox 5.0.22 crack form of a value added per pack or per cigarette. The second Postbox 5.0.22 crack tax tables in the country profiles do not reflect the category covers any sales tax or value added taxes (VAT) on trade relationships among European Union (EU) member all goods and services that are also applicable to cigarettes. states and between the EU and countries that receive prefer- The third category covers any import duties associated with ential trade status from it. For trade within the EU among its foreign cigarette brands sold in the domestic market. member states, cigarettes are not subject to any import The following units of measure and abbreviations are duties. The member states established a community inte- used in the tax section: grated tariff system (TARIC), through which duties are Cig(s) Cigarette(s) applied to imports from non-EU countries. TARIC was estab- CIF Cost Including Freight charges lished by the Treaty of Rome as part of the European ECU European Currency Unit Economic Community. The EU tariff schedule is based on the ETP Excise Tax in Products Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature, also called the GST Goods and Services Tax Harmonized System. It was introduced to provide a standard LCU Local Currency Unit tariff classification regime for all products imported and max Maximum exported throughout the world. Under the Lome Postbox 5.0.22 crack, min Minimum the EU also extends various preferential tariff treatments to mm millimeter in length imports from the developing countries in Africa, the TVO Taxes sur la valeur ordinaire Caribbean and the Pacific Rim. Tariff preferences also extend US$ United States Dollars to over developing countries (except China) under the % Percent Generalized System of Preferences. This system of duty-free The following abbreviations are used in the tax section to and preferential trading in the EU is not noted separately in describe associations among countries related to preferential each countrys tax and duty table. trade status: Prices. The Profiles presents the retail price of a single pack- ANDEAN South American countries including Bolivia, age of domestic and imported manufactured cigarettes, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru including applicable taxes and duties. Prices in local currency APEC Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation are converted to US dollars to allow comparison among ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries. When a currency exchange rate was not available, CACU Central African Customs Union the local price is presented alone. In most countries, twenty CARICOM Caribbean Community and Common cigarettes constitute a package of cigarettes; when this is not Market the case, the title of the table includes the appropriate num- CEFTA Central European Free Trade Area ber of cigarettes. Whenever possible, Marlboro brand ciga- COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern rettes were selected to represent the price of foreign Africa cigarettes in order to provide a measure of standardization. ECOWAS Economic Community of West African There are four main sources of retail price data in this mono- States graph. The primary source is the Economist Intelligence Unit EEC European Economic Community (EIU), an economic and market research firm based in the EFTA European Free Trade Association United Kingdom. The EIU surveys cigarette and pipe tobacco EU European Union (formerly EEC) prices biannually as part of its Cost of Living Survey in MERCOSUR Common Market of the South (Argentina, cities or a total of 82 countries The EIU conducts price Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) surveys during March (Spring) and September (Autumn) MFN Most Favored Nations and reports prices for two types of cigarettes, Marlboro (a SA South American or South America popular foreign brand) and a popular domestic brand. The EIU survey is not limited to one retail location in each city, but 16

21 includes the price postbox 5.0.22 crack the same product in three different retail Countries and Territories Cities locations: a supermarket, a mid-price store, and a specialized Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Vientiane Lesotho Maseru shop. This survey method results in three price categories: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Tripoli low, middle, and high. For the purposes of the Profiles, the Luxembourg Luxembourg Madagascar Antananarivo price of foreign and domestic cigarettes is the average of the Malawi Lilongwe three price categories in each survey. In cases postbox 5.0.22 crack the EIU Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Mauritius Port Louis conducted its survey in two or more cities in the same coun- Mexico Mexico City and Monterey try, the average of the city prices serves as the country price. Morocco Casablanca Mozambique Maputo Table 5 lists the cities where the EIU conducted its surveys. Myanmar Yangon Netherlands Amsterdam and Willemstad New Zealand Auckland and Wellingon Table 5. EIU Survey Coverage, Nicaragua Managua Countries and Territories Cities Nigeria Lagos Algeria Algiers Norway Oslo Angola Luanda Oman Muscat Argentina Buenos Aires Pakistan Karachi Australia Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Panama Panama City and Sydney Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Austria Vienna Paraguay Asuncion Azerbaijan Baku Peru Lima Bahamas Nassau Philippines Manila Bahrain Bahrain Poland Warsaw Bangladesh Dhaka Portugal Funchal and Lisbon Belgium Brussels Puerto Rico San Juan Botswana Gaborone Qatar Doha Brazil Brasilia, Curitiba, Rio De Janeiro, and Republic of Korea Seoul Sao Paulo Romania Bucharest Brunei Darussalam Bandar Seri Bagawan and Brunei Russian Federation Moscow, Mumansk, St. 38 Also a market Israel Jerusalem and Tel Aviv Italy Milan and Rome research firm, ERC compiles retail price data from its indus- Jamaica Kingston try sources and publishes them annually in the series, The Japan Osaka Kobe and Tokyo Jordan Amman World Cigarette Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Prices from the ERC are derived Kenya Nairobi directly from this publication and not modified in any way. Kuwait Kuwait The third source of data is the TMA Prices from the TMA 17

22 reflect the average cost of a pack of 20 cigarettes during a MO Modi Group (local manager of Godfrey Philips single year. Domestic and imported cigaretts are not pre- Postbox 5.0.22 crack sented separately in this case. MTC Malaysian Tobacco Co. (subsidiary of British The final sources of price data in the Profiles are reports American Tobacco) from individuals living in each country. ACS and WHO OGT Organisation Generale de Tabacs enlisted help from NGOs and WHO country focal points for a PM Philip Morris postbox 5.0.22 crack survey, beginning in March The survey asks PMI Philip Morris International for the prices of packs of 20 cigarettes in three categories. PWT PWT Augustow (BAT Polska) The categories of cigarettes are 1) Marlboro King Size Filter, RJR R.J. Reynolds 2) the most popular foreign brand if Marlboro was not avail- SNTA Societe Nationle des Tabacs et Allumettes able, and 3) the most popular domestic brand. Table 6 lists TTWMB Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly the countries and cities whose price reports come from the WWT WWT Poznan (Reemtsma) ACS/WHO price survey. The name of the individual who ZPT ZPT Krakow (Philip Morris) reported the price is also listed. The data were derived from the ERCs The World Table 6. Postbox 5.0.22 crack Price Survey Cigarette Market, the Maxwell Consumer Report on Country City Date Participant International Tobacco,39 the Tobacco Reporters secondary Antigua and Barbuda St. Johns 9-Mar Janice Alexander publication of the Maxwell Report, and the TMA The Barbados Bridgetown 7-Mar Samuel Deane Maxwell Report was first developed in the mids, with Belarus Minsk Mar Irina Tioukhlova Belize Belize 2-Mar Victor Rosado emphasis on the European region. Currently, the report con- Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Luka Mar Zivana Gavric tains data on market shares and industry trends in 50 to 60 Brazil Rio de Janeiro Mar Vera Luiza da Costa e Silva countries Inthe monthly trade magazine, The Bulgaria Sofia Mar Kiril Milenkov Tobacco Reporter, first included a portion of The Maxwell Bulgaria Sofia Mar Tinka Troeva Bulgaria Sofia Mar George Kotarov Consumer Report in its publication and it is now a biannual Cambodia Phnom Penh 6-Mar Greg Hallen feature in the magazine. Cook Islands Avarua 3-Mar Edwina Tangarda Dominica Roseau 4-Mar Postbox 5.0.22 crack Tallinn 7-Mar Andrus Lipand Infrastructure for Tobacco Control Georgia Tbilisi 4-Mar Revaz Tataradze Government and non-government organizations engaged Ghana Accra Feb Seth Koranteng Kazakhstan Astana 1-Mar Bruce Hanke in tobacco control & national tobacco control provisions Lebanon Beirut Mar Norbert Hirschhorn Lebanon Beirut 1-Mar Michel Daher Government and non-government organizations engaged Lithuania Kaunas 7-Mar Tomas Stanikas in tobacco control. For each country, the Profiles provides a Malta Floriana Mar Maria Ellul Mauritius Port Louis 2-Feb D. Carmagnoue list of up to nine government and non-government organiza- Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 1-Mar Mitsuaki Toyoda tions committed to tobacco control. In most countries, more Nepal Kathmandu Jan Mrigendra Raj Pandey than nine national organizations are working towards Palau Koror Mar Annabel Lyman Republic of Moldova Kishinev Mar Tudor Vasiliev tobacco control; however, postbox 5.0.22 crack, due to space constraints in the Russian Federation Moscow 1-Mar Tatayana Kamardina two-page profile, not all organizations are listed. The inclu- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 3-Mar Hyacinth Bacchus sion or exclusion of organizations in no way reflects their rel- Slovakia Martin 1-Mar Elena Kavcova ative contributions and is not an endorsement by ACS, CDC, Solomon Islands Honiara 1-Apr Dennie Iniakwala Sudan Khartoum Mar Ali Idris or WHO. In the development of each country or territorys United Republic of Tanzania Moshi 2-Mar Nancy Tesha list, efforts were made to include both government and non- government organizations in the directory and to confirm Market share by cigarette manufacturer. The market share that the contact information was correct as of May The of the top four manufacturers is presented for some coun- names of organizations are listed alone if contact information tries. The following abbreviations are used in place of some could not be verified. manufacturers full names: The development of the contact lists began with searches ATW Austria Tabak AG of public and private sources that provide information about B & H Rothmans, Benson & Hedges (RBH) organizations involved in national tobacco control activities. BAT British American Tobacco GLOBALinks members were the first audience for a Profiles CNTC China National Tobacco Corporation survey designed to measure the development of national FTR Fabriques de Tabac Runies SA (Philip Morris SA) organizations devoted to tobacco control. The International JT Japan Tobacco Tobacco-Control Network (ITCN) or GLOBALink is man- KT & G Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation aged by the UICC and serves as a virtual network for tobacco 18 postbox 5.0.22 crack control advocates on the Internet All members were invited West Bank and Gaza Strip. The Profiles divides national to complete an online questionnaire asking respondents to tobacco provisions into six categories: prohibitions and identify focal points for tobacco control efforts in their coun- restrictions on advertising and sponsorship, health promo- try or territory and to describe activities in seven areas: advo- tion and education efforts against tobacco, sales and distri- cacy in government, policy development, youth education bution requirements, tobacco product regulations, (school-based), worksite education, media campaigns, ces- smoke-free indoor air restrictions, and other provisions to sation services, and programs with health professionals. include the formation of a national or territorial committee on Respondents were asked to categorize these activities as tobacco control. One of four symbols appears beside the pro- either national or local (sub-national) efforts. When appli- visions if sources suggested that it is either included in leg- cable, respondents also provided information about collabo- islation and regulations or voluntarily included in industry or rative activities between government and non-government organizations codes of practice. Provisions without any organizations and the year that the activities commenced. In symbol beside them were not found in any source reviewed addition to GLOBALink members online, surveys were sent to by the American Cancer Society; however, the absence of the members by mail and facsimile. provision from these sources does not necessarily mean that WHO country focal points for tobacco control, national the provision does not exist in a country. Furthermore, the cancer organizations, scholarship applicants to the 11th presence of a tobacco control provision in legislative text or World Conference, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) secondary reports from country representatives does not members and International Non Government Coalition mean that the measure is enforced to the full extent of the Against Tobacco (INGCAT) members were also asked to law. Table 7 defines the symbols used in this section. Table 8 respond to the survey. Internet searches were used to iden- provides a list of the provisions in each category, the sym- tify other organizations engaged in tobacco control. bols that could appear beside the provision, and an explana- National Tobacco Control Provisions. National tobacco con- tion of relationship between the provision and each symbol. trol provisions refer to all national laws, ministerial, royal Table 7. and presidential decrees, regulations, and voluntary codes of Symbol Definition practice between industries, organizations, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and the govern- B National legislation and/or regulations ban (prohibit) the conduct of ment, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Throughout this section, the word national is the listed activity R National legislation and/or regulations place restrictions on the con- intended to describe regional provisions in Hong Kong (spe- duct of the listed activity cial administrative region of China), provincial provisions in X Provision is included in national legislation and/or regulations Taiwan (province of China) and territorial provisions in the V Provision exists through voluntary action and is not included in national legislation and/or regulations Table 8.

24 Table 8. (cont.) Category and Provisions Symbol Definition Sales and Distribution: (cont.

25 Legislative data for the Profiles were collected from sev- the data to either ACS-Department of Epidemiology and eral sources: WHOs International Health Legislative Digest Surveillance Research,47 WHO-Tobacco Free Initiative or (IDHL),43 Ruth Roemers book, Legislative Action to Combat CDC-Office on Smoking and Health. the World Tobacco Epidemic, 44 ERCs World Cigarette References Market, the USDA, The Maxwell Consumer Report, the 1. World Health Organization. (). Tobacco or health: a global status TMA and its industry sources 45 and the aforementioned NGO report, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Geneva, Switzerland. surveys collected by ACS. The CDC also gathered legislative 2. Tobacco or health: a global status report is available on the Internet at data by searching the following sources: 1) national govern- omjanahindia.com ment homepages and country-specific sites on the Internet, 3. Upon completion, NATIONS will be available on the Internet at 2) Lexis-Nexis International Tax Directory, 3) Library of omjanahindia.com or by contacting the Office on Smoking and Congress, Global Information Legal Network, and 4) the per- Health at the CDC. 4. Send information to Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health sonal database of Dr. Judith Mackay of the Asian Consultancy Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, postbox 5.0.22 crack, CH Geneva 27, Switzerland/fax ( on Tobacco Control. 22) 48 32/email [email&#;protected] or Office on Smoking and Health, In addition, requests for the full text of tobacco laws and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop K, Buford regulations were made to WHOs Health Legislative Unit and Highway, N.E., Atlanta, GA /fax () WHO Regional Offices. When the full text of the provision 5. United Nations Population Division. (). World population pros- pects (the revision). New York: United Nations was available, characterization of its content was derived Population Division. solely from the original text. The name of the organization 6. Additional information about the population data is available through that reviewed the text of the law is listed in Appendix B. The the UN Population Divisions homepage at omjanahindia.com appendix also provides the details and dates of implementa- popin/wdtrends or electronic mail sent to [email&#;protected] tion of some tobacco control provisions. 7, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The Economist. (). Guide to economic indicators: making sense of economics (3rd ed). London: Profile Books Ltd. Pharmaceutical Treatment for Tobacco 8. Additional information about the Penn World Postbox 5.0.22 crack is available on the Internet at omjanahindia.com Dependence 9, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The Data on pharmaceutical treatment for tobacco dependence in World Bank. (April ). World Development Indicators [CD-ROM]. the Profiles is limited to the pharmaceutical treatments cur- Washington, D.C.: Development Data Group, The World Bank. rently available in each country, the products dosage form, United Nations Statistics Division-National Accounts Section, Economics Statistics Branch. (). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and legal and advertising status. Legal status refers to Tables [On-line database]. Available: omjanahindia.com whether the product is sold only in pharmacies (with or with- pubs/omjanahindia.com out a prescription), sold over the counter (without a pre- Central Intelligence Agency. (). The World Factbook scription from a doctor), or sold only with a doctors Washington, D.C. prescription. These data were provided by PinneyAssociates, The Center for International Comparisons at the University of a consultant firm to SmithKline Beecham Consumer Pennsylvania. Available: omjanahindia.com World Bank. (). World Development Report. New York, NY. Healthcare and were collected from several commercial and Tobacco or health: a global status report, p. 2. internal sources of retail sales and regulatory information. To Printed copies and CD-ROMs of the World Factbook are available ensure that the data reflected the worldwide availability of all through the Superintendent of Documents, P.O. BoxPittsburgh, pharmaceutical treatments for tobacco dependence (not only PAUSA or telephone () ; Internet version nicotine replacement products), information from SmithKline may be accessed at omjanahindia.com was compared to information from other pharmaceutical Printed copies and CD-ROMs of the Human Development Report are manufacturers that have smoking cessation products The available through the United Nations Publication Office, Two UN Plaza, Room DC, DepartmentNew York, NYUSA or postbox 5.0.22 crack pharmaceutical data presented in the Profiles do not address phone () ; Internet version may be accessed at the publics level of access to the products or other non-phar- omjanahindia.com maceutical cessation methods, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Determining the availability of World Health Organization. (). Guidelines for controlling and behavioral treatments was beyond the scope of the Profiles monitoring the tobacco epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland. project. Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, postbox 5.0.22 crack, J., Thun, M. & Heath, C. (). Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries, Indirect Estimates from National Vital Statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Conclusion Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J., postbox 5.0.22 crack, Thun, M. & Heath, C. (). The Profiles monograph is intended to serve as a reference Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from tool for those working in the fields of tobacco control and national vital statistics. Lancet, surveillance research. Readers should direct questions about 21

26 Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries, Indirect Market Tracking International Ltd. World Tobacco File Estimates from National Vital Statistics, p. A (). DMG Business Media: Surrey, United Kingdom. Lui, B., Peto, R., Chen, Z., Boreham, J., Wu, Y., Campbell, T.C. & For a discussion of consumption calculation methods, see either Chen, J. (). Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 1. Retrospective World Health Organization. (). Guidelines for controlling and moni- proportional mortality study of one million deaths. British Medical toring the tobacco epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland. or Warner KE. (). Journal, The effects of the anti-smoking campaign on cigarette consumption. Am Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (). Cigarette J Public Health, 67, Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life LostUnited Manufactured Tobacco: Products. (). International Tobacco States MMWR, 42(33), Guide. [CD-ROM]. Tobacco Merchants Association. Dr. Alan Lopez (WHO), Dr. Matthew Hodge (WHO), and Dr. Michael Additional information about the research services provided by the Thun (ACS) were consulted. EIU is available on the Internet at omjanahindia.com World Health Organization. (). World Health Statistics Annual, postbox 5.0.22 crack, omjanahindia.com Geneva, Switzerland. ERC Statistics International is available on the Internet at GLOBOCAN is available on the Internet at omjanahindia.com omjanahindia.com Pisani, P., Parkin, postbox 5.0.22 crack, D.M., Bray, F., Ferlay, J. (). Estimates of the Economic Policy. (). International Tobacco Guide. [CD-ROM]. worldwide mortality from 25 cancers in International Journal of Tobacco Merchants Association. Cancer, 83(1), Maxwell, JC. The Maxwell Consumer Report: International Tobacco Additional information about the COMTRADE database is available on Report -Part One and Part Two. Richmond, Virginia: Davenport & the Internet at omjanahindia.com Company LLC. Information about the source for production statistics is available at Zimmerman, C. (). Profile: Jack Maxwell, The Cigarette Statistics omjanahindia.com Authority. Tobacco Reporter. January, Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook. (). United Nations GLOBALink is on the Internet at omjanahindia.com Industrial Commodity Production Statistics Database, [CD- Health Legislation Unit, World Health Organization. (October 21, postbox 5.0.22 crack, ROM]. United Nations Industrial Statistics Section, Statistics Division. ). Database on Tobacco or Health Legislation. International Digest of A detailed description of the FAOSTAT database is on the Internet at Health Legislation. Available: Mrs. M. Vogel, Telephone () 07 omjanahindia.com United Nations Industrial Development Organization. (). UNIDO Roemer, R. (). Legislative action to combat the world tobacco Industrial Statistics Database, 3-Digit Level of ISIC Code. epidemic (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. Public Policy on Tobacco. (). International Tobacco Guide. [CD- ERC Statistics International. ( & ). The World Cigarette ROM]. Tobacco Merchants Association. Market. Suffolk, Great Britain. GlaxoWellcome and Pharmacia&Upjohn were also surveyed. Pan American Health Organization. (). Tobacco or health : sta- American Cancer Society, National Home Office, Department of tus in the Americas, a report of the Pan American Health Organization Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, Clifton Road, N.E., (Scientific Publication No. ). Washington, D.C. Atlanta, GA /fax () 22

27 Regional Summary for the African Region Yussuf Saloojee, National Council Against Smoking, South Africa Africa is regarded as a virgin territory with enormous poten- readily available. Even this data does not provide a true esti- tial for tobacco marketers. According to US Assistant mate of consumption because of the illegal trade in cigarettes Secretary of State for Africa, Susan Rice, Nearly 50% of and the stock holding by manufacturers. For these reasons, Africans are under the age of These are people who can only an impression of tobacco use in the region can be develop fierce brand loyalties for everything from soft drinks provided. However, there are a number of notable trends: to blue jeans. Africa, a market of approximately million Smoking prevalence is, on the whole, relatively low, with potential consumers, truly represents the last frontier for US tobacco use being more common among men than women. exporters and investors. Africa also represents the last Cigarette use among women ranges from less than 2% in frontier for primary prevention of the global tobacco Nigeria, Cte dIvoire, and Zimbabwe to 11% in South Africa. epidemic. Postbox 5.0.22 crack future health of the last frontier will depend Among men, prevalence ranges from less than 25% in on whether Africas youth can be prevented from gullibly Malawi, Chad, and Nigeria, to around 45% in Algeria, postbox 5.0.22 crack, South developing a fierce brand loyalty to Marlboro and Camel Africa and the Seychelles. cigarettes. The use of snuff, pipes, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and hand-rolled cigarettes is This report is an overview of tobacco consumption, trade, common and popular. In Algeria around 24% of tobacco is and its health consequences in the World Health Organization consumed in the form of snuff. In South Africa as many black postbox 5.0.22 crack African region. It also highlights some of the current women use snuff as smoke cigarettes (10%). successes and future challenges in tobacco control. The full extent of tobacco use will be grossly underesti- mated in every African country if only manufactured ciga- Regional Overview rettes are used to measure consumption patterns. About Two out of three of postbox 5.0.22 crack worlds poorest nations are in Africa. 90% of men and 11% of women in Senegal use some form Of the 46 countries in the WHO African region, 36 (78%) are of tobacco. In Kenya, the equivalent figures are 67% and classified as low-income, five (11%) are lower-middle 32% for men postbox 5.0.22 crack women, postbox 5.0.22 crack, postbox 5.0.22 crack. income, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and five (11%) are upper middle-income countries Africans, on average, smoke far fewer cigarettes than do according to the World Bank. Inthe average Gross smokers in other regions. Init was estimated National Product (GNP) per capita for sub-Saharan Africa that in 22 African nations about cigarettes per adult per (SSA) was US$ Ethiopia has a population of 58 million year were sold, postbox 5.0.22 crack. This compared to an average of 1, for all and a GNP per capita of US$ Mozambiques 17 million developing countries. During this period, consumption was people have a GNP per capita of US$90the lowest in the highest in Mauritius (1, cigarettes per adult per year) and region. In the decade frompostbox 5.0.22 crack Africa South Africa (1,) and lowest in Niger () and Ethiopia experienced a 1% decrease in GNP. (90). A baby born in Britain is likely to live to 77 years. In sub- Cigarette consumption is not growing particularly fast in Saharan Africa, however, the average life expectancy at birth the region and in many states the market has been shrinking. is 52 years and falling. In Mali, a child has a one in seven Between andindustry sources indicate that ciga- chance of dying before its first birthday. In the United rette sales declined by % in South Africa, 21% in Ghana Kingdom, postbox 5.0.22 crack, an infants risk of dying before postbox 5.0.22 crack first birthday is and Zimbabwe, and 35% in the Democratic Republic of a mere 1 in Congo. This was primarily attributed to constrained con- sumer spending, except in South Africa. By contrast, Kenya Tobacco Use experienced a 15% increase in sales during the same period. Information about tobacco use in Africa is sparse. Data on Sales of single manufactured cigarette sticks are highly smoking prevalence comes from scattered surveys in a few popular in most African markets. One estimate suggests that countries. Surveys of smoking behavior, when available, usu- as much as 80% of cigarette purchases in Nigeria are single ally only cover urban populations, selected regions, postbox 5.0.22 crack, or spe- cigarettes. Consumers either cannot afford to buy packs of cific population sub-groups such as university students, and 20 cigarettes, or supplement other forms of tobacco use with are rarely nationally representative. Statistics on the produc- manufactured cigarettes when they can afford it. tion of and the trade in manufactured cigarettes are more 23

28 The Tobacco Industry increasing in populations that have smoked tobacco for pro- Tobacco is the most widely grown non-food crop in several longed periods, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Age-standardized lung cancer rates per African countries. Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, South Africa 1, postbox 5.0.22 crack, in Harare, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Zimbabwe, arein South Africaand Kenya are the main producers, but about 90% of the in Maliand in Gambia 1. This compares with rates of countries in the region grow tobacco commercially. In perin the United Kingdom. Zimbabwe, Malawi, and South Africa, large farming estates The view that tobacco is an insignificant cause of death in dominate, while Tanzania and Kenya are more dependent on Africa may be illusory. A recent unpublished case-control small landholders. In Tanzania, there aretobacco study in South Africa found that smoking doubled the prob- farmers and the average plot measures only hectares. ability of dying from tuberculosis, confirming similar findings However, the productivity of these farms is low. At kilo- from China. Intuberculosis killed over a half million grams per hectare, yields in Tanzania are considerably lower people in sub-Saharan Africa, and the toll is rising. This sug- than yields in Zimbabwe, which produce kilograms per gests that more Africans may be dying from smoking than hectare.1 was previously supposed. The risk ratio for lung cancer British American Tobacco (BAT) is the dominant manu- among South African smokers is almost as high as that in the facturer in the region, although Philip Morris and Japan United Kingdom. A recent study found a relative risk of lung Tobacco are attempting to make inroads into African mar- cancer among female smokers ofand among male kets. BAT has a virtual monopoly in Ghana (% postbox 5.0.22 crack smokers of share), postbox 5.0.22 crack, Nigeria (91% share), Kenya (87% postbox 5.0.22 crack, and Malawi (70% share). French-based manufacturer SEITA operates in Tobacco Control Activities Burkina Faso, Cte dIvoire, Gabon, and Senegal. The operating environment for the tobacco industry remains Despite its monopoly, BAT advertises extensively. By relatively unregulated although laws against smoking exist in world standards, total spending on advertising for all prod- several countries in the region. Most nations in Africa are still ucts is very low in most African markets, except South Africa attempting to control infectious diseases and reduce infant and Egypt. However, the tobacco companies are among the mortality rates. Inevitably, tobacco control has not been more prominent advertisers. In particular, they sponsor assigned the same priority as these other health problems. events with large youth audiences like sports and music con- The regulation of smoking in public places, especially certs, including the tantalizingly named Wild and Wicked schools and health care facilities, is the most common form pop concerts in Nigeria. tobacco regulationabout 20 countries have such regula- The economic impact of the tobacco industry in the coun- tions. Given the low level of cigarette consumption in most tries of the region ranges from substantial to negative. countries, compliance with these regulations is usually good, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Tanzania are all major tobacco leaf even if enforcement mechanisms seldom exist. Smoking is exporting countries and 25%, 60%, and 9%, respectively, of banned on airlines in Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mauritius, South their total export earnings come from tobacco. Malawi has Africa, and on one of the main regional carriers, Air Afrique. one of the lowest GNPs in the world, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and in Zimbabwe 60% Health warnings on cigarette packets are required in 16 of the population live in poverty. Tobacco is obviously a main- countries. In most countries the warning is vague and gen- stay of the economy in these two countries. However, the eralfor example, Smoking may be harmful to your majority of African countries have a negative balance of trade health. Strong, postbox 5.0.22 crack, prominent, rotating health warnings are in tobacco, spending more on imports of tobacco than they required in three countries (South Africa, Mauritius, and earn from exports of tobacco.2 Nigeria) while only two countries regulate the components of tobacco smoke (South Africa and Mauritius). Smoking and Health Encouragingly, there are either total bans or strong partial Detailed annual statistics on causes of death are available bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in at least 10 from less than half the countries in the world. In most low- countries, including Algeria, Botswana, Cape Verde, Gambia, income countries, deaths are often not certified and the Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Senegal, South Africa, and cause of death postbox 5.0.22 crack not established with any degree of accu- Zambia. Nigeria does not allow the sponsorship of sports by racy. There are no recent country-specific estimates of smok- the tobacco industry. ing-attributable mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cancer Excise tax rates on cigarettes are relatively high in several registry data, some countries or areas have found that their countries, with excise taxes comprising more than 50% of rates for lung cancer mortality are intermediate to low when the retail price of cigarettes in Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, postbox 5.0.22 crack, South compared with high-income countries. The rate, however, is Africa, and possibly Zambia. 24

29 Postbox 5.0.22 crack a number of countries, including Kenya, Mali, Senegal, tour of South and East Africa promoting standard industry South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia, non-governmental organ- arguments against government regulation and stressing the izations (NGOs) committed to tobacco control exist. These industrys role in creating jobs and revenue. The fears of postbox 5.0.22 crack NGOs together with cancer associations, and religious growers need to be allayed by giving special consideration to groups have provided some leadership in policy develop- their needs within the process of developing the Framework ment. These efforts include media advocacy, and public edu- Convention. cation usually through leaflets and posters. These activities are usually opportunistic and low-key and are rarely long- Future Challenges and Opportunities term campaigns because of the lack of resources. The countries in the WHO African Region have diverse cul- tures, histories, challenges, and resources. Solutions to their Victories and Setbacks current and future health problems must recognize and A big boon for tobacco control on the continent was Nelson respect this diversity. Mandelas support for global tobacco control. The rhetoric Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of tobacco con- was matched by action. InSouth Africa passed the sumption and tobacco-related mortality in the world. Tobacco Products Control Act, which was amended and con- However, looking at current trends, only time separates siderably strengthened in Most of the essential ele- Africa from the rest of postbox 5.0.22 crack world. Already, in middle-income ments of a comprehensive tobacco control policy are, postbox 5.0.22 crack, or countries like South Africa, smoking-related diseases are a soon will be, in place in South Africa. This includes substan- common and important health postbox 5.0.22 crack. If African countries tial year-by-year increases in tobacco taxes for health rea- follow the same pattern as in developed countries, their sons by the Finance Ministry and a ban on tobacco tobacco epidemics can be expected to peak in the middle of postbox 5.0.22 crack and sponsorships. The establishment of non- the next century. Very rarely do we have the ability to predict smoking areas is the norm in public places and transport, an epidemic so far in the future and also have the knowledge including the workplace. Designated smoking areas may be to prevent it. set aside for smokers in selected public places. Botswana, South Africa, and Mali are among African Not surprisingly, both tobacco consumption and smoking countries that have shown what can be achieved. But the vic- prevalence fell by about 20% during President Mandelas tories have been won postbox 5.0.22 crack the face of stern tobacco industry term of office, postbox 5.0.22 crack. This victory is especially noteworthy because opposition. The industry remains in a powerful position to it was achieved in the face of several adverse factors. South oppose pro-health policies and perpetuate unhealthy ones. Africa is both a tobacco-growing and tobacco-manufacturing The tobacco industry thrives on complacency, economic countrybeing the base for Rothmans International, the dependence and its ability to influence social trends through worlds fourth largest manufacturer before it merged with marketing. BAT. Moreover, health promotion and disease prevention are Setting priorities. African countries share a disproportionate postbox 5.0.22 crack top priorities for a country facing many other urgent global burden of communicable disease. For instance, at health problems. least two-thirds of those infected with HIV live in Africa, and The passage of strong tobacco legislation in Botswana, 34 million Africans have been infected since the beginning of Mali, and Mauritius and the publication of draft legislation in the epidemic. Thirteen million Africans have died of AIDS- countries like Kenya and Tanzania were other notable related causes. By comparison, about 95, deaths are achievements. These achievements mark the beginning of a attributed to tobacco each year; this is about one in every 84 trend in which there is a growing recognition among both deaths in Africa. Tobacco control, while recognized as impor- politicians and the public that tobacco use is a health prob- tant to the future health of the region, struggles to gain the lem that has to be addressed. necessary resources and commitment in the face of compet- Among the set backs to tobacco control are growing ing priorities. The health consequences of tobacco are often signs that Kenya, Malawi, and Zimbabwe will support postbox 5.0.22 crack not immediate, and it is easy to remain unconcerned or even International Tobacco Growers Association (ITGA) in its complacent. In all countries of the world, disease prevention opposition to the WHOs Framework Convention on Tobacco postbox 5.0.22 crack is given lower priority than treatment. Control (FCTC). The FCTC seeks to create an international Economic dependency. Many low-income countries around regulatory framework to cover the manufacture, sale and use the world are increasingly shifting toward export-driven cash of tobacco products, postbox 5.0.22 crack. If enacted, it will be the worlds first crops such as tea, coffee, and tobacco to offset external debt. public health treaty and could have a tremendous impact in Sub-Saharan Africa is at the epicenter of the international promoting health. The ITGA has conducted a whistle-stop 25

30 debt crises. This has led to countries like Tanzania, Kenya, Cultural changes. One of the strengths of big business lies and Uganda seeking to increase tobacco production. in the ability to influence consumer behavior through multi- However, only about four or five African countries million-dollar marketing campaigns. From Soweto to San (Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Kenya, and possibly Uganda) Diego children are drinking Coca-Cola, eating Big Macs, and produce more tobacco than they consume. The vast majority smoking Camel or Marlboro cigarettes, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Global brands are of states, are net importers of tobacco, postbox 5.0.22 crack. These latter countries dominant. have a negative balance of trade in tobacco and it would be Social and cultural changes provide the platform for the in their economic interests to reduce tobacco consumption. development of these global brands. As cultural values Even countries heavily dependent on tobacco have recog- change, parts of the community no longer identify with long- nized the need to diversify away from tobacco. Inthe established local values but instead seek new models on President of the Tobacco Association of Malawi (TAMA) which to build their identity. They are open to influence from reportedly said: Escalating costs of farm inputs and labor abroad. Young people, especially young women, are particu- make it difficult for many small-scale tobacco farmers to larly vulnerable targets for the tobacco industry. Increasingly, grow tobacco profitably. Many have failed to repay fertilizer youth are drawing their sources of identity from cultural and other input loans. TAMA is therefore encouraging models provided by the mass media, television, and the farmers to diversify their farming activities and venture into movies, which come mainly from the Western countries. other crops. Selling cigarettes is less about the product than it is about Variable market prices and a diminishing rate of return selling an image of a particular lifestyle, postbox 5.0.22 crack. have encouraged farmers in both Zimbabwe and Malawi to Compared to the sophistication of the marketing machine grow alternative crops to tobacco. These include paprika driving tobacco consumption, the resources for tobacco use (which has a similar growing cycle and cultivation method to prevention are meager. Postbox 5.0.22 crack is a gross mismatch between tobacco), macadamia nuts, and cut flower production (par- the resources needed for tobacco control and those actually ticularly roses for export to Europe). available. The lack of resources extends from the WHO, to There are other reasons for diversifying away from Ministries of Health, to NGOs. postbox 5.0.22 crack. These include the environmental effects of heavy Despite this, even in many low resource environments, pesticide use associated with tobacco growing and defor- there is an emerging capacity for tobacco control. Many estation in countries where tobacco is cured with fuel wood. countries have some structure in place for tobacco control. A medium-to-serious degree of tobacco-related deforestation These efforts, whether educational or legislative, indicate a exists in Southern and Eastern Africa (Malawi, Zimbabwe, favorable environment for challenging social norms that sup- Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Burundi, and Ethiopia) and West port smoking, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Additional financial and personnel resources Foxit PhantomPDF Business 11.0.0 Build 49893 Crack + Keygen Code 2021 Free Activators (Togo and Nigeria). postbox 5.0.22 crack well as improved data collection are essential to Tobacco also threatens food security in the region, with strengthen these tobacco control activities. Kenya, Malawi, and Zimbabwe all having to import maize to References meet domestic requirements. Small-scale farmers complain 1. Tuinstra, T. (April ). African Potential. Tobacco Reporter. that growing tobacco requires intensive labor for long peri- 2. Chapman, S. (). Tobacco trade to and from Africa. Proceedings of ods so postbox 5.0.22 crack they do not have the time to grow traditional food the All Africa Conference on Tobacco or Health. Zimbabwe. crops like maize, beans, and cassava. 3. Mzileni O., Sitas F., Steyn K., Carrara H., Becker P. (). Lung cancer, tobacco, and environmental factors in the African population of the Northern Province, South Africa. Tobacco Control, 8, 26

31 Regional Summary for the Postbox 5.0.22 crack of the Americas Vera Luiza da Postbox 5.0.22 crack e Silva, National Cancer Institute of the Health Ministry, Brazil Introduction. Over the last three decades, the Americas have USA are some of the worlds leading exporters of both leaf displayed major changes in their demographic, socioeco- tobacco and cigarettes. Most countries of postbox 5.0.22 crack region import nomic, and epidemiologic profiles, creating the need to cigarettes in small quantities compared to the volume of review the current priorities in the public health policy domestically produced cigarettes. agenda. These changes include increased emigration to Prices and taxes. Population income, tobacco taxes, and urban areas, increased life expectancy and consequently the cigarette prices differ in each country, and affect tobacco number of elderly people, and an increase in overall mortal- consumption differently. Two studies of the relationship ity from causes related to lifestyles as a result of such between cigarettes price elasticity and demand in Colombia changes.1 Among such lifestyles, tobacco use in its various () and in Brazil () came to the postbox 5.0.22 crack conclusion as forms, especially cigarette smoking, has become one of the previously published studies that demonstrated how children main determinants of changes in this epidemiologic profile. and low-income populations are most postbox 5.0.22 crack to tax- The Region of the Americas is heterogeneous in regard to related changes in cigarette prices. The differences in prices tobacco use, consumption determinants, impact of smoking and taxes found in the region increase the potential for on the countrys mortality profile, prioritization of tobacco tobacco smuggling.5 Prices range from US $ to US control measures, and lines of research. $ per cigarette pack. Limited information and lack of comparison. The Americas TTI expansion and local tobacco manufacturers. Trans- include 36 countries, that have great diversity in socioeco- national Tobacco Industries (TTI) expanded their markets, nomic and cultural aspects, population, and language, increasing their ownership of factories in many Latin among others. Comparisons among countries in the region American and Caribbean countries in the s and are cur- are usually difficult, as data are not available in many coun- rently present throughout the regionmanufacturing, trad- tries, and when information is disclosed, data collection ing, marketing tobacco products, and focusing on a methodology varies, thus hampering comparative analyses. promising and still growing tobacco consumer market.6 In Stratification by age bracket changes from one survey to the the USA, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico, the most populated next, and even the definition of smoker varies. Despite the countries, British American Tobacco, Phillip Morris, R.J. difficulties in obtaining consistent and comparable data for Reynolds, and other companies are the major manufacturers the Americas, the available information suggests that smok- of tobacco products, postbox 5.0.22 crack. At least 13 countries have one of these ing has steadily become a major public health problem in companies as the market share leader, reminding tobacco most American countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack. control activists that tobacco control is not simply a national Mortality. High rates of lung cancer mortality among men postbox 5.0.22 crack, but a transnational problem. were described in Uruguay and Argentina in the early s, Tobacco use. In most of the Americas, the most popular showing that death rates from tobacco-related diseases are form of tobacco is filtered cigarettes, but postbox 5.0.22 crack forms have becoming similar to the rates in the USA and Canada.2 The been described, postbox 5.0.22 crack. In Colombia, indigenous people, mostly number of estimated tobacco related deaths in the region is women, postbox 5.0.22 crack use reverse smoking, putting the lit end of the(, in men andin women).3 cigarette inside the mouth. In in Cuba, 15% of adults Increasingly, women are accounting for a higher proportion smoked cigars. Byabout 28% of the tobacco con- of tobacco-related mortality. Previous estimates ofsumed in Panama was in the form of roll-your-own ciga- tobacco-related deaths in the Latin American and Caribbean rettes, and in Paraguay, snuff and chewing tobacco regions probably do not reflect tobacco use as a public health accounted for 5% to 10% of the tobacco consumed that problem with an increasing impact in the region.4 year.7 Tobacco production and trade. Almost all of the Americas General population surveys conducted among adults in manufacture tobacco products or grow tobacco. The United the region from to estimated that smoking preva- States of America (USA), Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and lence in the adult population ranged from 9% in Barbados to Mexico are among the leading producers of both raw and % in Peru. Among men, smoking prevalence varied from manufactured tobacco in Western Hemisphere. Brazil and the % in Haiti to 51% in Nicaragua, and among women var- 27 postbox 5.0.22 crack ied from % in Paraguay to % in Chile. ation of tobacco products. Despite the fact that legislation Per capita cigarette consumption from to governing tobacco use improved over the past few years, a (with some variations) increased in 15 countries, with Haiti lack of stronger and more comprehensive legislation in most and Ecuador showing the highest increases. On the other American countries weakens tobacco control activity. hand, 11 countries showed a decrease in per capita con- As the main targets of the tobacco industry, youth and sumption, with Cuba and Jamaica showing the greatest women should be a tobacco use intervention priority. decreases. Information and programs targeting these populations are Tobacco use among youth. Total smoking prevalence among highly politically acceptable and may provide an entry to youth (daily use) ranges from % in Venezuela to 30% postbox 5.0.22 crack tobacco control at the policymaking level that would be less the Dominican Republic. Further comparisons are impossible confrontational. In addition, programs and research that due to the wide variety of definitions of smoker, and wide develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of smokefree range of age definition, postbox 5.0.22 crack, as well as variations in the year on environments will contribute to decreased consumption and which data were collected. postbox 5.0.22 crack in or avoidance of initiation of smoking. It is one of the first steps in making tobacco use socially unacceptable. Corel aftershot pro 4 dependence pharmaceutical treatment: drug However, programs targeting youth and women cannot be availability. Twelve countries have both the nicotine gum implemented in a societal vacuum. and the skin patch available, and 4 countries (Brazil, Canada, USA, and Mexico) have bupropion. Tobacco control programs. The great presence of the Transnational Tobacco Industry (TTI) is in the USA and Legislation, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The Americas have had most of their tobacco Canada and is growing in Latin America and the Caribbean. control legislation implemented in the last two decades, with The accompanying economic and marketing pressures on more comprehensive and stronger legislation being imple- those societies has not been paralleled by a change in the mented in countries like Canada, USA, and Cuba. In the public health agenda. In the USA and Canada, strong legisla- regions countries where legislative information is available, tive, policy and educational programs counteract tobacco the most common approach was to address publicizing use. In the other countries, public health priorities are still tobacco products with partial restrictions or bans enforced in focused almost exclusively on infectious diseases, with little over 20 countries, with an emphasis on controlling publicity or no priority assigned to tobacco control, despite the impact targeting children, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Legislation addressing tobacco promotion that tobacco has and will increasingly have in the morbidity and sponsorship and distribution of free samples was found and mortality rates of most countries.8 Most of the Latin in fewer than 10 countries. Warning labels which display American and Caribbean countries have emerging tobacco messages ranging from at least general health warnings to control action, usually mass postbox 5.0.22 crack campaigns around more elaborated and rotated sentences are also required in single events (such as non-smoking days), but continuous 23 American countries. The requirement to display tar and and systematic tobacco control activities are usually not nicotine contents is not as common, nor is the display of implemented at the national level. other tobacco ingredients information. Selling tobacco to Non-government tobacco control organizations are in adolescents is also banned in 18 countries, with different age much greater number and relevance in USA and Canada, limits set for buying cigarettes, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Specific selling restrictions reflecting how those societies are dealing with the tobacco are provided in 5 countries. A few countries have specific problem. In a number of other countries of the region, non- regulations for vending machines. Most countries have government organizations (NGOs) with modest and isolated smoking restrictions in closed environments, especially in actions are sometimes the only institutions in charge of airplanes, public places, health care facilities, schools, public tobacco control activities (primarily in those countries where transport, public buildings, and workplaces. Legislation gov- a government office on smoking and health is still not estab- erning informative and educational programs was enacted in lished). Regional policies to counteract the broader strategies 15 countries, with 7 countries creating national committees of Postbox 5.0.22 crack, as well as multi-country policies based on economics, and 5 countries agreeing to include anti-smoking/ have, in general, not been addressed in a significant way in anti-tobacco education in school curricula. Less than postbox 5.0.22 crack most countries of the region.9 countries have specific economic legislation focused on tax- 28

33 References: 1. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (). Smoking and Health in the Americas (Publication No. CDC ). Atlanta, postbox 5.0.22 crack, GA. 2. Costa e Silva V.L., Koifman S. (). Smoking in Latin America: a major public health problem. Rio de Janeiro: Cadernos de Sade Pblica da Escola Nacional de Sade Pblica/Fiocruz, 14 (Sup. 3): 3. World Health Organization. (). The World Health Report Making a Difference. Geneva, Switzerland. 4. USDHHS () 5. Costa e Silva V.L., Koifman S. (). 6. Pan American Health Organization. (). Tobacco or health: status in the Americas, a report of the Pan American Health Organization (Scientific Publication No. ). Washington, D.C. 7. World Health Organization. (). Tobacco or health: a global status report. Geneva, Switzerland. 8. Costa e Silva V.L., Koifman S. (). 9. Conference Report. (). The economics of tobacco control: towards an optimal policy mix. Cape Town, South Africa. 29

34 Regional Summary for the Eastern Mediterranean Region Sherif Omar, National Cancer Institute and the Health and Envrionmental Committee, Egypt The Eastern Mediterranean region consists of 22 countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack. sustained. Countries generally showing increased per capita The region incorporates North African countries, Arabian consumption included Egypt and Syrian Arab Republic. Peninsula countries, and some Asian countries. Among these Countries showing decreased consumption include Kuwait sub-regions and countries, there is great variance in popula- and Pakistan. Apparent increases in cigarette consumption tion size, standards of living, and social norms. As a result, have been associated with times of national crises and the climate for tobacco control activities is unique in each spread of Western media throughout the region (television, country. This report provides a brief overview of current cinema, magazines, and satellite television channels). smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, tobacco econ- omy, and legislative infrastructure for tobacco control in the Tobacco Economy Eastern Mediterranean region. There are several interesting trends related to tobacco trade and agriculture in the Eastern Mediterranean region between Smoking Prevalence and The majority of the smoking prevalence data for the Eastern Tobacco leaf import markedly increased in the cigarette Mediterranean region reflects smoking habits for the years manufacturing countries, Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. throughalthough each countrys smoking preva- Tobacco leaf export does not represent a significant amount lence was derived using different survey methods. Smoking in national income, except for in Yemen where it accounts for among adult men was the highest in Tunisia, closely followed about % of national income. by Yemen. The lowest smoking prevalence among men was Local cigarette production decreased after in recorded in Oman. In general, cigarette smoking among Cyprus, while other cigarette producing countries showed women in the Eastern Mediterranean region is less common increased levels. For example, Syrian production increased than among women in other regions. Yemen recorded the by four times its level, postbox 5.0.22 crack. highest smoking prevalence among adult women at 29%. Iran showed a greater than two-fold increase in tobacco Still, the male to female ratio of smokers remains 2 to 1 in industry employment and Iraq almost doubled its number of Yemen, and is even higher in Arabian Gulf countries such as individuals employed in tobacco manufacturing. the United Arab Emirates (24 to 1), postbox 5.0.22 crack, Bahrain (22 to1), Kuwait In general, the amount of land devoted to tobacco grow- (12 to1), and Oman (16 to1). ing is less than 1% of total agricultural land in most coun- There is less data available regarding the prevalence of tries. Small variations in the amount of land dedicated to smoking among youth in the Eastern Mediterranean region. tobacco growing is recorded in Jordan, Oman, and United The highest prevalence of smoking among male youth was Arab Emirates. Only one country, Morocco, showed a three- recorded in Kuwait, whereas the lowest prevalence was fold increase in land devoted to tobacco growing. found in Bahrain. For female youth, Jordan showed the high- Recent data regarding the share of the market retained est smoking prevalence in the region, while Bahrain again by each cigarette manufacturer was only available for six reported the lowest prevalence. Male to female ratio was countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Syria, and almost in Iran and in Morocco. Tunisia), postbox 5.0.22 crack. In these countries, domestic manufacturers control more than 50% of the market. Egyptian, Tunisian and Syrian Cigarette Consumption domestic shares reached 85%, 88% and 83%, respectively. The Eastern Mediterranean countries can be divided into two groups according to trends in per capita manufactured ciga- Infrastructure for Tobacco Control postbox 5.0.22 crack consumption between and The first group The Ministries of Health in most countries represent the of countries shows steady levels of per capita consumption, national authority responsible for tobacco control. In some with only minor variations among years. This group includes countries, officials of World Health Organization assist with Iran, Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. The second group of educational programs, and in other countries, local medical countries shows either a marked rise or a marked drop in per college personnel voluntarily assist with health promotion capita cigarette consumption at particular points in time and education. Non-government organizations still play a rel- between andalthough the trend was not always atively small postbox 5.0.22 crack in tobacco control activities in Eastern 30

35 Mediterranean countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Bymost of the countries selling tobacco to minors, 18 years is usually the minimum governments had issued regulations to restrict or ban smok- age for purchasing tobacco. Kuwaits government, however, ing in closed public areas. Some countries were leaders in permits tobacco sales only to those individuals older than 21 these legislative efforts, such as Egypt. Egypt has had provi- years. sions to prohibit smoking in closed places, such as theaters, A number of efforts to control tobacco in the Eastern sincethrough the Alexandria Municipal Ordinance of Mediterranean region have been successful: 20 July This provision postbox 5.0.22 crack followed by Lawwhich Wider dissemination of information about the hazards of banned smoking in closed public places and restricted ciga- smoking, including health warnings on cigarette packets rette advertising. Inthe Ministry of Communication Increasing taxes on tobacco products that limit to some prohibited the advertising of cigarettes on radio and degree tobacco consumption television. Reducing the tar and nicotine levels in cigarettes sold in Bans on cigarette advertising (visual, audio, or printed) the Gulf States were also the first tobacco control provisions in other Eastern In the future, the following measures could help to Mediterranean countries, followed by the appearance of decrease the impact that tobacco use has on the health of health warnings on cigarette packages. The warnings vary people living in the Eastern Mediterranean region: from country to country. Some are short and concise like Bans on all forms of tobacco advertising, including Smoking is harmful to health or moderate like Smoking is sponsorship very harmful to health, postbox 5.0.22 crack, yet others are strong like Smoking Prohibition of all tobacco sales to minors under 18 years is a leading cause of lung cancer and pulmonary and cardio- of age vascular disease, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Bymost countries placed some ban Lowering the content of tar, nicotine, and the other dan- or restriction on smoking in workplaces, schools, health care gerous constituents of tobacco facilities, government buildings, aboard aircraft, or on public Ban on the sale of cigarettes through automatic vending transportation. Provisions to reduce the amount of nicotine machines and tar in cigarettes are less common, and where there are Government mandated implementation of health educa- restrictions, the maximum allowable levels vary among the tion and tobacco resistance programs in all schools countries. The maximum allowable level of nicotine ranges Consistent use of the media to disseminate information from mg to 1 mg, postbox 5.0.22 crack, while the maximum allowable level of programs against tobacco use tar ranges from postbox 5.0.22 crack mg to 15 mg. The tightest standards for Trial initiatives to reduce the amount of land allocated tar and nicotine exist in the United Arab Emirates, postbox 5.0.22 crack, where for tobacco growing and studies of crop modification that mg nicotine and 10 mg tar have been the upper limits since might end the cultivation of tobacco. The minimum age to purchase cigarettes also varies among countries. In the countries with prohibitions against 31

36 Regional Summary for the European Region Margaretha Haglund, National Institute of Public Health, Sweden The European region of the World Health Organization (WHO) less than 10% of women are smokers in Albania, Belarus, presently consists of 51 countries including Israel, the for- and in most of the Central Asian Republics. mer Soviet countries in Europe, and the republics in Central In summary, in the countries of Central and Eastern Asia. As in other regions, tobacco use is now one of the Europe, including the former Soviet countries, the rate of greatest public health challenges facing the region. Each year smoking among men is high and among women is low but tobacco is responsible for approximately million deaths rising. The increasing trend in smoking among women in in the region, or 14 % of all deaths. Death rates in the United Central and Eastern Europe is particularly alarming, where Kingdom and Nordic countries continue to decline, while excluding the Central Asian Republics, about one-third of death rates are expected to increase in Central and Eastern women smoke. In contrast, Poland, one of the leading Europe, including the Central Asian Republics and among tobacco control countries in the Region, has experienced a women in most countries. WHO estimates that unless stricter declining trend in smoking among women. In contrast to tobacco control measures are implemented, tobacco will be Central and Eastern Europe, the northwestern parts of Europe responsible for more than 2 million deaths per year (20 per- have smoking prevalence rates that are nearly similar for men cent all deaths) by and women (for example in Sweden, Denmark, the United Central and Eastern Europe have witnessed a postbox 5.0.22 crack Kingdom, Ireland, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and the Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Spybot Anti-Beacon 2020 Free Download with Crack in premature mortality in middle-aged men ( years) In middle European countries such as Belgium, France that has not been recorded in any other parts of the world. and Austria, the difference between male and female smok- The chance of a year-year old boy living to age 65 in a ing prevalence has been reduced. This trend is not as evident Central or Eastern European country is twice as low as it is in in Germany. In recent years, women in the eastern parts of a Western European country. This is due almost exclusively Germany have postbox 5.0.22 crack prime targets for cigarette advertis- to cancer, cardiovascular disease and cirrhosis. A major ing. During this time period ( to ), the rates of cause of the first two conditions is tobacco use, postbox 5.0.22 crack. It is esti- smoking among to year-old women nearly doubled. mated that there are more thandeaths per year In contrast, rates among young men showed a more gradual related to tobacco in Central and Eastern Europe. Two-thirds increase from 38% to 45%. There was little change in smok- of these deaths occur during middle age, in marked contrast ing rates among the same age group in the former West to countries in Western Europe, where half or less of these Germany. South European countries, such as Italy, Spain, deaths occur among people under 70 years. Greece, and Portugal, postbox 5.0.22 crack more traditional smoking pat- Because of the large number of countries in the region terns, with large differences in prevalence among women and and striking differences in their economies, the different men. As in Central and Eastern Europe, this pattern is likely stages of the tobacco epidemic are all represented in the to change as more girls than boys take up smoking. European Region. Smoking among both men and women is In many European countries, there is an overall trend increasing in two fifths of countries, predominantly in the toward girls smoking slightly more than boys smoke, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Central and Eastern parts of the region. Smoking prevalence Because the prevalence of adult female smoking is largely is decreasing or stable in the other three-fifths of the region. determined by smoking patterns among teenage girls, it is Approximately 35% of adults in the region are regular daily possible that in the near future, more women than men will smokers. Furthermore, 44% of the adults in the eastern parts smoke in the region. Sweden has already demonstrated this of the region and 30% of adults in the western parts of the pattern, where more women than men are smokers. Smoking region are smokers. Smoking rates among men are particu- among women in Europe is linked to the changing social and larly high, with more than 45% smoking in Belarus, Postbox 5.0.22 crack, economic status of women, but it is also linked to tobacco Estonia, Greece, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Russian Federation, advertising and promotion. Since the s, women and Slovakia, and Turkey. In contrast, the United Kingdom, postbox 5.0.22 crack, girls have been a target for the tobacco industry. Women are Sweden, and Finland have the lowest rates (less than 30% now the tobacco industrys prime target, especially in coun- male smoking prevalence). The highest rates among women, tries where they are experiencing improvements in their eco- around 30% and greater, are seen in Denmark, Greece, nomic, social, and educational status. Cigarettes are being Germany, Hungary, Norway, and the Netherlands. Meanwhile, promoted as both a passport to a better life and a symbol 32

37 of emancipation, independence and success. This pattern of substantial support for cessation and tough new targets for increased smoking among women living in industrialized tobacco control. In Sweden, where some comprehensive countries has repeated itself throughout the last century and action was introduced in the s, the prevalence of smok- there are now strong reasons to believe that the smoking ers is now the lowest within the region. France has also habits of women will eventually mirror those of men. adopted a comprehensive tobacco control program and Unfortunately, the increase in smoking among women postbox 5.0.22 crack tobacco use has decreased accordingly. Poland represents a in Central and Eastern Europe has taken place much faster recent European success story. Eight to ten thousand fewer than in Western European countries. In Postbox 5.0.22 crack, for exam- Poles died of tobacco-related diseases in than in ple, only very few women (10 %) smoked before the begin- In comparison, Hungary, which showed similar patterns of ning of the s. In the last five years, the proportion of cigarette consumption and lung cancer as Poland during the women smokers has snapgene keygen doubled; in the youngest age s but unfortunately did not implement substantial groups, the increase is as much as five-fold. tobacco control policies, now has soaring rates of tobacco- related diseases. Successes In Western Europe, the Commission of the European Trends in smoking prevalence in many Western European Communities (EU) has become a xmedia recode filehippo contributor to the countries are now encouraging. Despite the many problems action against tobacco in Europe. EU policies have had and that the region now faces, many countries are beginning to will continue to have a significant impact on the development exercise political influence, to obtain public support for of tobacco control initiatives in the entire European Region, action, and to implement effective comprehensive tobacco especially in the six accession countries. The EU has issued control programs and legislation. The WHO Regional Office directives binding Member States, which include regulations for Europe (EURO) has, with strong support from its 51 on labeling packages, limits on tar levels, and the approxi- Member States, acted on building capacity for tobacco con- mation of tobacco taxation. A new directive has recently been trol within all countries, at developing and implementing proposed to recast the directives on tar content of ciga- comprehensive multi-sectoral policies for prevention, and at rettes and labeling of tobacco products. There is also a non- increasing cessation and reducing exposure to tobacco binding act banning smoking in public places. But no doubt smoke. The first Action Plan was adopted inwith the most important directive is the ban on advertising, pro- new objectives developed in Inthe third five-year motion, and sponsorship that will outlaw all forms of adver- Action Plan was enacted. A special committee was also tising and sponsorship by (at the latest).The legality of established in to support the development and this directive is currently being challenged in cases before the implementation of country-based plans for tobacco control. European Court in Luxembourg. Through its directives, the Today, the vast majority of countries in the European Region EU has now set a minimum standard for its 15 Member have introduced some degree of tobacco policy by adopting States in regard to tobacco control policy. Besides Poland, new legislation or program initiatives. So far, however, only there are also other countries in the eastern postbox 5.0.22 crack of the region 15 countries have programs that can be defined as that have established comprehensive legislative frameworks, comprehensive. such as Slovenia, Estonia, and Lithuania. All of these coun- In general, the Nordic countries and some Western tries have succeeded in banning tobacco advertising and European countries, which started their battle against promotion, postbox 5.0.22 crack. tobacco in the s and s, have the most comprehen- sive legislative frameworks. For example, Finland and the Set-backs United Kingdom experienced a massive lung cancer epidemic As in many other parts of the world, most governments in the in the s and reacted to it by organizing counter-meas- European Region have not been able to challenge the eco- ures that resulted in a clear decrease in prevalence of smok- nomic and political power of the tobacco industry, despite the ing and in tobacco-related death rates among middle-aged fact that their products cause the untimely deaths of mil- men. Finland, which once was the world leader in tobacco lion European citizens each year. So far, Sweden, is the only consumption, is now a world leader in tobacco control and country which has reached the WHO goal for smoking con- its smoking rates are among the lowest in Europe. Although trol in Europe of 80% non-smokers by the year There there was, until recently, mixed political support for the pro- are a number of reasons that more countries did not reach visions, the United Kingdom has committed itself to postbox 5.0.22 crack this goal. Most importantly, some national governments have tobacco taxation as one way to reduce tobacco consumption. not introduced comprehensive tobacco policies in their coun- Ina White Paper was introduced, which includes tries. Most countries still require effective management 33

38 processes to implement a comprehensive policy, including less popular, high-tar varieties. The subsidy, however, has securing inter-ministerial and inter-sector support for not affected consumption within the EU. Instead, high-tar tobacco control. tobacco is exported from the EU and dumped(cheap Second, since the s, market forces have gained exports) into poorer neighboring countries, exacerbating power at the expense of health in most countries in the east- their already existing public health crisis. Today the EU pro- ern part of the region, where the tobacco-related diseases ducestons of raw tobacco each year, three-quarters among men now are at their highest level. At the same time, of which are produced in Greece and Italy. Other big too little postbox 5.0.22 crack been done to counteract the marketing actions European tobacco growers are Turkey and Bulgaria. of the tobacco industry, whose primary aim has been to Another problem within the EU is the failure to use the increase their profits. The international market is now domi- Tobacco Fund. Earmarked for research and educational nated by Philip Morris, BAT/Rothmans and Japan Tobacco measures, the fund was established with 1% of the annual International, which have major investments in East and tobacco subsidies in and later increased to 2% in Central Europe. Half of this levy is supposed to finance research into devel- Finally, in the eastern part of the region, many countries oping less dangerous varieties of tobacco plants and half is are pressured by the transnational tobacco companies, not for public information projects on the dangers of smoking. only through advertising and promotion, but also by consid- The establishment of the Tobacco Fund was a condition of erable new investment in their tobacco manufacturing and the decision to continue providing subsidies for growing media sectors. In many of those countries, postbox 5.0.22 crack, advertising com- tobacco. However, no money from the Fund has been spent panies, as well as newspapers and magazines have become in the 15 Member States since This means that at the deeply dependent on the tobacco industry. Furthermore, same time as the tobacco subsidies have been issued, these developments have occurred without new legislation or approximately 60 million EURO have not been used on either other action to address the problem. Often, existing legisla- educational campaigns or research to develop less harmful tion is applicable only to domestically produced cigarettes tobacco products. Meanwhile, few if any of the Member and exerts no control over foreign cigarette manufacturers. States have had sufficient funding to maintain their tobacco In many countries, weak transnational border controls control programs. have resulted in significant and systematic smuggling activ- ity. According to a recent tobacco trade report, contraband Challenges sales worldwide grew by more than % between and Tobacco is one of the greatest public health challenges facing Together with the Asia-Pacific Region, the Eastern the European Region this century. European researchers European Region accounted for the majority of this increased have now demonstrated the linkage among poverty, inequal- volume. Smuggling is also major problem in Western ities in health, and tobacco use. In countries where the European countries. For example, the percent of market that tobacco epidemic started early, such as the United Kingdom was contraband in the UK and Italy in was 18% and and Sweden, death rates from tobacco are substantially 12% to 15%, respectively. The main reasons for increased higher among the lowest social classes than among the smuggling activity are the dissolution of the former Soviet wealthiest, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Similar trends can probably be demonstrated for Union and the break up of the Eastern Bloc, postbox 5.0.22 crack. many European countries. Tobacco control now represents a Germany, which has the strongest economy in Europe, powerful means of reducing social inequities in overall health continues to be a primary threat against the tobacco control status. movement in Europe. Among the European Parliament, most There is now an urgent need to mobilize the society, to German members (with the exception of the Greens) voted exercise political will, and to enact systematic tobacco con- against the EU tobacco-advertising ban. Despite pressure trol legislation and programs in every Member State of the from Germany, the EU managed to pass the directive in European Region. Although there seems to be consensus on December Yet the future of this advertising ban what needs to be done to control the tobacco epidemic, there remains uncertain because of the German governments plea is still considerable difficulty in deciding how this is to be for an appeal of the directive. accomplished in each country. Addressing this question, Even if the EU has succeed in banning advertising and especially in the areas of legislation, economic interventions, promotion, it has, postbox 5.0.22 crack, to date, failed to phase out agricultural and policy interventions, is the challenge ahead, postbox 5.0.22 crack. However, subsidies for tobacco growing. Every year postbox 5.0.22 crack EU subsidizes this also represents the greatest opportunity to achieve sus- tobacco farming with approximately 1, million EURO, tainable change. resulting in over-production, especially of the commercially Within the comprehensive framework, a complete ban on 34

39 tobacco advertising and promotion is essential to reduce fighting the tobacco epidemic. An important step to build this tobacco consumption. It is vitally important that the EU effort solidarity would be to better involve Germany in Europes to ban all direct and indirect advertising by July be tobacco control movement. extended to the whole European Region as soon as possible. Growing social acceptance of womens smoking through- Equally important is the eradication of large-scale smuggling out Europe has contributed to more women taking up smok- that now occurs in markets where controls are weak and ing and there is now picsart cracked ios urgent need to raise awareness of where market dominance has not been established. If large- womens tobacco use as a major public health problem. The scale cigarette smuggling is not eradicated within this cen- development of gender sensitivity in research and tobacco tury, the European Region may lose one of the most efficient control programs, including programs and strategies specif- methods to reduce smokingtax increases. Inthe ically for women, are also needed. In addition, women should Customs and Excise in the United Kingdom estimated that be encouraged to take leading roles in the tobacco control million in revenue was lost through the illegal trade of movement in the future. tobacco products. The response to smuggling is not to lower A great challenge for the tobacco control movement in taxes, postbox 5.0.22 crack, but to crack down on criminal activity. The experience Europe is to involve the media to a much greater extent, as of the EU cigarette task force in Andorra has demonstrated visible media is critical to successful tobacco control. that close cooperation between countries and effective coor- Without the involvement of media,comprehensive tobacco dination at regional levels can uncover major smuggling control will rarely be effective. activity. Finally, as in all regions, an indicator of successful While tobacco consumption is increasing in Central and tobacco control in the European Region will be the ability to Eastern Europe and decreasing in Western Europe, postbox 5.0.22 crack, there is support and pass the WHO Framework Convention on an urgent need to provide local people with the skills and Tobacco Control through the World Health Assembly. The resources necessary to combat tobacco and to provide finan- Convention must include effective measures against tobacco cial assistance to countries in Central and Eastern Europe. advertising and promotion, as well as measures against Solidarity between Western and Eastern Europe is crucial for smuggling, postbox 5.0.22 crack. 35

40 Regional Summary for South-East Asia Prakash C. Gupta, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India The South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization amount of tobacco than a cigarette, it delivers about 45 mg consists of ten countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic to 50 mg of tar, compared with 18 mg to 28 mg of tar in an Peoples Republic Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Indian-manufactured cigarette. Furthermore, the mainstream Myanmar, Nepal, Sri-Lanka, and Thailand. The region is smoke of a bidi contains much higher concentrations of sev- unique in many ways. For example, South-East Asia encom- eral toxic agents and delivers more nicotine than Indian cig- passes some of largest and most densely populated coun- arettes, probably because pure tobacco is used in bidis, while tries in the world, and accounts for almost a quarter of the reconstituted tobacco sheets are used in cigarettes. Bidis are world population. The countries in this region are all devel- also common in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. oping countries, yet they represent many levels of economic Cheroots. Cheroots are small cigars made of heavy-bodied development. This region is even more unique in relation to tobacco; they have no wrapper and contain a single binder. A the problem of tobacco. Tobacco has had a presence in Asia variant of the cheroot, known as keeyo, is smoked in for over four centuries. Tobacco use has been integrated into Myanmar and neighboring Thailand. This cigar-like product, traditional practices and cultural values, many of which are measuring up to 30 cm in length, is made by rolling a mix- several millennia old. As a result, tobacco is smoked and ture of finely cut tobacco in the bark of the keeyo (Streblus chewed in a wide variety of ways, many more than in any asper L.) tree or in a banana leaf (Musa paradisiaca L.). The other part of the world. Thus, when discussing the problem characteristic flavor of keeyo smoke is due to the outer cov- of tobacco in South-East Asia region, one can not limit the ering. In a study of 1, individuals in Thailand, 20% were focus to cigarette smoking. It is postbox 5.0.22 crack to understand the keeyo smokers. In the Chiang Mai area of northern Thailand, different methods of using tobacco before thinking in terms cheroots are smoked mainly by women; they measure 8 cm of tobacco control. to 10 cm in length and are made by wrapping very finely cut A brief description of the most common tobacco prod- tobacco in corn leaves. This form of smoking was practiced ucts, both for smoking and smokeless, follows. by % of the study population. Smoking Tobacco Kreteks. Kreteks are indigenous cheroots containing Cigarettes. Currently, a bewildering number of cigarette tobacco, cloves, and cocoa, which give the characteristic brands are commercially available in the region. The tar and honey flavor to the smoke. Kretek smoking originated in the nicotine levels of cigarettes manufactured in different Indonesia in The word kretek appears to have come countries exhibit notable differences. from the sound and sparks produced when it is inhaled. This Generally, postbox 5.0.22 crack, the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes man- type of smoking is most popular in rural areas. Kreteks are ufactured in South-East Asian countries is higher than those cheap, can be bought as single sticks, last for a long time, manufactured in the United Kingdom or the United States. and extinguish themselves automatically when they are put Cigarette industries in South-East Asia are either state down. They were traditionally hand-made, but since the mid- monopolies or are dominated by transnational tobacco s machine-made kreteks have been available commer- companies. cially. The tar and nicotine contents of kreteks are estimated to be two to five times higher than those in Australian ciga- Bidi. Bidi smoking is a popular form of tobacco use, rettes. Kreteks are popular in Indonesia, where three times as accounting for 34% of the tobacco produced in India. The many kreteks as cigarettes are produced. number of bidis produced in India is eight times greater than the number of cigarettes produced. Bidis are made by rolling Chuttas. Chuttas are coarsely prepared cheroots. The name a dried, rectangular piece of temburni leaf (Diospyros chutta in Telugu, spoken in Andhra Pradesh, may have melanoxylon) with to grams of sun-dried, flaked come from the Tamil (spoken in Tamil Nadu) word shruttu, tobacco into a conical shape and securing the roll with a meaning to roll. Chuttas are made by rolling a tobacco leaf thread, postbox 5.0.22 crack. The length of a bidi varies from 4 cm to cm. The into a cylindrical shape, one end of which is tied with a diameter of the thicker end, which is the burning end, varies thread. The length of chuttas varies from cm. Chutta from cm to cm, and that of the flat end is from cm smoking is widespread in coastal areas on Andhra Pradesh, to cm in diameter. Although a bidi contains a smaller Tamil Nadu and Orissa. They are usually the products of cottage and small-scale industry, or are made at home, postbox 5.0.22 crack. 36

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1 HYDRAULIC HOSE, COUPLINGS + EQUIPMENT POWERING PROGRESS HOSE, COUPLINGS + EQUIPMENT GATES CORPORATION Wewatta Street Denver, CO / Fax Postbox 5.0.22 crack HYDRAULIC CATALOG omjanahindia.com Supercedes October Edition

2Selection C1 Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com i

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85AB-PLUG Q1 Field Attachable for C5C, C5D & C5M Hose Air Brake Cartridge 3CARTRIDGE-AB Q1 Male Pipe (NPTF - 30 Cone Seat) - Steel 4CRMP P1 Air Brake to Male Pipe AB-1MP Q2 Male Pipe (NPTF - 30 Cone Seat) - Brass postbox 5.0.22 crack P1 Air Brake to Male Pipe - 45 Bent Tube 4AB-2MP45 Q3 Male JIC 37 Flare - Steel 4CRMJ P2 Air Brake to Male Pipe - 90 Bent Tube AB-2MP90 Q3 Female JIC 37 Flare Swivel - Steel 6CRFJX P2 Air Brake to Male Pipe - 90 Bent Tube Postbox 5.0.22 crack JIC 37 Flare Swivel - Brass 6CRFJXB P3 with Port 6AB-4MP-2PT90 Q4 Female JIC 37 Flare Swivel - 45 Bent Air Brake to Male Pipe Swivel - 45 Bent Tube - Steel 6CRFJX45 P3 Tube 4AB-2MPX45 Q5 Female JIC 37 Flare Swivel - 90 Bent Air Brake to Male Pipe Swivel - 90 Bent Tube - Steel 6CRFJX90 P4 Tube AB-2MPX90 Q5 Male SAE 45 Flare - Steel 4CRMS P4 Male Pipe to Air Brake Tee postbox 5.0.22 crack Q6 Male SAE 45 Flare Inverted Swivel - Steel 4CRMIX P5 Male Postbox 5.0.22 crack to Air Brake Tee - Jump Down 4MP-6AB-4AB Q7 Male SAE 45 Flare Inverted Swivel - postbox 5.0.22 crack Air Brake to Male Pipe Tee 3AB-3AB-2MP Q7 Bent Tube - Steel 4CRMIX45 P5 Air Brake to Male Pipe Tee - Jump Down 10AB-8AB-8MP Q8 Male SAE 45 Flare Inverted Swivel - 90 Air Brake to Male Pipe Tee - 90 Bent Tube 6AB-6AB-6MP90 Q8 Bent Tube - Steel 4CRMIX90 P6 Male Pipe Swivel to Air Brake Tee 2MPX-4AB-4AB Q9 Female SAE 45 Flare Swivel - Steel 6CRFSX P6 Air Brake to Male Pipe Swivel Tee 3AB-3AB-2MPX Q9 Female SAE 45 Flare Postbox 5.0.22 crack - Brass 6CRFSXB P7 Air Brake to Female Pipe AB-2FP Q10 Female SAE 45 Flare Swivel - 45 Bent Air Brake to Female Pipe - 90 Bent Tube 3AB-2FP90 Q10 Tube - Steel 6CRFSX45 P7 Air Brake on Run to Female Pipe - Tee 6AB-6AB-4FP Q11 Female SAE 45 Flare Swivel - 90 Bent Male Pipe to Air Brake to Female Pipe Tee 4MP-6AB-4FP Q11 Tube - Steel 6CRFSX90 P7 Air Brake to Male Pipe to Female Pipe 6AB-6MP-4FP Q12 Dual Seat Female JIC 37/SAE 45 Flare Air Brake Bulkhead 4AB-4AB-BKHD Q12 Swivel - Steel 4CRFJSX P8 Air Brake to Male Flareless Assembly Dual Seat Female JIC 37/SAE 45 Flare Bulkhead 4AB-4MFA-BKHD Q13 Swivel - 45 Bent Tube - Steel 4CRFJSX45 P8 Air Brake postbox 5.0.22 crack Female Pipe Bulkhead 4AB-2FP-BKHD Q13 Dual Seat Female JIC 37/SAE 45 Flare Air Brake Union omjanahindia.com vii

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12 STANDARD BULK HOSE PACKAGING A. *Qty 20%, 50% In Lengths 40Ft. & Longer, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Minimum Length of 10Ft., 2 Lengths Under 20 Ft. Allowed, Maximum of 3 Lengths. B. *Qty 10 Ft., Minimum Length of 5 Postbox 5.0.22 crack, Maximum of 2 Lengths. C. *Qty 10%, 50% In Lengths 40 Ft. & Longer, 50% In Lengths of 10 Ft. to 39 Ft. D, postbox 5.0.22 crack. *Qty 10%, 65% In Lengths Longer Than 45 Ft., Minimum Length of 10 Ft., 2 Lengths Under 20 Ft. Allowed, Maximum of 6 Lengths. E. *Qty 0 Ft., Minimum Length of 10 Ft., Maximum of 4 Lengths. F. *Qty 0 Ft., Minimum Length of 10 Ft., Maximum of 3 Lengths. G. *Qty 0 Ft., Minimum Length of 10 Ft., Maximum of 4 Lengths. H. *Qty 0 Ft., Minimum Length of 10 Ft., Maximum of 3 Lengths, postbox 5.0.22 crack. I. *Qty 20 Ft., Minimum Length of 20 Ft., 1 Length 40 Ft. or Longer, Maximum of 3 Lengths. J. General Reeling Specification Size 3/16 through 3/4 Sizes above 3/4 Footage ft. to ft. ft. to ft. Min. number of lgths./reel one one Max. number of lgths./reel four three Lgths. less than ft. one one Min. lgth. allowed 15 ft. 15 ft. K. *Qty 20%, 65% In Lengths Longer Than 45 Ft., 25% In Lengths 25 Ft. to 45 Ft., 10% In Lengths 5 Ft. to 25 Ft., Maximum of 4 Lengths. L *Qty 10%, Minimum Length of 25 Ft., postbox 5.0.22 crack, Maximum of 3 Lengths. M. *Qty: 20%, Maximum of 2 Lengths, Minimum Length of 50 Feet. N. *Qty 0 Ft., Maximum of 2 Lengths, Minimum Length of 10 Feet. Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com xi

13 GATES HYDRAULICS O. One Continuous Length Between ''. P. *Qty: Maximum of 2 Continuous Lengths. Each Reel Contains Hose Size Reel Qty. 2 Continuous Lengths Per the Following: 3/16 ft. ft. x 2 1/4 ft. ft. x 2 5/16 ft. ft. x 2 13/32 ft. ft. x 2 1/2 ft. ft. x 2 5/8 ft. 75 ft. x 2 7/8 ft. 50 ft. x 2 Q. *Qty: Maximum postbox 5.0.22 crack Continuous Length +/%. Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Hose lengths shall be as long as god of war pc setup highly compressed Free Activators, minimum length is 25 ft, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Hose will be stacked on pallets in bales, stretch wrapped and banded. S. Minimum length of 50 ft., any number of pieces. All lengths to be in 50 ft. increments (i.e. 50, etc.) T. Packaged one continuous length per each or per container. U. 10% Minimum Length 15 ft., Maximum of 3 Lengths. V. Qty +/ 0, 65% in lengths longer than 45 ft., minimum length of 10 ft., 2 lengths under 20 ft. allowed, maximum of 6 lengths. Minimum Order Requirements For Non-Standard, Non-Stock Hydraulic Hose Order To Be Entered With Customer Service; Prior to be quoted by Denver Hydraulic Products Marketing * Min. Ord. Qty. For Non-Std. Hose Type Non-Stk. Hose All hoses through 1 I.D. except Spiral Wire and RLC. ft. All Spiral Wire Call Denver All hoses over 1 I.D., All RLC, except Spiral Wire Ft. TH7, TH7Dual-Line, TH7NC, TH8-Dual-Line, TH8NC 10, Ft. *The quantities listed generally apply. Some postbox 5.0.22 crack with unusual requirements may not be acceptable or larger minimum quantities may be necessary. xii omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

14 For SaFetyS Sake Avoid injury to yourself and others by following these important hose assembly steps: WARnInG Serious injury, death and destruction of property can result from rupture or blow-apart of a hydraulic hose assembly that is: n Damaged or worn out Postbox 5.0.22 crack underestimate the power n Assembled or installed incorrectly of a blown hydraulic assembly. 1. Receive hands-on training with Gates 4. Hose must not be stretched, kinked, recommended equipment. crushed or twisted during installation or use. Hose must not be bent to less than 2. Follow current Gates operating manual the minimum bend radius. and crimp data. 5. Use only TH7NC, TH8NC and TH18NC hose 3. Use only new (unused) Gates for non-conductive applications. recommended hose and couplings For instance: cherry pickers. All other with Gates crimpers. Gates hoses are electrically conductive. 4. Wear safety glasses. 6. Do not USe HydRAUliC HoSe To TRANS- 4. AVoID FLUID InJECtIon InJURIES MiT HiGH pReSSURe GASeS oR STeAM. Fluid under pressure can cause Select and Install Assemblies NoTe ANy pReSSURe Above pSi. n with Care serious injury. it can be almost invisible escaping from a pinhole and 1. Select proper hose assemblies for the Follow Good Maintenance Practices it can pierce the skin into the body. application. Many factors and conditions do not touch a pressurized hydraulic 1. Establish a program of inspection, testing n affecting the inside and outside diameter hose assembly with any part of your and replacement of hose assemblies from of the hose must be taken into account. body. factors including: 2. Hose assembly routing must not n Severity of application. n if fluid punctures the skin, even if no create an injury hazard or damage hose. pain is felt, a serious emergency n Frequency of equipment use. exists. obtain medical assistance Refer to the standards, regulations and directories that apply in the countries n past performance of hose assemblies. immediately. Failure to do so can result in loss of the injured body where the equipment is sold and used. 2. only properly trained persons should part or death. inspect, test or service hose assemblies. 3. Select hydraulic components so that the Update training periodically. 5. Stay out of hazardous areas while applications temperature, pressure and testing hose assemblies under pressure. bend radius do not exceed recommended 3. Document maintenance, inspections Use proper safety protection. component limits. postbox 5.0.22 crack testing. Other Safety Information Many factors affect the selec- information, please contact your determined by a simple burst The consumers exclusive tion, crimping, installation and local Gates representative or call or pressure hold test. Gates remedy with respect maintenance of hose assemblies. Gates Corporation. disclaims all liability for any to any claim shall be a This catalog, Gates Corporation, hose assembly made in violation refund of the purchase the hydraulic equipment maker Gates recommends hose and of Gates recommendations, postbox 5.0.22 crack, coupling combinations in this price or replacement of and the Society of Automotive procedures and current crimp catalog only after completing the product at the option engineers Recommended practice data. Crimp data is updated on SAe J, have postbox 5.0.22 crack informa- extensive testing. average every year. For the of Gates. in no event shall tion about selecting, crimping, most up-to-date crimp data, Gates be liable for any evaluation of a hose and coupling installing and servicing hydraulic combination requires considerable visit omjanahindia.com incidental or consequen- hose assemblies. For further impulse testing and cannot be tial damages whatsoever. GATES CORPORATION LIMITED LIFETIME WARRANTY The Gates Corporation (Gates) product is warranted to be free from defects in material or workmanship from the date of delivery to Customer. Gates will, at its option, replace or repair any merchandise proved defective in material or workmanship, or both. In no event will Gates honor any warranty claim unless it is notified of the claim within six (6) months of the expiration of the warranty period. This shall be the sole remedy for breach of warranty. This is the exclusive remedy, limited postbox 5.0.22 crack the Customers purchase price of the product. Damage to the product due to abuse, misuse, improper use, inadequate maintenance, or failure to follow published installation, use and service recommendations automatically voids this warranty. For warranty service, please contact the Customer Service Department of Gates Corporation, Wewatta Street, Denver, Colorado ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT WILL GATES BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, postbox 5.0.22 crack, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY AND INDIRECT DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH DAMAGES WERE REASONABLY FORESEEABLE, OR WHETHER GATES HAD KNOWLEDGE THAT THEY COULD OCCUR. Some states do not allow the exclusion or postbox 5.0.22 crack of incidental or consequential damages, and some states do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above limitation and exclusion may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state. omjanahindia.com A1

15 GATES HYDRAULICS It all started inat a small manufacturing shop in Denver, Colorado. But today, Gates Corporation is a global company with manufacturing facilities on five continents. In MarchGates opened the new 87, postbox 5.0.22 crack, square-foot Gates Customer Solutions Center that sits on a acre site in Denver, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Colorado. Designed to include space for technology development, customer engagement and training, the center includes secure vehicle testing bays for mobile-equipment manufacturer application testing and development. The training area includes hands-on training for customers and Gates associates in hose assembly, fluid contamination control, mobile equipment plumbing and fluid power circuitry. A video conferencing center allows live meetings to be conducted among Gates customers and associates around the world. The center employs about 60 engineers, technicians and scientists. Our global manufacturing processes allow any of our customers regardless of where they are to buy Gates hydraulic products that look consistent and perform to the same exacting standards. No matter where you go in the world today, Gates hydraulic hose, couplings and equipment are becoming the standards for quality and reliability. The international marketplace for hydraulic assemblies is getting larger every day. As Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) market their products across national boundaries, you need to be able to order hydraulic products that consistently meet the most rigorous international quality requirements. Gates offers a global manufacturing grid that operates under standardized and high- quality product and output specifications. Plus, we offer a world of conveniently located field offices placed strategically near every major industrialized area. All of this means our customers no longer need to import products or worry about just- in-time inventories being late. With Gates, postbox 5.0.22 crack, you get a consistent and reliable source for all of your hydraulic assembly needs, no matter where you are operating in the world. In other words, Gates hydraulic hose, couplings and equipment postbox 5.0.22 crack save you time and money, no matter your time zone or currency. A2 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

16 MegaPerformance MegaVersatility MegaSimplicity MegaValue MegaSys Postbox 5.0.22 crack Only from Postbox 5.0.22 crack Gates Next Generation Hydraulics Powering Progress, postbox 5.0.22 crack. omjanahindia.com A3

17 GATES HYDRAULICS As advanced hydraulic systems are designed and engineered into more and more high- powered, high-pressure equipment, the importance of high-quality, flexible, durable hose assemblies that wont fail has never been more critical. As the industry leader in hydraulic hose technology, Gates has developed an integrated solution to meet the expanding needs of todays hydraulic systems and tomorrows. Gates MegaSys hydraulic hose and coupling products offer a combination of technology, performance and flexibility that is unmatched by anything on the market today or for the foreseeable future! The fully integrated MegaSys hose line is designed to provide maximum flexibility and performance in a wide range of high-pressure hydraulic applications while simplifying hose selection and assembly fabrication, postbox 5.0.22 crack. MegaSys products and features save time, space and money. Color-coded laylines and constant pressure ratings faststone capture 9.3 full crack all sizes make hose identification and selection easier and faster while reducing inventory requirements. Couplings provide leak-free performance. A bend radius up to one-third the SAE specification enables use of shorter hose lengths and savings of up to 64 percent. It all adds up to more value for your money. A4 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

18 Constant Pressure Hoses The MegaSys line consists of constant pressure spiral-wire and wire-braid hoses that can be bent up to one-third SAE specifications. Combined with innovative couplings specifically designed to crimp on these hoses, leak-free performance is guaranteed up to maximum working pressures as high as 8, psi. MegaSys Benefits Simplifies hose selection with constant pressure ratings Bends up to one-third SAE bend radius specifications Saves overall hose assembly length Facilitates easier routing in tight applications Requires fewer bent tube fittings Eases installation with higher flexibility Lowers inventory requirements Extends life in bending, flexing applications Available with abrasion-resistant XtraTuff or MegaTuff covers Reduces costs by as much as 64 percent Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A5

19 GATES HYDRAULICS MegaSys Hoses Bend And Bend Some More R1 39 Hose R17 20 Hose M3K 14 Hose 8 12 24 Up to One-Third SAE Bend Radius Specification Illustration of 16M3K hose flexibility and reduced hose length requirements A6 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

20 MegaSys Spiral-Wire Constant Pressure Hoses MegaSys Hose Pressure Color Key EFG3K, EFG4K, EFG5K, EFG6K and G8K Hoses psi M3K/EFG3K Each hose features a constant working pressure psi M4K/EFG4K Four alternating layers (six in some larger sizes) of spiraled, high tensile steel psi M5K/EFG5K Postbox 5.0.22 crack tube for use with biodegradable hydraulic fluids psi M6K/EFG6K Tested to industry-leading 1, impulse cycles psi G8K Temperature range F to +F (C to +C) Available with abrasion-resistant MegaTuff cover The MegaSys Hose Line Powering Progress, postbox 5.0.22 crack. omjanahindia.com A7

21 GATES HYDRAULICS MegaSys Wire-Braid Constant Pressure Hoses MegaSys Hose Pressure Color Key M3K, M4K, M5K and M6K Hoses Each hose features a constant working pressure psi M3K/EFG3K Two braids of high-tensile steel wire (one braid in M3K -3, -4, -5, -6 and -8 sizes) psi M4K/EFG4K Nitrile tube for use with biodegradable hydraulic fluids psi M5K/EFG5K Tested to industry-leadingcycles psi M6K/EFG6K Temperature range F to +F (C to +C) Available with abrasion-resistant XtraTuff or MegaTuff covers A8 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

22 MegaSys Hose Layline System These newly developed laylines are used exclusively on MegaSys hoses. Distinctive design and pressure color coding makes MegaSys hoses easy to identify in stock or in service. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Field 4 Field 5 Field 6 Field 7 Field 8 Gates MegaSys Hose Registered Coupling Icon Size/Pressure Industry MSHA Logo Description Product G = MegaCrimp Specifications Approval 3, psi = Blue Family Name GS = GlobalSpiral 4, psi = Purple GSP = GlobalSpiral Plus 5, postbox 5.0.22 crack, psi = Red GSH = GlobalSpiral High 6, psi = Orange 8, psi = Gold Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A9

23 GATES HYDRAULICS MegaSys Size/Pressure Matrix Use the charts below for easy hose selection. Just find the required pressure and the chart will show you which hose meets that pressure in the applicable size. Snapgene viewer crack Specifications (Chart colors do not correspond to MegaSys hose color key system) I.D. -4 -5 -6 -8 psi M3K* M3K M3K M3K M3K M3K M3K EFG3K EFG3K EFG3K psi M4K** M4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K EFG4K EFG4K psi M5K M5K M5K M5K/EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K psi M6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K psi G8K G8K Exceeds SAE R1 Exceeds SAE R12 *M3K Exceeds SAE R17 Exceeds SAE R2 Exceeds SAE R13 **M4K Exceeds SAE R19 Exceeds SAE R15 European Norm (EN) Specifications (Chart colors do not correspond to MegaSys hose color key system) I.D. 04 05 06 08 10 12 16 20 24 32 bar/3K M3K M3K M3K M3K M3K M3K M3K EFG3K EFG3K EFG3K bar/4K M4K M4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K M4K/EFG4K EFG4K EFG4K bar/5K M5K M5K M5K Postbox 5.0.22 crack EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K EFG5K bar/6K M6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K EFG6K bar/8K G8K G8K Exceeds 1SN/1SC Exceeds 4SP Exceeds 2SN/2SC Exceeds 4SH A10 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

24 MegaCrimp Couplings GlobalSpiral Couplings Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A11 postbox 5.0.22 crack GATES HYDRAULICS The Versatile No-Weep Coupling Key Features with the Postbox 5.0.22 crack C Insert Robust bite-the-wire crimp Its whats inside the pre-assembled Low profile MegaCrimp coupling that gives it world- Full-stem insertion class, leak-proof performance. It is designed Full-length crimp with a patented C insert, attached to During crimping, only the Tested to industry-leadingMegaCrimp couplings outside the ferrule, that accommodates hoses shell takes on the shape of the impulse cycles Once inserted, of different constructions and wall dies. The C insert starts round, Simplifies inventory management MegaCrimp stays round like postbox 5.0.22 crack hose. couplings stay put. thicknesses. The inserts design ensures They dont fall out. Environmentally-friendly TuffCoat crimping software cracked are evenly distributed to form a concentric seal. plating for percent better The C insert simplifies inventory requirements since one MegaCrimp corrosion resistance coupling size can accommodate various hose outside diameters, on MegaCrimp couplings have an both one- and two-wire braid hydraulic hoses. optimum insertion force not too tight, not too loose so you can feel them hit bottom when inserted. Solid, Leak-Free Couplings The majority of hydraulic hose failures occur at the couplings due to blow-offs or leaks. Gates has designed and engineered innovative, robust couplings for MegaSys hoses that provide connections you can count on for superior performance guaranteed. No-Skive Convenience, Reduced Inventory In addition, the two-piece design reduces parts inventory by sony vegas pro activation code percent because only one stem is required for all spiral-wire GlobalSpiral couplings are specially engineered to provide superior hose types. performance for extreme high-pressure, postbox 5.0.22 crack spiral-wire hydraulic hma vpn license key for android 2020 Activators Patch applications. They can be used with all Gates MegaSys Key Features four- and six-spiral wire hoses up to 8, psi. Bite-the-wire crimp for improved coupling retention. The innovative, two-piece, no-skive design reduces assembly postbox 5.0.22 crack, Over 30 thread configurations to maximize application coverage labor, fabrication errors and contamination of the fluid power system. Tested to industry-leading 1, impulse cycles The work area stays clean, and the odors and dust normally created by at +F postbox 5.0.22 crack skiving are eliminated. A12 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

26 Tough Covers that Extend MegaSys Hose Life Gates abrasion-resistant covers available on MegaSys hoses are tested and proven to stand up under the harshest operating conditions. These covers increase hose service life, lower maintenance and replacement costs, and eliminate the need for costly hose protectors such as spring guards and nylon sleeves. MegaTuff Hose Cover Abrasion Testing Super-tough cover solves abrasion and wear problems ISO Metal-to-hose rubbing cycles to lose one gram postbox 5.0.22 crack weight times the abrasion resistance of standard hose coversTested to 1, cycles without failure Resistant to oil, ozone and UV raysOutperforms any other abrasion-resistant hose cover on the market todayCyclesXtraTuff Hose Cover Mid-range abrasion-resistant cover25 times the abrasion resistance of standard hose covers Resistant to oil, ozone and UV rays0 Rubber XtraTuff MegaTuff Nylon Urethane Textile Types of Covers Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A13

27 GATES HYDRAULICS Over-Torque Protection Robust swivel joint allows for maximum torque One of the most common causes of hydraulic leaks is a cracked coupling nut or seat due to over-torquing. Gates has engineered Up to 24, psi burst pressure ( size G6K) a solution Full-Torque Nut technology which is standard on all MegaCrimp and GlobalSpiral couplings. Staked-nut provides less burst pressure protection Full-Torque Nut couplings are stronger and more durable than traditional staked-nut fittings. A large holding shoulder evenly distributes stress forces at the nut for higher resistance against cracking, even when inadvertently over-torqued. Increase equipment uptime by eliminating damaged couplings and leaks from too much torque. Swivel joint sensitive to over-torquing Full-Torque Nut Technology TuffCoat Plating + Percent Better than the Hour SAE Standard TuffCoat plating sets the global standard in both corrosion resistance and environmental friendliness, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Gates has removed all hexavalent chromium from its plating process. This metal, common in industrial plating, is toxic to the environment. Gates engineered TuffCoat plating to be stronger and more resistant to corrosion, without the toxicity of hexavalent chromium. Competitor Gates Competitor Competitor Competitor TuffCoat plating is standard on MegaCrimp and GlobalSpiral couplings. Tested under SAE J and ASTMB salt-spray conditions, TuffCoat plating provided more than hours of protection from red rust formation over postbox 5.0.22 crack better than the hour SAE standard. The Gates coupling with TuffCoat plating shows no red rust formation. White patches on couplings are salt residue, postbox 5.0.22 crack, not corrosion. A14 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

28 All components of the MegaSys product line are tested against industry standards and competitive products. Whether its a new concept under development or an existing product advancement, the goal is to continually meet or exceed postbox 5.0.22 crack standards and outperform the competition. MegaSys hoses meet tough flex-impulse testing, up to 1, cycles, postbox 5.0.22 crack, that bends hose during testing and simulates severe equipment applications Hose covers are exposed to conditions simulating harsh operating environments to prove they will stand up to abuse, abrasion, oil, chemicals and weathering far beyond ordinary hoses Coupling engineering and designs are put to the test to guarantee leak-free performance at todays higher and higher equipment operating pressures Component materials, from hose construction to coupling plating, are proven in the lab and in the field to resist the harshest environmental conditions Standardized hose, coupling and crimp assembly procedures ensure consistent, reliable performance MegaTested for Postbox 5.0.22 crack Quality, Reliability and Value Rigorous testing and product validation have always Stellar Toolkit for Data Recovery Free Download central to the Gates philosophy. From product development to the manufacturing line, Gates strives to provide the global marketplace with products that deliver long life, unrivaled performance and the highest possible value. Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A15

29 GATES HYDRAULICS Gates Sentry Services The Smart Way to Stay Alert for Hose Problems and Potential Failures Whether its a construction site, a mining operation, a wind farm, a marine facility, an offshore platform or anywhere companies depend on fluid power equipment, one thing is for sure: equipment breakdowns are expensive in terms of lost time, production and money. Hose systems are the lifelines on all types of equipment such as mobile excavators, road graders, construction cranes, drilling rigs, workboats, wind turbines and longwall mining equipment. Keeping Use badge and handheld RFID track of the condition and performance of the hose systems that reader. power this equipment is essential to maximizing uptime, efficiency and production. Sentry Services combines two invaluable components to help At Your Service keep equipment up and running: For years, Gates has been a Sentry IQ Service monitors real-time diagnostic information recognized leader in providing global about the current operating condition and performance of industrial markets with high-quality, hose assemblies. The service continuously measures operating reliable, long-lasting belt, hose and Installation Software hydraulic products. temperatures, pressures, impulse cycles, etc., to assess remaining hose life to alert users to replace hoses before a With the introduction of Sentry predicted hose failure. Services, Gates enters the world of strategic, high-value, business Sentry ID Service a unique, radio frequency tagging system intelligence services. These providing the capability to identify and track specific hose breakthrough services are designed assemblies operating worldwide, postbox 5.0.22 crack. to maximize the value of customer investments in Gates products, optimize equipment performance GPS Downloads and minimize unnecessary downtime in critical production operations. Industry has relied on Gates for outstanding products. Now, count on Gates for services to match. Electronic Control Unit (ECU) GPS Transmitter/Receiver A16 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

30 Exclusive QUICK-PIC and AIM Programs Building Better Inventory Support for Construction Complete equipment coverage Equipment Owners Accurate, postbox 5.0.22 crack, quality parts replacement Gates Construction Distributors have instant access to our exclusive Alternative to high-priced, hard-to-get OEM parts QUICK-PIC and AIM computer programs and extensive, postbox 5.0.22 crack to-date global product data online. Fast, just-in-time service Whether its a critical failure in the field or regular equipment Minimal equipment downtime maintenance in the shop, your Gates Construction Distributor is the Reduced inventory costs one-stop source for all postbox 5.0.22 crack hydraulic assembly replacement needs. Gates trust, quality and reliability in every assembly Quick Part Number Interchange Accurate Inventory Manager Finds the right replacement assembly password recovery bundle free download with crack seconds to get equipment Matches hose and connector inventory to your equipment. back on the job fast. With AIM, you get the parts you need, when you need them, at QUICK-PIC interchanges more thanconstruction a price you can afford. AIM matches your Gates Construction equipment manufacturers part numbers with the right, high- Distributors inventory to your exact equipment needs by quality Gates replacement. Your Gates Construction Distributor manufacturer and model. can then fabricate a replacement assembly to the right hose No more guesswork. No more shopping around for a part. AIM length in minutes, including fittings and protectors. tells your distributor exactly what parts to stock. Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A17

31 GATES HYDRAULICS LifeGuard Line-of-Sight Sleeving System Theres a Better Way to Protect Equipment Operators Against Hydraulic Hose Failure. A burst or pinhole leak in a hydraulic system can cause serious problems especially for anything or anyone located within a three- foot line-of-sight. Personal injury. Fluid burns and injection. Fires and explosions. Electrical shock. Mechanical failure. Now, Gates has engineered the first effective, economical alternative to costly metal shielding or rerouting of hose lines. The Visual studio 2018 sleeving system is designed to protect operators, equipment and the environment from the hazards of catastrophic hydraulic hose failure a level of protection previously unavailable. LIFEGUARD SLEEVE HOSE ONLY LIFEGUARD SLEEVE HOSE ONLY The LifeGuard sleeve postbox 5.0.22 crack and effectively redirected fluid during 10, psi ( MPa) burst tests while hoses without sleeving exploded, releasing a large amount of fluid in the immediate area. How the System Works Provides containment of up to 10, psi ( MPa) bursts The LifeGuard sleeve is slipped onto the hose and clamped at each end. If a hose burst or pinhole leak occurs, escaping Protects against 5, psi ( MPa) pinhole leaks at +F pressures and fluids are contained by the exceptionally strong (+C) for up to five minutes sleeving material. Fluids then exit the system via openings Handles hydraulic fluids and biodiesel fuel created by the specially designed channel clamps at each end. A noticeable pool of leaking fluid serves as positive verification Allows fluid to safely escape down the length of the assembly that a failure has occurred so corrective action can be taken Creates noticeable spill for hose failure detection immediately to replace the hose assembly. Photodex Proshow Producer 9.0.3797 Crack With Serial Key Download sleeving Correlates to ISO and meets MSHAs flame-resistance correlates to a variety of industry standards, including ISO requirements and MSHAs flame-resistance requirements. No other sleeve provides this level postbox 5.0.22 crack protection Patent pending system includes Gates hose, couplings, sleeve and channel clamps A18 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

32 Training Opportunities Gates Customer Solutions Center - Fluid Power Workshops The Gates Customer Solutions Center (CSC) is a state-of-the-art facility dedicated to leading the industry in customer-focused postbox 5.0.22 crack development and training in fluid power technology. Staffed by approximately 45 of the top engineers, scientists and technicians in the industry, the facility is headquarters for understanding and meeting customers fluid power needs, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Sumatra PDF 3.3.0.13356 Crack+ Activation Key Free Download 2021 Workshops for Sales Associates Hydraulic and Industrial Hose Specially designed for sales associates, these workshops These two workshops are combined to leverage your time are designed to expand knowledge in fluid power spent at the Customer Vfxalert pro account free Center as you gain the full technology, Gates product offerings, and key marketing benefits of understanding our complete line of Gates Fluid and selling benefits. Power Products. Hydraulic VE/VA Value Engineering/Value Analysis The Hydraulic Products Workshop educates associates about This workshop is offered for the more advanced sales fundamental application engineering skills, hose fabrication associate. The core of VE/VA is a comprehensive understanding principles, thread identification, hose routing and installation, of the overall functionality of Gates hydraulic products and and cleanliness standards. Attendees will be engaged in the value-added benefits to an OEM. The basic principles and classroom discussions, hands-on training exercises, a CSC tour, benefits of VE/VA will be reviewed and an in-depth hands-on and demonstrations in the technical and test lab. training exercise will be completed. Industrial Hose Fluid Power Level I Certification The Industrial Postbox 5.0.22 crack Products Workshop includes a A 2- to 3-hour open postbox 5.0.22 crack test is administered to test the comprehensive product review and educates associates attendees comprehension and understanding of the training about fundamental application engineering skills, key product provided during the week. A grade of 80 percent is required to features and benefits, and provides application and market pass. A Gates Fluid Power Level I Certificate is awarded. specific information on each of the products. A tour of the CSC includes the technical and development areas for existing and new industrial hose products. Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A19

33 GATES HYDRAULICS Get Connected Visit Our Website Field Sales Specialists Training and Sales Support Assistance With technology expanding at ever increasing rates, get the most up- to-date information from our website. Check out whats new at omjanahindia.com Product Application Engineers Features to look for: Technical Questions on Products New product announcements Updated hydraulic information [email&#;protected] Electronic product literature Email updates on new products and promotions Account Representatives Downloadable catalogs: omjanahindia.com Fluid Power Customer Service Electronic crimp data: omjanahindia.com Safety training: omjanahindia.com Gates rep and distributor locator: omjanahindia.com International Symbols used in this catalog as column headings Hose: DESCRDescription Couplings: A Hose/TubeDiameter # ProductNumber C Cut-Off Hose/TubeInsideDiameter(I.D.) D MountingHole Hose/TubeOutsideDiameter(O.D.) F Postbox 5.0.22 crack H1 StemHex ThreadSize H2 NutHex WorkingPressure(psi) L Length MinimumBurstPressure(psi) M FlangeDiameter MinimumBendRadius N NominalFlangeSize Vacuum T Drop A20 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

34 Getting the Best Service Life from Gates Hydraulic Hose and Assemblies How long will a hydraulic hose assembly last? Fluid Compatibility The postbox 5.0.22 crack assembly Hose Shelf Life It depends on how its used. This catalog and (tube, cover, reinforcement and couplings) must Storage environment, along with other Gates literature show the recommended be fluid compatible. The correct hose must be rubber materials can vary the shelf limits for our assemblies (and also the hoses and used because phosphate ester and petroleum- life limit. Shelf life is difficult to couplings used to make assemblies). These limits based hydraulic fluids have drastically different quantify as many variables affect include installation, maintenance, and conditions chemical characteristics, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Many hoses are the hose. Proper storage precau- of use. These limits MUST be followed or the compatible with one or the other, but not all tions can result in three to five assembly can fail resulting in personal injury fluids. For example, Gates G2XH, MegaTech and years shelf life. Beyond this time or property damage. If you do not have this C5D hoses are capable of handling postbox 5.0.22 crack important information, you can get it at no ester and petroleum-based hydraulic fluids. there can be a significant service cost from your local Gates distributor or Gates life decrease, depending on stor- Minimum Bend Radius Do not bend or field representative. age environment variables. Some flex hose to a radius smaller than the minimum variables include: Postbox 5.0.22 crack assemblies in use should be inspected recommended and do not subject hose to tension regularly for leaks, kinks, cover blisters, gouges, or torque. This can place excessive stress on the Temperature Hose should be abrasion and other damage. Damaged or worn reinforcement and severely reduce the ability of stored in a cool, dry area never assemblies must be replaced immediately. You the hose to withstand pressure. exceeding +F (+38C). If can increase assembly life if you do the following: stored below freezing, pre- Hose Size Hose size (inside diameter) Hose Assembly Installation1 Hydraulic must be capable of handling the required flow warming may be required prior to hose assembly postbox 5.0.22 crack should comply with volume, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Too small an l.D. for a given volume of handling, testing and placing into hydraulic hose routing and plumbing flow results in excessive fluid pressure and heat service. standards per SAE J for the proper generation which can result in tube damage. Direct sunlight, rain, heaters or application of hose assemblies. SAE J being near electrical equipment Hose Routing Restrain, protect or guide hose, recommended practices can be found in Humidity and ozone with clamps if necessary, to minimize the risk of this catalog. Oil, solvents, corrosive materials damage due to excessive flexing, postbox 5.0.22 crack or Working Pressure The hydraulic system contacting other moving parts or fumes pressure should not exceed the rated working or corrosives. Determine hose lengths and Insects or rodents pressure of the hose. Pressure surges or peaks configurations that protect from abrasion, Radioactivity exceeding the rated working pressure are snagging or kinking and provide leak-resistant Space allowance and bends destructive and must be taken into account when connections. selecting a hose. Store hose in original container. Hose Length Correct hose length should Never stack hose too high, as its Minimum Burst Pressure Burst pressures include considerations for length changes under weight can crush hose at the bottom are pressures referred to in this catalog which pressure, machine vibration and motion, and hose of the stack. were intended for destructive testing purposes assembly routing, postbox 5.0.22 crack. and for design safety factors only. Gates recommends hose in ex- Hose Applications Select the proper hose for Temperature Range2 Do not expose hose to the application. Suction applications (Gates GMV tended storage be visually inspect- internal or external temperatures exceeding the or G4H) and special fluid or high temperature ed and tested prior to use. Hose recommended limits. Consult additional technical capabilities are among the applications requiring judged marginal should be replaced data when hydraulic fluids contain emulsions or particular consideration and a postbox 5.0.22 crack hose, postbox 5.0.22 crack. to avoid potential failure, property solutions. The fluid manufacturers recommended When additional information is required, contact damage or bodily injury. Store hose maximum operating temperature for any given your local Gates representative. on a first-in/first-out basis. Unusu- fluid must not be exceeded, regardless of hose ally long storage, or poor storage NOTE: Do not use Gates hydraulic hose temperature range. environment can deteriorate hose, in place of permanent piping, postbox 5.0.22 crack. reduce postbox 5.0.22 crack and may lead 1 SAE provides helpful video and print information that supplements this summary. Contact SAE at or to premature failure. postbox 5.0.22 crack omjanahindia.com 2 Actual service life at temperatures approaching the recommended limit will depend on the particular application and the fluid being used in the hose. Intermittent (up to 10 percent of operating time) refers to momentary temperature surges. Detrimental effects increase with increased exposure to elevated temperatures. Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A21

35 GATES Postbox 5.0.22 crack Notes A22 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

36 Ultra High Pressure G8K Spiral Wire Hose (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: Ultra high-pressure, high-impulse applications such Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water as hydrostatic transmissions, for use in the construction, agriculture, emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. forestry, underground or open pit mining, postbox 5.0.22 crack, or other industries on Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): applications where extremely high pressure capability is required. G8K Couplings (Section D) G8K hose and couplings offer industry-leading bend radius capability, which leads to ease of routing and installation, longer hose life in flexing applications, and fewer bent tube fitting requirements. Tube: Black, oil-resistant Neoprene Type A tube material allows for the high pressure, high temperature performance required in these G8K demanding applications. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Six alternating layers of high tensile steel wire spiral construction, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Cover: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A), with color coded layline. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 12G8KXCTN 3/4 8, 32, 16G8KXCTN 1 8, postbox 5.0.22 crack, Extremely High Pressure EFG6K Spiral Wire HoseSAE R15 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids Recommended Postbox 5.0.22 crack Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse applications Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water such as hydrostatic transmissions. EFG6K is designed to meet or emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. exceed all requirements of SAE R15 specifications and Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): performance requirements of EN 4SP (-6, -8, and ), GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) (Section Postbox 5.0.22 crack EN 4SH (,and ), and ISO Type R15 (-6, postbox 5.0.22 crack,GlobalSpiral High Pressure Couplings () (Section E), ). Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. EFG6K Reinforcement: Four (six for and ) alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel. Cover: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A). Color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG6KXCTN 3/8 6, 24, 8EFG6KXCTN 1/2 6, 24, 8EFG6KXLL 1/2 6, 24, 10EFG6KXCTN 5/8 6, 24, 10EFG6KXLL 5/8 6, 24, 12EFG6KXCTN 3/4 6, 24, 12EFG6KXLL 3/4 6, 24, 16EFG6KXCTN 1 6, 24, 16EFG6KXLL 1 6, 24, 20EFG6KXCTN 1 1/4 6, 24, 20EFG6KXLL 1 1/4 6, 24, 24EFG6KXCTN 1 1/2 6, 24, 24EFG6KXLL 1 1/2 6, 24, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A23

37 GATES HYDRAULICS EFG6K Spiral Wire HoseMegaTuff Cover Extremely High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, postbox 5.0.22 crack, high-impulse applications Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water such as hydrostatic transmissions. EFG6K is designed to meet or emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. exceed all requirements of SAE R15 specifications and Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): performance requirements of EN 4SP (-6, -8, and ), GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) (Section E) EN 4SH (,postbox 5.0.22 crack, and ), and ISO Type R15 (-6, -8,GlobalSpiral High Pressure Couplings () (Section E), ). Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. EFG6K-MTF Reinforcement: Four (six for and ) alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG6K-MTFXCTN 3/8 6, 24, 8EFG6K-MTFXCTN 1/2 6, 24, 10EFG6K-MTFXCTN 5/8 6, pc cleaner pro 2018 license keyfree activation code Free Activators, 12EFG6K-MTFXCTN 3/4 6, 24, 16EFG6K-MTFXCTN postbox 5.0.22 crack 6, 24, 20EFG6K-MTFXCTN 1 1/4 6, 24, 24EFG6KMTFXCTN 1 1/2 6, 24, A24 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

38 Extremely High Pressure EFG5K Spiral Wire HoseSAE R13 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, postbox 5.0.22 crack, high-impulse applications Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. For water such as hydrostatic transmissions. EFG6K is designed to meet or emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. exceed all requirements of SAE R15 specifications and Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): performance requirements of EN 4SP (-6, -8, and ), GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) postbox 5.0.22 crack E) EN 4SH (,and ), and ISO Type R15 (-6, -8,GlobalSpiral High Pressure Couplings ( and ) (Section E), ). Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. EFG5K Reinforcement: Four (six for and ) alternating layers of postbox 5.0.22 crack, high-tensile steel. Cover: Black, postbox 5.0.22 crack, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG5KXCTN 3/8 5, 20, 8EFG5KXCTN 1/2 5, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 8EFG5KXLL 1/2 5, 20, 10EFG5KXCTN 5/8 5, 20, 10EFG5KXLL 5/8 5, 20, 12EFG5KXCTN 3/4 5, 20, 12EFG5KXLL 3/4 5, 20, 16EFG5KXCTN 1 5, 20, 16EFG5KXLL 1 5, 20, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 20EFG5KXCTN 1 1/4 5, 20, 20EFG5KXLL 1 1/4 5, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 20, 24EFG5KXCTN 1 1/2 5, 20, 24EFG5KXLL 1 1/2 5, 20, 32EFG5KXCTN 2 5, 20, 32EFG5KXLL 2 5, 20, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A25

39 GATES HYDRAULICS EFG5K Spiral Wire HoseMegaTuff Cover Extremely High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse applications Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water such as hydrostatic transmissions. EFG6K is designed to meet or emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. exceed all requirements of SAE R15 specifications and Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): performance postbox 5.0.22 crack of EN 4SP (-6, -8, and ), GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) (Section E) EN 4SH (,and ), and ISO Type R15 (-6, -8,postbox 5.0.22 crack, GlobalSpiral High Pressure Couplings ( and ) (Section E), ). Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Four (six for and ) alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG5K-MTFXCTN 3/8 5, 20, 8EFG5K-MTFXCTN 1/2 5, 20, 10EFG5K-MTFXCTN 5/8 5, 20, 12EFG5K-MTFXCTN 3/4 5, 20, 16EFG5K-MTFXCTN 1 5, 20, 16EFG5K-MTFXLL 1 5, 20, 20EFG5K-MTFXCTN 1 1/4 5, 20, 20EFG5K-MTFXLL 1 1/4 5, 20, 24EFG5K-MTFXCTN 1 1/2 5, 20, 24EFG5K-MTFXLL 1 1/2 5, 20, 32EFG5K-MTFXCTN 2 5, 20, 32EFG5K-MTFXLL 2 5, 20, A26 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

40 Extremely High Pressure EFG4K Spiral Wire HoseSAE R12 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse applications. Exceeds all performance requirements for Postbox 5.0.22 crack R12, EN R12 and ISO Type R Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like polyolester, postbox 5.0.22 crack, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Four alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A), with EFG4K color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG4KXCTN 3/8 4, 16, 8EFG4KXCTN 1/2 4, 16, 8EFG4KXLL 1/2 4, 16, 10EFG4KXCTN 5/8 4, 16, 10EFG4KXLL 5/8 4, 16, 12EFG4KXCTN 3/4 4, 16, 12EFG4KXLL 3/4 4, 16, 16EFG4KXFT 1 4, 16, 16EFG4KXCTN 1 4, 16, 16EFG4KXLL 1 4, 16, 20EFG4KXCTN 1 1/4 4, 16, 20EFG4KXLL postbox 5.0.22 crack 1/4 4, 16, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A27

41 GATES HYDRAULICS EFG4K Spiral Wire HoseMegaTuff Cover Extremely High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): applications. Exceeds all performance requirements for SAE R12, GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) EN R12 and ISO Type R Compatible with biodegradable Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) hydraulic fluids like polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Postbox 5.0.22 crack in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Four alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, postbox 5.0.22 crack color coded layline. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6EFG4K-MTFXCTN 3/8 4, 16, 8EFG4K-MTFXCTN 1/2 4, 16, 10EFG4K-MTFXCTN 5/8 4, 16, 12EFG4K-MTFXCTN 3/4 4, 16, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 12EFG4K-MTFXLL 3/4 4, 16, 16EFG4K-MTFXCTN 1 4, 16, 16EFG4K-MTFXLL 1 4, 16, 20EFG4K-MTFXCTN 1 1/4 4, 16, 20EFG4K-MTFXLL 1 1/4 4, 16, A28 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

42 Extremely High Pressure EFG3K Spiral Wire HoseSAE R12 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse applications. Exceeds all performance requirements for SAE R12, EN R12, performance postbox 5.0.22 crack of EN postbox 5.0.22 crack, and ISO Type R Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids like polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Four alternating layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel EFG3K wire. Cover: Postbox 5.0.22 crack, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) (Section E) Stainless Steel S Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 20EFG3KXCTN 1 1/4 3, 12, 20EFG3KXLL 1 1/4 3, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 12, 24EFG3KXCTN 1 1/2 3, 12, 24EFG3KXLL 1 1/2 3, 12, 32EFG3K X 50INC 2 3, 12, 32EFG3KXCTN 2 3, 12, 32EFG3KXLL 2 3, 12, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A29

43 GATES HYDRAULICS EFG3K Spiral Wire HoseMegaTuff Cover Extremely High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) For Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: Extremely high-pressure, high-impulse Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): applications. Exceeds all performance requirements for SAE R12, GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) EN R12, performance requirements of EN 4SP, and GlobalSpiral Couplings (-6 through ) (Section E) ISO Type R Compatible with biodegradable hydraulic fluids Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) like polyolester, polyglycol and vegetable oil as well as standard petroleum-based fluids. Available in ' through ' continuous lengths. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Postbox 5.0.22 crack Characteristics. Reinforcement: Four postbox 5.0.22 crack layers of spiraled, high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For postbox 5.0.22 crack emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight postbox 5.0.22 crack 20EFG3K-MTFXCTN 1 1/4 3, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 12, 20EFG3K-MTFXLL 1 1/4 3, 12, 24EFG3K-MTFXCTN 1 1/2 3, 12, 24EFG3K-MTFXLL 1 1/2 3, 12, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 32EFG3K-MTFXCTN 1 1/2 3, 12, 32EFG3K-MTFXLL 1 1/2 3, 12, Hot Oiler 2-Wire Braid Hose High Pressure Recommended For: Static pressure, hot oiler applications. Designed specifically to handle the transfer of hot oil at F continuous, postbox 5.0.22 crack, F intermittent to clear the paraffin around the casing to help start the flow of oil to the surface. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). Postbox 5.0.22 crack Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, synthetic rubber (Hypalon - Type M). Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings (Section E) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 24HOXCTN 1 1/2 2, 6, Hypalon is a Registered Trademark of DuPont. A30 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

44 High Pressure M-XP Million Impulse Xtra Performance Wire Braid Hose (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure, high impulse life hydraulic Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): applications. Provides tighter than standard minimum bend radius MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) and greater flexibility for easier plumbing. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M-XPXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 6M-XPXREEL 3/8 4, 16, 8M-XPXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M-XPXREEL 5/8 4, 16, 12M-XPXREEL 3/4 4, 16, High Pressure Global M6K Mega Hose (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Provides tighter than standard minimum bend radius and greater flexibility for easier plumbing. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber postbox 5.0.22 crack - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber M6K (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Stainless Steel B Postbox 5.0.22 crack (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M6KXREEL 1/4 6, 24, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A31

45 GATES HYDRAULICS Global M5K Mega Hose High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Provides tighter than standard minimum bend radius and greater flexibility for easier plumbing. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Postbox 5.0.22 crack (Lbs.) 4M5KXREEL 1/4 5, 20, 5M5KXREEL 5/16 5, 20, 6M5KXREEL 3/8 5, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 20, 8M5KXREEL 1/2 5, 20, Global M5K Mega HoseMegaTuff Cover High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Provides tighter than standard minimum bend radius and greater flexibility for easier plumbing. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with M5K-MTF synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M5K-MTFXREEL 1/4 5, 20, 5M5K-MTFXREEL 5/16 5, 20, 6M5K-MTFXREEL 3/8 5, 20, 8M5K-MTFXREEL 1/2 5, 20, A32 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

46 High Pressure Global M5K Mega HoseXtraTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Provides tighter than standard minimum bend radius and greater flexibility for easier plumbing. Tube: Black, postbox 5.0.22 crack resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type Postbox 5.0.22 crack. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, postbox 5.0.22 crack, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M5K-XTFXREEL 1/4 5, 20, 5M5K-XTFXREEL 5/16 5, 20, 6M5K-XTFXREEL 3/8 5, 20, 8M5K-XTFXREEL 1/2 5, 20, High Pressure Global M4K Mega HoseSAE R19 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R19) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Exceeds Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): SAE R19 and ISO R Allows for tighter minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius, increased working pressure and improved impulse cycles than MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) industry standards. Provides greater performance, flexibility, easier Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) routing and plumbing of mobile and stationary hydraulic platforms. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber M4K (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: Postbox 5.0.22 crack to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M4KXBALE 1/4 4, 16, 4M4KXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 5M4KXREEL 5/16 4, 16, 6M4KXBALE 3/8 4, 16, 6M4KXREEL 3/8 4, 16, 8M4KXBALE 1/2 4, 16, 8M4KXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M4KXBALE 5/8 4, 16, 10M4KXREEL 5/8 4, 16, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 12M4KXBALE 3/4 4, 16, 12M4KXREEL 3/4 4, 16, 16M4KXREEL 1 4, 16, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A33

47 GATES HYDRAULICS Global M4K Mega HoseMegaTuff Cover High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R19) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Exceeds Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): SAE R19 and ISO R Allows for tighter postbox 5.0.22 crack bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius, increased working pressure and improved impulse cycles than MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) industry standards. Provides greater performance, flexibility, easier Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) routing and plumbing of mobile and stationary hydraulic platforms, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M4K-MTFXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 5M4K-MTFXREEL 5/16 4, 16, 6M4K-MTFXREEL 3/8 4, 16, 8M4K-MTFXBALE 1/2 4, 16, 8M4K-MTFXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M4K-MTFXREEL 5/8 4, 16, 12M4K-MTFXREEL 3/4 4, 16, 16M4K-MTFXREEL 1 4, 16, Global M4K Mega HoseXtraTuff Cover High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R19) XtraTuff hose lasts up to 25 times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Exceeds Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): SAE R19 and ISO R Allows for tighter minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius, increased working pressure and improved impulse cycles than MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) industry postbox 5.0.22 crack. Provides greater performance, flexibility, easier Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) routing and plumbing of mobile and stationary hydraulic platforms. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M4K-XTFXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 5M4K-XTFXREEL 5/16 4, 16, 6M4K-XTFXREEL 3/8 4, 16, 8M4K-XTFXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M4K-XTFXREEL 5/8 4, 16, 12M4K-XTFXREEL 3/4 4, 16, 16M4K-XTFXREEL 1 4, 16, A34 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

48 High Pressure M4KH Wire Braid HoseHigh-TempSAE R19 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R19) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Exceeds Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): SAE R19 and ISO R Allows for tighter minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius, increased working pressure and improved impulse cycles than MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) industry standards. Provides greater performance, flexibility, easier Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) routing and plumbing of mobile and stationary hydraulic platforms. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, thin synthetic rubber (Neoprene - CR), with color coded layline. Flame resistance - MSHA 2G. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M4KHXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 6M4KHXREEL 3/8 4, 16, 8M4KHXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M4KHXREEL 5/8 4, 16, 12M4KHXREEL 3/4 4, 16, High Pressure M4KH Wire Braid HoseHigh-TempMegaTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R19) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications. Exceeds Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): SAE R19 and ISO R Allows for tighter minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius, increased working pressure and improved impulse cycles than MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) industry standards. Provides greater performance, flexibility, easier Stainless Steel S and B Couplings (Section H) routing and plumbing of mobile and stationary hydraulic platforms. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Flame resistance - MSHA 2G. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M4KH-MTFXREEL 1/4 4, 16, 6M4KH-MTFXREEL 3/8 4, 16, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 8M4KH-MTFXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10M4KH-MTFXREEL 5/8 4, 16, 12M4KH-MTFXREEL 3/4 4, 16, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A35

49 GATES HYDRAULICS Global M3K Mega HoseSAE R17 High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, postbox 5.0.22 crack, and ISO R17) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE R17 and ISO R17 working pressure, minimum bend radius requirements and performance requirements of EN 1SC. M3K hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter bend radius than other SAE R1 and R2 hose. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Braided, high-tensile steel wire. -4, -5, -6 and -8 sizes M3K are one braid;and sizes are two braid. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Postbox 5.0.22 crack Crimp Couplings (-3 only) (Section I) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 3M3KXREEL 3/16 3, 13, 4M3KXBALE 1/4 3, 13, 4M3KXLG REEL 1/4 3, 13, 4M3KXREEL 1/4 3, 13, postbox 5.0.22 crack 5/16 3, 13, 6M3KXBALE 3/8 3, 13, 6M3KXLG REEL 3/8 3, 13, 6M3KXREEL 3/8 3, 13, 8M3KXBALE 1/2 3, 13, 8M3KXLG REEL 1/2 3, 13, 8M3KXREEL 1/2 3, 13, 10M3KXBALE 5/8 3, 13, 10M3KXLG REEL 5/8 3, 13, 10M3KXREEL 5/8 3, 13, 12M3KXBALE 3/4 3, 13, 12M3KXREEL 3/4 3, 13, 16M3KXBALE 1 3, 13, 16M3KXREEL 1 3, 13, A36 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

50 High Pressure Global M3K Mega HoseMegaTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R17) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R17 and ISO R17 working pressure, minimum bend radius GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) requirements and performance requirements of EN 1SC. M3K MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter bend Power Crimp Couplings (-3 only) (Section I) radius than other SAE R1 and R2 hose. Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Reinforcement: Braided, high-tensile steel wire. -4, -5, -6 and -8 sizes are one braid;and sizes are two braid. Cover: Black, postbox 5.0.22 crack, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover postbox 5.0.22 crack synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or Postbox 5.0.22 crack cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M3K-MTFXBALE 1/4 3, 13, 4M3K-MTFXLG REEL 1/4 3, 13, 4M3K-MTFXREEL 1/4 3, 13, 6M3K-MTFXBALE 3/8 3, 13, 6M3K-MTFXLG REEL 3/8 3, 13, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 6M3K-MTFXREEL 3/8 3, 13, 8M3K-MTFXBALE 1/2 3, 13, 8M3K-MTFXLG REEL 1/2 3, 13, 8M3K-MTFXREEL 1/2 3, 13, 10M3K-MTFXBALE 5/8 3, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 13, 10M3K-MTFXREEL 5/8 3, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 13, 12M3K-MTFXREEL 3/4 3, 13, 16M3K-MTFXBALE 1 3, 13, 16M3K-MTFXREEL 1 3, 13, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A37

51 GATES HYDRAULICS Global M3K Mega HoseXtraTuff Cover High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation Postbox 5.0.22 crack 2G, and ISO R17) XtraTuff hose lasts up to 25 times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE R17 and ISO R17 working pressure, minimum bend radius requirements and performance requirements of EN 1SC. M3K hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter bend radius than other SAE R1 and R2 hose. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Braided, high-tensile steel wire. -4, -5, -6 and -8 sizes are one braid;and sizes are two braid. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded postbox 5.0.22 crack. Also available in Standard or MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Power Crimp Postbox 5.0.22 crack (-3 only) (Section I) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 3M3K-XTFXREEL 3/16 3, 13, 4M3K-XTFXBALE 1/4 3, 13, 4M3K-XTFXREEL 1/4 3, 13, 5M3K-XTFXBALE 5/16 3, 13, 5M3K-XTFXREEL 5/16 3, 13, 6M3K-XTFXBALE 3/8 3, 13, 6M3K-XTFXREEL 3/8 3, 13, 8M3K-XTFXBALE 1/2 3, 13, 8M3K-XTFXREEL 1/2 3, 13, 10M3K-XTFXREEL 5/8 3, 13, 12M3K-XTFXREEL 3/4 3, 13, 16M3K-XTFXREEL 1 3, 13, A38 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

52 High Pressure M3KH Wire Braid HoseHigh-TempSAE R17 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and Postbox 5.0.22 crack R17) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R17 and ISO R17 requirements and performance GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) requirements of EN 1SC. M3KH hose has postbox 5.0.22 crack exterior MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) dimensions and significantly tighter bend radius than other SAE Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) R1 and R2 hose. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: One braid of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber M3KH (Neoprene CR), with color postbox 5.0.22 crack layline. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M3KHXREEL 1/4 3, 13, 5M3KHXREEL 5/16 3, 13, 6M3KHXREEL 3/8 3, 13, 8M3KHXREEL 1/2 3, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 13, 10M3KHXREEL 5/8 3, 13, 12M3KHXREEL 3/4 3, 13, 16M3KHXREEL 1 3, 13, High Pressure M3KH Wire Braid HoseHigh-TempMegaTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO R17) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R17 and ISO R17 working pressure, minimum bend radius GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) requirements and performance requirements of EN 1SC. M3KH MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter bend Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) radius than other SAE R1 and R2 hose. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: One braid of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M3KH-MTFXREEL 1/4 3, 13, 6M3KH-MTFXREEL 3/8 3, 13, 8M3KH-MTFXREEL 1/2 3, 13, 10M3KH-MTFXREEL 5/8 3, 13, 12M3KH-MTFXREEL 3/4 3, 13, 16M3KH-MTFXREEL 1 3, 13, Powering Progress, postbox 5.0.22 crack. omjanahindia.com A39

53 GATES HYDRAULICS M2T MegaFlex 2-Wire Braid HoseSAE R16 High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO 2SC R16) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R16 and ISO 2SC R16 requirements and performance GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) requirements of EN 2SC. M2T hose has smaller exterior MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) dimensions and significantly tighter bend radius. Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber M2T MegaFlex (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M2TXBALE 1/4 6, 24, 4M2TXREEL 1/4 6, 24, 6M2TXBALE 3/8 5, 20, 6M2TXLRG REEL 3/8 5, 20, 6M2TXREEL 3/8 5, 20, 8M2TXBALE 1/2 4, 17, 8M2TXLRG REEL 1/2 4, 17, 8M2TXREEL 1/2 4, 17, 10M2TXBALE 5/8 3, 15, 10M2TXREEL 5/8 3, 15, 12M2TXBALE 3/4 3, 14, 12M2TXREEL 3/4 3, 14, 16M2TXREEL 1 2, 10, A40 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

54 High Pressure M2T MegaFlex 2-Wire Braid HoseMegaTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO 2SC R16) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R16 and ISO 2SC R16 working pressure, minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius requirements and performance requirements of EN 2SC. MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) M2T hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) bend radius. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant MegaTuff cover with synthetic rubber (Neoprene - Type A) base, with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or XtraTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M2T-MTFXBALE 1/4 6, 24, 4M2T-MTFXREEL 1/4 6, 24, 6M2T-MTFXBALE 3/8 5, 20, 6M2T-MTFXREEL 3/8 5, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 20, 8M2T-MTFXBALE 1/2 4, 17, 8M2T-MTFXREEL 1/2 4, 17, 10M2T-MTFXREEL 5/8 3, 15, 12M2T-MTFXREEL 3/4 3, 14, 16M2T-MTFXREEL 1 2, 10, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A41

55 GATES HYDRAULICS M2T MegaFlex 2-Wire Braid HoseXtraTuff High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G, and ISO 2SC R16) XtraTuff hose lasts up to 25 times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Exceeds SAE Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): R16 and ISO 2SC R16 working pressure, minimum bend GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) radius requirements and performance requirements of EN 2SC. MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) M2T hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) bend radius. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. Also available in Standard or MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4M2T-XTFXREEL 1/4 6, 24, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 6M2T-XTFXREEL 3/8 5, 20, 8M2T-XTFXREEL 1/2 4, 17, 10M2T-XTFXREEL 5/8 3, 15, 12M2T-XTFXREEL 3/4 3, 14, 16M2T-XTFXREEL 1 2, 10, CM2T MegaFlex Connected Twin-Line 2-Wire Braid High Pressure SAE R16 (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines joined together for easier plumbing and routing. Meets SAE R16 requirements. CM2T hose has smaller exterior dimensions and significantly tighter bend radius. Exceeds performance standards of EN 2SC and ISO/DIS Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil, abrasion and weather resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2), with color coded layline. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual postbox 5.0.22 crack E-crimp): MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 6CM2TDL-XTFXCTN 3/8 4, 19, 8CM2TDL-XTFXCTN 1/2 4, 16, A42 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

56 High Pressure Global G2 2-Wire Braid HoseSAE R2 Type AT (Meets Flame Resistance Postbox 5.0.22 crack Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Meets or exceeds the requirements of SAE R2, ISO 2SN R2 and EN 2SN. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, thin synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. For water postbox 5.0.22 crack see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (except and ) (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 3G2XREEL 3/16 6, 24, 4G2XBALE 1/4 5, 23, 4G2XREEL 1/4 5, 23, 6G2XBALE 3/8 4, 19, 6G2XREEL 3/8 4, 19, 8G2XBALE 1/2 4, 16, 8G2XREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10G2XBALE 5/8 3, 14, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 10G2XREEL 5/8 3, 14, 12G2XBALE 3/4 3, 12, 12G2XREEL 3/4 3, 12, 16G2XBALE 1 2, 9, 16G2XREEL 1 2, 9, 20G2XCTN 1 1/4 1, 7, 24G2XCTN 1 1/2 1, 5, 32G2XCTN 2 1, 4, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A43

57 GATES HYDRAULICS G2XH 2-Wire Braid Extreme Heat HoseSAE R2 High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic applications where pressure or temperature requirements exceed SAE R2, ISO 2SN R2 and EN 2SN or where resistance to either petroleum- base or phosphate ester fluids is required. Meets SAE J requirements. Tube: Black, oil and chemical resistant, synthetic rubber (CPE). Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Blue, oil and abrasion resistant, thin synthetic rubber Hypalon. Flame resistance - U.S. MSHA 2G. Temperature Range: Petroleum-base fluids: F to +F (C to +C). Phosphate esters fluids as recommended by the fluid manufacturer, but within a range of F to +F. For water emulsions: Max. +F Pressure lines, Max +F Return lines. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GlobalSpiral Couplings (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4G2XHXREEL 1/4 6, 24, 6G2XHXREEL 3/8 5, 20, 8G2XHXREEL postbox 5.0.22 crack 4, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 17, 10G2XHXREEL 5/8 3, 14, 12G2XHXREEL 3/4 3, 12, 16G2XHXREEL 1 2, 10, 20G2XHXCTN 1 1/4 2, 9, Hypalon is a Registered Trademark of DuPont. Global G2H High-Temp 2-Wire Braid Hose High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Meets or exceeds the requirements of SAE R2, ISO 2SN R2 and EN 2SN. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C), postbox 5.0.22 crack. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Postbox 5.0.22 crack Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Hypalon - Type M). Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C) constant and +F (+C) intermittent (up to 10% of operating time). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings () (Section G) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 20G2HXCTN 1 1/4 1, 6, 24G2HXCTN 1 1/2 1, 5, 32G2HXCTN 2 1, 4, Hypalon is a Registered Trademark of DuPont. A44 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

58 High Pressure Global G2H High-TempMegaTuff Cover (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Meets or exceeds the requirements of SAE R2, ISO 2SN R2 and EN 2SN. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, synthetic rubber and MegaTuff cover. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C) constant and +F (+C) intermittent (up to 10% of operating time). Faststone capture 9.3 full crack water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Postbox 5.0.22 crack or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings () (Section G) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 20G2H-MTFXCTN 1 1/4 1, 6, 24G2H-MTFXCTN 1 1/2 1, 5, 32G2H-MTFXCTN 2 1, 4, High Pressure Global G2L PolarFlex HoseSAE R2 Type AT (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: High-pressure hydraulic oil lines. Meets or exceeds the requirements of SAE R2, ISO 2SN R2 and EN 2SN. Qualified to Mil-DTL Type II Class B. Tube: Black, postbox 5.0.22 crack, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, postbox 5.0.22 crack, thin synthetic rubber postbox 5.0.22 crack - Type A). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). Postbox 5.0.22 crack water emulsions see Temperature Limits Postbox 5.0.22 crack. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section Hotspot shield crack 2019 pc Free Activators MegaCrimp Couplings (except and ) (Section G) Description Product No, postbox 5.0.22 crack. Weight (Lbs.) 4G2LXREEL 1/4 5, 23, 6G2LXREEL 3/8 4, 19, 8G2LXREEL 1/2 4, 16, 10G2LXREEL 5/8 3, 14, 12G2LXREEL 3/4 3, 12, 16G2LXREEL 1 2, 9, 20G2LXCTN 1 1/4 1, 7, 24G2LXCTN 1 1/2 1, 5, 32G2LXCTN 2 1, 4, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A45

59 GATES HYDRAULICS J2AT 2-Wire Braid Jack Hose10, Static Pressure Postbox 5.0.22 crack High Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: Hydraulic jack applications. Meets Material Handling Institute specification IJ for hydraulic hose and assemblies used with jacking systems. 10, Static Pressure Only Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2). Also available with unique abrasion resistant MegaTuff cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +49C). Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Use MegaCrimp Male Pipe Long Nose Couplings on jack end of assembly for engagement. (Section G) Postbox 5.0.22 crack Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4J2ATXREEL 1/4 10, 20, 6J2ATXREEL 3/8 10, 20, J2AT 2-Wire Braid Jack HoseMegaTuff Cover High Pressure 10, Static Pressure Only (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) MegaTuff hose lasts up to times longer than standard hose during hose-to-hose and hose-to-metal abrasion tests per ISO Recommended For: Hydraulic jack applications. Meets Material Handling Institute specification IJ for hydraulic hose and assemblies used with jacking systems. 10, Static Pressure Only Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: Two braids of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, postbox 5.0.22 crack, synthetic rubber and MegaTuff cover. Also available in Standard cover. See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +49C). Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Use MegaCrimp Male Pipe Long Nose Couplings on jack end of assembly for engagement. (Section G) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4J2AT-MTFXREEL 1/4 10, 20, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 6J2AT-MTFXREEL 3/8 10, 20, A46 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

60 Medium Pressure G1 1-Wire Braid HoseSAE R1 Type AT (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: Medium pressure hydraulic lines. Meets or exceeds the requirements of Postbox 5.0.22 crack R1, ISO 1SNR1 and EN 1SN. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: One braid of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, synthetic rubber (Modified Nitrile - Type C2). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): Field Attachable Type T Couplings (Section O) GSP Couplings (-3 only) (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (except -3, and ) (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 3G1XBALE 3/16 3, 14, 3G1XREEL 3/16 3, 14, 4G1XBALE 1/4 3, 13, 4G1XREEL 1/4 3, 13, 5G1XREEL 5/16 3, 12, 6G1XBALE 3/8 2, 10, 6G1XREEL 3/8 2, 10, 8G1XBALE 1/2 2, 9, postbox 5.0.22 crack REEL 1/2 2, 9, 8G1XREEL 1/2 2, 9, 10G1XBALE 5/8 1, 7, 10G1XREEL 5/8 1, 7, 12G1XBALE 3/4 1, 6, postbox 5.0.22 crack, 12G1XREEL 3/4 1, 6, 16G1XBALE 1 1, 5, 16G1XREEL 1 1, 5, 20G1XBALE postbox 5.0.22 crack 1/4 3, 20G1XCTN 1 1/4 3, 24G1XCTN 1 1/2 2, 32G1XCTN 2 2, Powering Progress. omjanahindia.com A47

61 GATES HYDRAULICS G1H 1-Wire Braid HoseHigh-TempSAE R1 Type AT Postbox 5.0.22 crack Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: Medium pressure hydraulic oil lines. Meets or exceeds requirements of SAE R1 Type AT. Tube: Black, oil resistant, synthetic rubber postbox 5.0.22 crack - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: One braid of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Black, oil and abrasion resistant, synthetic rubber (Hypalon - Type M). Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C) constant and +F (+C) intermittent (up to 10% of operating time). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): GSP Couplings ( and ) (Section E) MegaCrimp Couplings (except and ) (Section G) Stainless Steel B Couplings ( and only) (Section H) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 4G1HXREEL 1/4 2, 11, 6G1HXREEL 3/8 2, 9, 8G1HXREEL 1/2 2, 8, 10G1HXREEL 5/8 1, 6, 12G1HXBALE 3/4 1, 5, 12G1HXREEL 3/4 1, 5, 16G1HXREEL 1 1, 4, 20G1HXCTN 1 1/4 3, 24G1HXCTN 1 1/2 2, 32G1HXCTN 2 2, Hypalon is a Registered Trademark of DuPont. RFS Red Fire Suppressant Hose Medium Pressure (Meets Flame Resistance Acceptance Designation MSHA 2G) Recommended For: Low-pressure powder fire suppressant applications in mining, forestry and fire fighting equipment. The red cover is for easy visual identification in these applications. Meets performance requirements of SAE R1. Tube: Black, postbox 5.0.22 crack resistant, synthetic rubber (Nitrile - Type C). See Hose Stock Characteristics. Reinforcement: One braid of high-tensile steel wire. Cover: Red, oil and abrasion resistant (Modified Nitrile - Type C2). Temperature Range: F to +F (C to +C). For water emulsions see Temperature Limits Table. Coupling Recommendation (See Crimp Data Manual or E-crimp): MegaCrimp Couplings (Section G) Power Crimp Couplings (-3 only) (Section I) Description Product No. Weight (Lbs.) 3RFSXREEL 3/16 3, 12, 4RFSXREEL 1/4 2, 11, 6RFSXREEL 3/8 2, 9, 8RFSXREEL 1/2 2, 8, 12RFSXREEL 3/4 1, 5, 16RFSXREEL 1 1, 4, A48 omjanahindia.com Gates Corporation

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