Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack

Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack

Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack

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 (A boy watches a Turkish military convoy drive past a Syrian village on the outskirts of Tal Abyad along the border with Turkey, September )

Introduction and summary

The Syrian conflict, now entering its second decade, has cost more thanlives and forced 13 million Syrian civilians to flee their homes—more than half the prewar population—including million who are refugees outside the country.1 This profound humanitarian crisis also threatens the stability of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. Moreover, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the out-migration has contributed to the growth of right-wing populism across Europe and severely affected the project of European unity.

This decadelong conflict has shredded the already threadbare idea that the international community can come together—even at the level of the lowest common denominator—to manage cataclysms of this sort. It has precipitated Russia’s violent return to the region, as part of a wider internationalization of the conflict that Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack sharpened sectarian divides. This, in turn, has made U.N. activities—and the wider provision of humanitarian assistance—into yet another front in the core struggle between the illegitimacy and durability of the Bashar Assad regime. The international community has a political and moral imperative to address this crisis.

What started in as peaceful protests of the Assad regime’s authoritarianism and corruption morphed into civil conflict in the face of the regime’s brutal repression. BySyria was gripped by full-scale civil war. The internationalization of the conflict proceeded apace from towith regional actors such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar pouring in money and war materiel to support the rebels; Russia and Iran escalating direct military support for Assad; and the United States and its key European allies cautiously vetting and arming small opposition groups, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The rise Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the Islamic State group (IS) prompted a more forceful U.S. and European response from the end ofsparking an aerial campaign in support of mainly Kurdish partner forces fighting IS on the ground in a largely separate campaign in northern and eastern Syria. The ascendance of these Kurdish forces in and —along with the arrival of millions of Syrian refugees into Turkey—in turn prompted a more forceful Turkish line from latewith a series of direct military interventions carving out Turkish-controlled areas in northern Syria, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The war has now settled into an uneasy stasis, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with Syria divided broadly into three spheres of influence: regime-controlled, Turkish-controlled, and Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)-controlled. The complexities of these zones are considered in detail in subsequent sections.

Defined narrowly, the United States has limited interests in Syria, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, which for some extend only to preventing the country from being a base for international terrorist activity. But as U.S, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. military, diplomatic, and intelligence officials—not to mention people from the region—consistently underline, even this basic interest is not secured without some broader stability. A more expansive view, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, incorporating a more values-driven approach, would therefore extend to alleviating human suffering where possible and de-escalating the conflict to allow for basic stabilization. For some, this values-driven approach further demands continued solidarity with the local partners who fought and died to destroy IS. Equally, European states can choose to define their interests narrowly—to focus exclusively on counterterrorism and preventing out-migration from Syria. But this desire to limit European involvement and exposure will run into the same reality: These limited goals are not likely to be realized without broader de-escalation and stabilization.

The Biden administration, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, in concert with European allies, should seek to address this crisis as part of a broader effort to de-escalate regional conflicts and reconstitute some semblance of international cooperation. This interest should go beyond the laser-like focus on counterterrorism that dominated the Obama administration’s approach. Still less should the new team embrace the confused realpolitik—punctuated by chaotic presidential actions—and disinvestment that characterized the Trump administration. Nor should American interests be framed solely by a hackneyed conception of great power competition wherein rivals’ every commitment must be matched by counter-commitments. U.S. involvement in Syria is important not only because Russia is there, nor simply as a way to check Iran’s malign influence in the region; it is primarily important because the conflict is causing massive humanitarian suffering, crippling U.S. allies and partners, and eroding the international system. The United States can, working with partners on the ground and mobilizing international support, make a meaningful difference in the conflict at minimal cost—it is both the right and the strategic thing to do.

In northeast Syria, where American partners hold sway, the situation on the ground is hugely complicated, but the assessment of U.S. interests is simpler: If narrowly defined, the United States could potentially pull out and rely on airstrikes on terrorist targets, leaving Syria to fester as a source of continued suffering and instability. Defined more broadly, the United States should stay, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Counterterrorism, humanitarian conditions, stabilization, solidarity with partners, and the prospects for reconciliation are all best advanced by a continued American presence, one that can be sustained with manageable risks and limited costs. Besides Turkey, the United Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack is the only Western power playing a meaningful role shaping security dynamics in Syria. Despite the leverage squandered by President Donald Trump’s partial withdrawal, the United States remains indispensable for the influence it wields over Kurdish forces; the intelligence and surveillance assets it brings to bear; and the deterrent effect it can have on the Assad regime, Russia, and Iran. Indeed, the United States is perhaps the only Western power capable of stopping a new phase of fighting in Syria and precluding a resurgent IS insurgency. For Europe, the smart policy would be to support expanded stabilization under the security umbrella provided primarily by the United States, with France and the United Kingdom’s assistance.

In the Turkish-controlled zones, the form of U.S. and European engagement is different, bringing important values and principles into conflict. As this report details, Turkey has asserted de facto sovereignty over its zones of control to undermine Syrian Kurdish autonomy, prevent further refugee outflows, and allow for the resettlement of refugees from Turkey itself, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Turkey is not likely to leave in the foreseeable future, and its actions effectively end prospects that Syria will reemerge as a unitary state in the near term. Of course, Syria was already effectively divided, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and sovereignty is not absolute; Assad sacrificed any legitimacy when he barrel-bombed, tortured, and gassed his own people. Nonetheless, the United States and Europe must weigh whether to effectively endorse the potentially permanent occupation of between 2, and 4, square miles, if Idlib is included, of Syrian territory by Turkey. Internationalizing the management of this area might offer a promising path if it were possible, but it is a distant prospect; Russia has paralyzed the U.N. system on Syria, and Turkey wants to maintain its control.

The long-term risks inherent in Turkey’s efforts to create refugee resettlement zones by force—massive demographic change, radicalization, and long-term instability—are of profound interest to both Turkey and Europe and of serious interest to the United States. Yet Europe is largely absent on this front. Given the scale of the challenge in providing basic services and humanitarian assistance to displaced Syrians—both within Syria and beyond, including in Turkey—let alone the problem of reconstruction, Turkey will need the support of both the United States and the European Union. Turkey is a front-line state dealing with the spillover from the conflict and has deemed EU and U.S. support insufficient. Despite years of sharp disagreement on the right response in Syria, without question, Turkey, the European Union, and the United States would benefit from each other’s support.

For Europe, the interests are not just Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, nor just the sometimes-cynical approach to migration and associated political fear of right-wing populism at home. Europe’s interest is in a stable, democratic Turkey with which it can trade and manage shared challenges. Turkey has decided—to the chagrin of some in the West—that it cannot insulate itself against the spillover from the Syrian war, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, nor manage its domestic Kurdish problem, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, without becoming an active combatant. Given this reality, to be a meaningful player in this space, the European Union needs a credible, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, well-financed, and politically realistic approach that goes beyond its current assistance in and to Turkey. The European Union and Turkey share vital moral, political, and strategic interests in ensuring that Turkey manages this challenge effectively and humanely. Like Europe, the United States has an interest in a stable, democratic Turkey with which it can manage shared security challenges. However distant that goal is today, Turkey’s long-term stability—likely beyond President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s rule—will be severely undermined if it cannot manage its integration challenge at home or if the refugee zones it has created along its border remain volatile exporters of insecurity and entrenched sources of human misery.

Yet Turkey’s unilateral military actions have not been purely humanitarian. Ankara has sought to weaken Syrian Kurdish actors and change the demographic balance of northern Syria, and Turkish interventions have caused additional suffering and displacement in some places, though the Assad regime’s eventual return would have done likewise. Ankara’s Syrian rebel proxies in these actions include ill-disciplined radical groups credibly accused of human rights abuses. In Afrin and in the Turkish-controlled area from Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the future need not have been Assad or Turkey—there, Ankara’s actions are a net-negative. In Idlib and in parts of northern Aleppo known as the Euphrates Shield zone (ESZ), Turkey has improved the situation. Conditions in the Turkish areas therefore raise complicated questions about core humanitarian principles. Overall, as a fait accompli, Turkey’s continued presence likely offers better humanitarian conditions and basic security for residents than would the likely alternative of Assad’s return, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. This reality argues for international humanitarian and Adobe Camera Raw CC Free Download support to these areas, without acquiescence to a permanent Turkish occupation. But the humanitarian considerations are not clear-cut. Working with the de facto Turkish authorities in these areas could help innocent civilians but also requires humanitarian actors to subject their activities and aid delivery to Ankara’s politicized parameters and, at a basic level, legitimizes Turkey’s seizure of these areas and its effective expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Kurds. This reality requires strict conditional engagement, and the conditions under which engagement in the Turkish-controlled zones could make moral and political sense are a throughline of this study.

This report is based on extensive primary and secondary source research as well as interviews and conversations with nearly 60 experts, current and former officials, and Syrians knowledgeable on its subject. It examines the connections between the security situation in northern Syria and the refugee and humanitarian crisis, particularly as it plays out in Turkey and adjacent areas; while these challenges are often conceptualized separately and are addressed by different policy communities with differing priorities, they are inextricably linked in northern Syria. In a direct sense, further displacement and refugee outflows will be driven by military developments. Security dynamics will likewise determine humanitarian access, the limits of stabilization activities, and the likelihood of significant resettlement or further displacement in northern Syria. The report examines the interests of the key outside actors before proceeding geographically to consider the humanitarian and security conditions in each of five zones outside the Assad regime’s control—Idlib, Afrin, the Euphrates Shield zone, the Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn salient, and the SDF-controlled east—as well as how those security Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack could affect further population movements. The report then discusses some external factors influencing this picture: developments in Turkey, including perceptions of and among the Syrian refugees in Turkey; the border regime; and the U.N. cross-border aid mechanism. Finally, the report offers recommendations for greater U.S., EU, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and Turkish engagement on this complex problem and points Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack some areas Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack possible—if fraught—cooperation.

Building upon previous proposals2 from the Center for American Progress, these recommendations focus on four broad goals:

  1. Preventing a new stage of the conflict
  2. Ensuring adequate humanitarian assistance
  3. Exploring conditional engagement options with Turkey
  4. Addressing external refugee issues

The report does not cover regime-controlled areas, where the United States, European Union, and Turkey cannot operate and where the issues at stake are fundamentally different.3

The current situation on the ground

Syria is presently divided into three general spheres Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack influence, controlled by mutually hostile forces, among Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the movement of people and goods is often disrupted. The Assad regime, backed by Russia and Iran, has fought the once-ascendant rebellion to a bloody stalemate and loosely holds more than 60 percent of the country, including the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack western cities it values most, encompassing some million people.4 These areas fall largely outside the scope of this report.

Turkey has created four zones of effective control or influence in northern Syria, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, through extensive support for armed proxies and four direct military interventions since These areas encompass some 4, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, square miles—roughly the size of Lebanon—and contain 4 million people, equivalent to the population of Croatia. Turkey’s administration of these areas varies according to the underlying demographics and the way in which they were taken. The Turkish military and its proxies took the area between Jarabulus and Azaz from IS in –; it is now known as the ESZ, after the Turkish military’s name for the operation. The Afrin region was taken from the Syrian Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG) in by the Turkish military Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack its proxies. Turkey also controls a salient in northeast Syria from Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn as far south as the M4 highway, seized from the SDF—the U.S.-backed umbrella group including the YPG and Syrian Arab elements—in late after President Trump, at Turkish President Erdoğan’s behest, pulled U.S. troops from parts of northern Syria where they had served as a buffer between the Turks and the SDF. In Idlib in northwest Syria, thousands of Turkish forces punctuate the perimeter of a pocket controlled primarily by Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), the Syrian jihadi rebel group, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Turkish and rebel forces fell back again in early in the face of a Russian and Syrian regime offensive, with Turkey and Russia establishing a security corridor and conducting joint patrols along a western stretch of the M4 highway, the main route traversing the entirety of northern Syria. Some million Syrian refugees also live within Turkey itself, where many have integrated into Turkish society, and most show little inclination to return to Syria.

For its part, Turkey describes the areas of its occupation as operation areas—or “harekat alanları,” in Turkish. According to Turkish officials, that terminology is used to emphasize the temporariness of the Turkish presence—only meant to last until a Syrian government based on U.N. Security Council Resolution is established, when Turkey will hand over the territories it controls. Turkey claims its presence in Syria is legally justified, since it was invited in by the Syrian Opposition Coalition, which it describes as the internationally recognized legitimate representative of the Syrian people.5 President Erdoğan has sometimes been less precise, saying Turkish forces will remain until all other countries’ forces depart.6 Few observers, however, expect the Turkish occupation to Movie Collector 20.1.2 Crack Serial Free Activators short-lived. With the exception of Idlib, the Turkish-controlled regions are largely administered by Turkish civil servants and are being integrated into Turkey economically and, to some extent, linguistically. Moreover, the stated rationale for Turkey’s presence—obstructing Syrian Kurdish autonomy and creating an area for the return of Syrian refugees now living in Turkey—is likely to remain a Turkish strategic imperative for some time. Finally, the fundamental political dispute at the heart of the Syrian war—Assad’s rule—is unresolved, making a resolution in line with U.N. Security Council Resolution a distant prospect.

Aside from a Turkish-controlled area between Tel Abyad and Ras al-Ayn, the U.S.-backed SDF holds uneasy sway east of the Euphrates River, though the picture is complicated in the north along a different section of the M4 highway that divides the Turkish and SDF areas. Here, then-President Trump’s abrupt withdrawal and Turkey’s subsequent incursion caused the SDF to invite Syrian regime and Russian forces to move in to contain the Turkish offensive, leaving a patchwork of effective control in northeast Syria. The SDF is broadly in control, with some Syrian regime Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Russian presence as well as periodic patrols by both remaining American troops and Russian forces.

In each of these areas—regime-controlled, Turkish-controlled, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack SDF-controlled—there are further security complexities brought about by ongoing IS terror attacks and assassinations, Kurdish insurgents, competing armed rebel groups, tribal rivalries, and ethnic and sectarian tensions. And across all of Syria, the economic situation is dire; a decade of war has left infrastructure in ruins, and reconstruction and recovery efforts are still hostage to the ongoing political-military impasse. In many parts of the country, the humanitarian situation is desperate, with food and water shortages, lack of shelter, and little in the way of health care and other basic services.

The varied humanitarian and security conditions in each of the zones mentioned above will be considered in more depth below, but certain conditions prevail across Syria, regardless of the dominant power in an area. After a decade of war, Syria’s economy is in shambles, exacerbated by the impact of COVID and sanctions on the Assad regime for its atrocities.

A record million Syrians—60 percent of the population—are food insecure, with million joining the ranks of the food insecure in the past year.7 Food prices have soared over the past year, with the price of basic items increasing by percent.8 The collapse of Lebanon’s economy and COVID have worsened this situation, and food prices are now 29 times higher than the five-year pre-crisis average.9 The rapid devaluation has left many Syrians to “cut out meat, poultry, and fruit from their diets … [and] forego eggs and vegetables, … [relying] on cheap carbs, mainly bread.”10 Some 90 percent of the population now lives below the poverty line of $ per day,11 and most have no savings and have seen their economic prospects worsen in the past year.12 Turkey’s own economic crisis and the rapid devaluation of the Turkish lira has also contributed to Syrians’ misery.13 In the Turkish-controlled zones, residents are reliant on imports and assistance from Turkey, both of which have been affected by the downturn, while fighters in the Turkish-backed opposition and police and local administrators are paid salaries in lira that have seen their value plummet amid the currency crisis.14 Exacerbating these economic challenges, many parts of Syria face persistent water issues; early saw the return of drought conditions to eastern Syria,15 harkening back to the devastating droughts that helped spark the conflict a decade ago.16

Meanwhile, COVID is spreading widely in the often crowded housing and shelters used by Syrians in the north. In northwest Syria, for example, there were 19, confirmed cases as of Decemberbut that number as based on just 68, tests conducted; in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps, the positivity rate is Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack astonishing Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack percent.17 The pandemic is yet another strain on an already devastated health care sector; most health care workers have fled the fighting, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and regime and Russian airstrikes have systematically targeted hospitals in opposition areas.18

Security dynamics and the refugee crisis

The vast majority of displaced Syrians fled their homes due to fighting, fear of violence, or an unwillingness to live under the brutal rule of Assad, IS while its so-called caliphate lasted, or the various armed groups that now hold sway in the rest of the country. While Syria’s crippled economy continues to drive people to migrate, the refugee and displacement crisis is fundamentally driven by security dynamics. Military actions continue to be the primary driver of displacement in and from Syria. In Julyfor example, the international humanitarian organization CARE interviewed people in IDP camps across Idlib; 99 percent said they were fleeing violence or fighting.19 Unresolved political-military issues in Idlib, Afrin, and east of the Euphrates hold the potential for further displacement. The Assad regime’s last offensive in Idlib displaced some million people,20 about half of whom remain displaced, and of the nearly 3 million people taking refuge in the province, half were already internally displaced from other parts of Syria by previous phases of the war. The resumption of this offensive could send millions more fleeing toward the currently sealed Turkish border or into neighboring Turkish-occupied Afrin and northern Aleppo, sparking a profound humanitarian and security Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Likewise, Turkey’s October military offensive to seize the Ras al-Ayn to Tel Abyad salient displaced somecivilians, about half of whom are unwilling to return to a Turkish-controlled zone due to ongoing Turkish-Kurdish hostilities. And in Afrin, Turkey has sought to resettle people displaced from other parts of Syria into the once predominantly Kurdish area, an effort at demographic engineering that has fed a persistent insurgency. Insecurity and violence are at the heart of the refugee and displacement crisis.

The influx of million Syrians fleeing the civil war into Turkey is the country’s most significant demographic change in decades, and the scale of the challenge of integration continues to grow—almost Syrians are born each day in Turkey.21 Turkey must reckon with the reality that most of the Syrian refugees will remain in Turkey and figure out how to fully incorporate them into society. Already, this issue is reshaping Turkish politics and society, not to mention the impact that migration has had on EU-Turkish relations and the European Union’s internal dynamics, creating considerable tensions between member states. The long-term implications for Turkish stability are profound. The European Union’s desperate attempts to stop the – migration crisis also led Brussels to check its values at the door in dealing with Turkey, adopting a transactional approach that has seeped into other aspects of EU policy and allowed Erdoğan to repeatedly outmaneuver the divided European bloc.

Sincethe gravity of this situation—as well as domestic developments around the failed coup attempt and Erdoğan’s political imperatives—helped prod Turkey to adopt a more assertive, unilateral, securitized approach to shape conditions beyond its border. Essentially, Turkey’s aim—alongside stifling Kurdish autonomy—was to try to externalize the refugee problem and insulate its already strained domestic environment. This strategic shift has created a new set of problems for Turkey; having created de facto client states in northern Syria, it must sustain them. The range of issues to manage is daunting: new humanitarian and refugee concerns, long-term economic prospects, ethnic tensions, radicalization, and the military engagement of major powers. Turkey has had to set up and manage governance structures, schools, and hospitals as well as provide basic municipal services.

The security situation varies across these suzerainties but remains very volatile due in part to the violent, ill-disciplined proxies that Turkey used to take and hold the areas. In Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, for example, HTS—a U.N.- and Turkish-designated terrorist group22—is the de facto governing authority. Turkey did not favor HTS’ consolidation of power and has tried to curb its worst jihadi impulses, but Ankara has also closely coordinated with the group in the face of regime and Russian offensives and, in effect, offered border protection. Beyond Idlib, Turkey has actively empowered armed factions with a litany of human rights abuses to their names. In addition, these areas have seen massive population shifts due to activities of the Assad regime, Turkey and its proxies, and Kurdish armed groups—some areas of Afrin have almost entirely new populations—with the changes primarily occurring along ethnic lines; for example, Afrin, 90 percent Kurdish before the war, is now majority-Arab. Examples from history of such demographic engineering—such as the partition of India or the breakup of the former Yugoslavia—offer stark warnings of the long-term risks involved.

Beyond the status of those Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack already in the Turkish-controlled zones, President Erdoğan has also consistently stated his desire to resettle millions of refugees from Turkey into the northern Syrian areas held by Turkish forces. Despite the legal, moral, financial, and logistical hurdles facing such a plan, Erdoğan is unlikely to give up on this monumental ambition, given his domestic political calculus. The areas held by Turkey are therefore likely to see both voluntary and forced resettlement of refugees moving forward. The shape of Turkey’s long-term commitment to these areas—as well as the security dynamics among Turkey, the Assad regime, and Russia—will therefore be essential to the refugee picture moving forward, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Humanitarian access, the possibility and extent of stabilization activities, and refugees’ willingness to resettle are all tied to basic security conditions. The refugee crisis in northern Syria is therefore primarily shaped by hard security considerations.

Idlib

Idlib is in many ways the last redoubt of the rebellion against Assad and the clearest humanitarian risk in Syria today. A series of regime and Russian offensives Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the last three years have pushed back rebel positions and forced millions of people to flee, squeezing the displaced into an ever-smaller refuge against the Turkish border, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. After the latest offensive, rebels hold fewer than 1, square miles of Idlib, where some million Syrians—half of whom are displaced from other parts of Syria—live in increasingly desperate circumstances.23

Demography and humanitarian conditions

In terms of humanitarian concerns and basic living conditions, Idlib shares much with adjacent Afrin—indeed, the United Nations considers the two areas together as “northwest Syria.” There are good reasons for this, despite major political differences, with people and goods passing between the two; somepeople fled the regime’s offensive in Idlib into Afrin early in ,24 though about half of that number had returned to their homes—mostly along the M4 and M5 highways—by November 25 This movement of people—particularly the efforts to resettle displaced people in Afrin—is potentially fraught due to the differing security dynamics in the two areas. Idlib also hosts Bab al-Hawa, the last remaining formal border gate authorized for the United Nations’ cross-border humanitarian assistance program following the closure of additional crossings under Russian pressure. While assistance can be delivered outside of the U.N. framework, there are substantial technical and logistical drawbacks to operating outside the mandate.26 The cross-border mechanism, due to expire in Julyis discussed in more detail later in this report. The province is therefore instrumental in the wider humanitarian support of nearly 3 million needy people in northwest Syria and the broader commercial exchange between Turkey and northern Syria.27

Humanitarian conditions in Idlib are dire. More than million displaced people—overwhelmingly women and children—live in IDP camps or in overcrowded settlements in the region. Malnutrition is Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the rise, and residents report a lack of shelter, shortages of food and fresh water, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene.28 Interviews with IDPs in Idlib reveal a constant struggle to make enough money to meet the high prices demanded for basic food staples; exposure to cold and flooding in easily damaged tents that offer little security; and reliance on inadequate cash assistance to secure fuel, shoes and clothing, and hygiene products.29 Most IDP camps in the area lack adequate sewage systems, while most drinking water is trucked in—making it hugely vulnerable to disruption.30 The United Nations reported in February that humanitarian assistance to northwest Syria—all delivered across the Turkish border, the majority by the United Nations—sustains million people on a monthly basis.31

At present, access to humanitarian assistance in Idlib is at an acceptable level, with a CARE assessment in July reporting few constraints on humanitarian access to camps and displaced people.32 The Syrian Salvation Government—the governing arm of the dominant armed group in the area, HTS—has in the past tried to levy taxes or bribes to allow some humanitarian assistance to flow but has removed restrictions when deliveries have been temporarily frozen in response to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack interference.33 Provision of humanitarian assistance nevertheless falls short in Idlib, particularly outside Jisr al-Shughur, with substantial numbers of both residents and IDPs reporting that assistance was unavailable or was insufficient to meet their needs.34 The collapse of the Syrian pound prompted Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Salvation Government to encourage a transition to using Turkish lira, demonstrating both the dire overall economic picture and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack region’s increasing reliance on Turkey.35 Given the region’s reliance on aid, the potential expiration of the U.N. cross-border mandate in July likewise hangs over the already dire picture.

Security dynamics and governance

Idlib is among the most complex security environments in the world. Some 10, to 15, Turkish troops are deployed in the region alongside an array of armed rebel groups with which they coordinate militarily.36 These rebels numbered around 50, inthough it is unclear how many remain after the latest Assad regime and Russian offensives.37

HTS—designated a terrorist group by the United Nations, the United States, and Turkey—is the dominant group in Idlib and dictates general security and governance in the area.38 HTS has some 12, to 15, fighters according to a January U.N. estimate.39 The jihadi group has controlled most of the province since it forced out or subordinated an array of rival Turkish-backed rebel groups organized as the National Liberation Front in earlythough it later allowed some groups to return, at Turkey’s request, to help oppose the latest regime offensive.40 HTS is likewise supported by an array of jihadi and Islamist rebel groups that vary in their relations with Turkey, overall radicalism, and ties to international terrorist groups. These radical armed groups include Hurras al-Din, Ansar al-Tawhid, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and the Turkistan Islamic Party—each of which acts with some autonomy in certain parts of Idlib.41

Alongside the consolidation of military control from rival armed groups, HTS also established an administrative structure, the Salvation Government, complete with sharia courts and local councils designed to partially replace the interim Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack authorities supported by Turkey and other Western countries in earlier phases of the war.42 This administrative structure varies, however; in some areas, local councils predating HTS’ takeover continue to deliver services, while in others, the old councils have been disbanded or been rolled into the Salvation Government’s new structures. The Salvation Government has some 5, personnel but largely leaves local administration to district committees drawn from prominent local families to earn legitimacy; nonetheless, HTS’ armed forces will intervene to detain or remove officials deemed a threat to HTS’ overall influence.43 Besides this uneven local legitimacy and limited accountability, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the Salvation Government is overwhelmed by the enormity of the population’s needs and its own limited ability to collect revenues and provide services.44

Despite HTS’ dominance, the group knows it is outgunned by the Assad regime and the Russians and that its only hope for survival lies with pragmatic cooperation with Turkey and the rebel groups it supports. This has allowed Turkey to exert increasing influence over the overall security situation in Idlib, despite HTS’ control, though Turkey has not made the kinds of state-building investments in Idlib that it has made in the areas of northern Syria it controls more directly. Indeed, the fight for survival against Assad is the primary factor unifying these disparate armed factions. This pragmatism has increased as the regime and the Russians have gained ground; faced with a renewed regime offensive in earlyHTS permitted the return of Turkish-backed rebels it had previously expelled.45 Despite the ambiguity of Turkish-HTS relations, there is evidence that the balance of power has shifted somewhat toward Ankara.46 Still, Turkey does not want a costly direct clash with HTS, making for a form of mutual dependency in Idlib; HTS relies on Turkey’s protection to stave off the Assad regime, while Turkey relies on the Salvation Government to provide a modicum of governance to prevent further refugee outflows and avoid making Idlib into yet another stabilization effort that Ankara must directly manage.

The offensive that created this situation was the latest in a series of violations of previous Turkish-Russian deals struck in Astana and Sochi from to Russia and Turkey had agreed to make Idlib a demilitarized zone from which heavy weapons, armed groups, and terrorists would be removed; these conditions were to be monitored through observation posts, including 12 Turkish posts along the provincial border.47 Each iteration of this fundamental bargain broke down due to the Assad regime’s desire to reclaim territory from the rebels; Turkey’s inability or unwillingness to rein in HTS; and Russia’s desire to target HTS and other rebel groups as well as to maintain its relative leverage over Assad. The deals usually secured a period of relative calm, before escalating clashes between the regime and the rebels would eventually prompt Russia and the regime to launch a new offensive, seizing upon Turkey’s failure to meet its pledge to corral armed jihadi groups. The most recent assault began in late and ended with a March 5,cease-fire agreement that saw the broad retrenchment of Turkish forces and rebel groups. The Assad regime gained control of one-third of Idlib, while through lateUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Turkey withdrew from observation posts at Morek,48 Sher Mogher near the M5 highway,49 a handful of additional positions at Sienna and Khan Tuman,50 as well as Tal al-Tuqan and al-Eis.51 Turkey and Russia also established a security corridor and agreed to conduct joint patrols—now suspended in the face of HTS spoiling actions52—along a western stretch of the M4 highway in Idlib.53

In truth, both Russia and Turkey likely always viewed the Astana and Sochi deals in instrumental terms, rather than as real commitments they intended to uphold over the long term. Russia, confident that Assad was secure, was content to play the long game, doing just enough to maintain its relative leverage over Assad vis-a-vis Iran and testing out new weaponry and tactics. Meanwhile, Moscow could hold the threat of further attacks on Idlib over Turkey, useful as leverage on other emerging fronts such as Libya and in driving Ankara further from its traditional Western allies. Turkey, meanwhile, straining to accommodate million refugees, was desperate for any way to at least delay the collapse of Idlib and associated displacement. The Sochi and Astana deals allowed for the hardening of rebel defenses, the consolidation of rebel groups under Turkish control, and the creation of adjacent “safe zones”54 in which to resettle people displaced from Idlib. It also allowed more time for Turkey to try to bolster the rebel proxies it closely controls and attempt to sideline HTS without sparking a direct conflict neither side could afford.55

The most recent chapters of this crisis center on the humanitarian Worksheet Crafter Premium Edition Free Download with Crack, exacerbated by Russian pressure on the U.N.-mandated process, as well as the regular clashes along the line of control and fears of a new offensive. The March 5 cease-fire is regularly tested with shelling and armed clashes across the boundaries of rebel control.56 In addition to these regular regime-rebel exchanges, Russia has continued to target Idlib with airstrikes. This aerial campaign escalated in latewith strikes against HTS57 and a major October 26 airstrike that killed more than 75 fighters from Faylaq al-Sham, “Turkey’s closest and most dependable proxy in Idlib.”58 A recent series of attacks on Turkish and Turkish-Russian patrols—some claimed by al-Qaida affiliates and others by little-known groups that some observers suspect are cutouts of the Assad regime59—have complicated recent Turkish-Russian attempts to implement the March 5 agreement. Both HTS and other rebel groups have tightened security in response, underlining Turkey’s reliance on HTS for operational security and HTS’ reliance on Turkey to prevent a new offensive.60

These signs of reescalation point to the fundamental clash of interests. Russia and the regime have little reason to reduce the pressure over the long term—their interest is in regaining territory on a timeline of their choosing—and Russia can exploit the actual dominance of HTS to try to portray the campaign as focused on fighting terrorism. Despite this ambiguity, no observer can dispute, ignore, or excuse the regime and Russia’s consistent, brutal targeting of civilians and peaceful infrastructure, including schools and hospitals.61 This record of extraordinary brutality makes a durable political settlement in which regime control returns to Idlib but residents remain nearly impossible. Half of Idlib’s population is IDPs forced there by the regime following deals in Eastern Ghouta and Aleppo; they are already marked as enemies of the regime, and most residents would see it is a choice between death, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, flight, or resistance.

Future prospects and potential for further population movements

The fate of Idlib’s million residents therefore depends on the intentions and military capabilities of the warring parties. In the midterm, there seem to be three broad trajectories for Idlib: a lengthy continuation of the status quo; a renewed regime and Russian offensive to reclaim control of the M4 highway, leaving a small Turkish-controlled pocket for displaced people; or a decisive final offensive that pushes to the border itself and collapses the Idlib pocket, pushing its residents elsewhere. An extended status quo is Turkey’s preferred option and potentially acceptable to Russia but is complicated by apowersoft video editor full version free download Free Activators Assad regime’s determination to reclaim the M4 highway, which connects its stronghold of Latakia with the now-devastated commercial hub of Aleppo.

The second option—a partial offensive—would continue the pattern in Idlib since ; the push and pull between Assad and his Russian backers, as well as broader Turkish-Russian relations, would likely determine the timing of such an offensive. Russia has many interests at stake vis-a-vis Turkey and, as mentioned, sees no urgency in reclaiming Idlib. The Assad regime might want to move more quickly, but Turkey’s strikes in early demonstrated the regime’s vulnerability to Turkish drones without Russian protection, thereby strengthening Moscow’s hand vis-a-vis Damascus in dictating the course of events in Idlib.

The third option—a final offensive to collapse the pocket—presents much greater risks to the regime and Russia. Both rebel and Turkish forces are deeply entrenched in Idlib, including in difficult terrain around Jisr al-Shughur. Ankara had some 80 military outposts across Idlib in October ,62 though Turkish forces withdrew from a handful in November and December. Turkey has a capable, NATO-equipped military; the key determining factor in assessing this third potential trajectory is therefore whether—or to what extent—Turkey is willing to directly defend Idlib.

Some analysts argue Turkey’s artillery and airstrikes against the Assad regime in early —attacks ended by the March 5 cease-fire agreement with Russia—signaled a durable shift to direct military resistance after years of being outmaneuvered in stages by Russian and regime pressure. In this understanding, Turkey has its back against the wall and is unwilling to take another step back. Some argue that Turkey has always been primarily concerned with the M4 and was willing to relinquish areas to the south,63 though Ankara’s reinforcement of its southern positions shortly before its subsequent retrenchment is hard to explain in this telling. On the other hand, Turkey’s strikes focused on the regime and carefully avoided direct confrontation with Russia. Ankara may have viewed these as tactical adjustments to exact a cost from the regime and slow its advances, rather than a strategic shift in its posture; in this telling, it was only when Turkey began to take casualties in Russian and regime strikes—including 33 Turkish troops killed in a Russian airstrike on February 27, 64—that Ankara responded more forcefully to save face both at home and abroad. Throughout its response, Turkey Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the deadly strike on the Assad regime rather than on Russia, signaling again its desire to avoid a direct showdown with Moscow.65 Russia, in turn, having sent a clear signal with the strike that it still held escalation dominance, was probably content to let Turkey exact revenge against regime targets—strikes that had the effect of strengthening Moscow’s leverage over its client in Damascus.

Whatever the intentions in Ankara and Moscow, the stakes are very high for Turkey. The last Assad regime offensive displaced 1 million people in just a few months. While most people fled to adjacent parts of Idlib and northern Aleppo, Ankara fears a further, sudden buildup at the border; that nightmare scenario would leave Turkish authorities with an untenable choice of intervening directly to stop the attack; opening the border to allow hundreds of thousands of unvetted Syrians into Turkey, including many from armed groups, with profound domestic political consequences for the governing party; or, to the extent possible, keeping the border sealed in the face of a humanitarian catastrophe unfolding on Turkey’s doorstep. Avoiding this situation has been the focus of Turkey’s policy in Idlib since ; this severe risk explains Ankara’s substantial commitments to the region, including the deployment of 10, to 15, Turkish troops, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, indirect support for HTS, and the casualties incurred in early trying to slow the regime offensive. If the regime and Russia force Turkey into the choice outlined above, it is possible that Ankara would go to war to break out of this impossible situation. For Erdoğan, such a denouement would be a matter of regime security as well as national interest. On the other hand, Ankara might be able to accept a future in which further incremental concessions are made at a pace that allows Turkey to manage the process and accommodate displaced Syrians in neighboring Afrin and north Aleppo. Likewise, the United States and Europe do not wish to see a humanitarian catastrophe in Idlib but have utterly failed to develop a coherent response in the face of regime and Russian attacks.

While the Assad regime might be willing to push things to a bloody conclusion, Russia and Turkey see Idlib in the context of wider interests. For Ankara, this wider context is about the other zones of Syria that it occupies and their long-term status as—Turkey hopes—zones for the resettlement of refugees. For Ankara and TeraCopy Pro 3.8.5 Crack + Torrent Version Free Download [2021] this wider context includes opposing interests in Libya, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Ukraine, as well as negotiations over arms and energy sales. In addition to these broader interests with Turkey and its desire to drive a wedge in NATO, Russia is also weighing its relative leverage over the Assad regime in comparison to Iran, and its relative leverage over the YPG and the Democratic Union Party (PYD) in comparison with the United States. Russia may therefore be reluctant to entirely corner Turkey, risking escalation on other fronts and, potentially, outright war, and will more likely seek to continue exploiting the ambiguity of the proxy conflict in Idlib. The likelihood therefore is that the Assad regime has the desire but not the capability to prosecute a decisive campaign, while Russia has the capability but not the desire.

Still, this ambiguous proxy war—or a more limited offensive to test Turkey’s resolve—can nonetheless cause substantial suffering and further displacement. The – offensive displaced approximately million people, driven out by persistent shelling and airstrikes on civilian infrastructure, including schools, hospitals, and markets, which made life untenable for residents.66 In just three months, from January to Marchsome 1 million residents were driven out of the densely populated stretch along the M5 highway including Maarat al-Numan, Saraqib, and Khan Sheikhoun by indiscriminate Russian and regime attacks.67 Most of these IDPs moved short distances and, as of Decemberthe United Nations estimated that somepeople were Driver Talent Pro 8.0.3.13 Crack Free Activation Key 2021 along the M4 and M5 highways in areas that the Recovery Explorer Professional Free Activate regime could seek to reclaim.68 There are also approximately million people living in camps and settlements along the Turkish border in areas that are at or near capacity, with limited shelters and unaffordable rents. Those along the Turkish border would be safe from all but a decisive offensive, but the ,—likely increased somewhat by IDPs returning to their homes in this at-risk area—would have to flee should another large-scale offensive take shape.

Turkey’s efforts to prepare for additional displacement—and the prospects of international assistance—are hamstrung by the dominance of HTS, a designated terrorist organization, which prevents investment in stabilization activities in Idlib.69 Turkey does not want to directly force the issue with HTS—the primary ground force opposing the Assad regime—as an internal conflict could prompt the collapse of the pocket. In addition, Turkey likely values the Salvation Government’s management of local administration; as one close observer notes, “In Idlib, when services aren’t delivered, people don’t blame Turkey.”70 Finally, Turkish casualties in a fight with HTS could spark a serious political backlash at home against the overall Syria policy, increasing intercommunal tensions and perhaps even prompting attacks on Syrians in Turkey.71 As analyst Asli Aydıntaşbaş writes, “Turkey’s preferred option for Idlib is to tolerate and work with an autonomous but contained zone managed by HTS – so long as the group complies with its requests.”72 Taken together, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Turkey’s notable lack of investment in Idlib—compared with neighboring Afrin or areas of north Aleppo—points to the limits imposed by HTS’ control and, perhaps, the limits of Turkey’s capacity and its strategic intentions. Turkey has put down roots in other areas, but not in Idlib. It may be that Turkey will be willing to trade away more of Idlib in exchange for regime and Russian border guarantees and acquiescence to a long-term Turkish presence in other areas. Indeed, Turkey’s primary long-term response to the intractable problem of Idlib and the possibility of further mass displacement has been to try to prepare the ground in neighboring Afrin and north Aleppo.

Afrin

To the north of Idlib, the Afrin region—part of the Aleppo governorate on the Syrian regime’s administrative map—shares many of the humanitarian challenges visible in Idlib but is distinct in terms of its ethnic composition, recent history, and prevailing security conditions. Unlike in Idlib, Turkey takes a Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack active role in governance of Afrin—as in the neighboring ESZ of northern Aleppo—with civilian services largely organized by the governors of adjacent Turkish provinces, in this case Hatay.

Turkey has made significant investments in Afrin, trying to deliver basic services and ensure that it is at least minimally habitable in service of Turkey’s goal of creating an area in which to settle those displaced from elsewhere in Syria. Turkish companies and utilities have moved into these areas. But these efforts to provide services and basic human security are substantially undermined by the legacy of the area’s violent seizure from the YPG by Turkey and its proxies in a military operation dubbed Operation Olive Branch. The area is historically majority-Kurdish and was held and administered by the YPG from until the Turkish offensive, which aimed Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack crippling Kurdish prospects of autonomy in Syria alongside the refugee interests mentioned above. This violent takeover led to human rights abuses and massive displacement of Kurdish residents—demographic changes that continue to cast a shadow over the region’s stability. The feeling that Turkey has taken and changed a majority-Kurdish region has fed a violent insurgency and made it impossible for international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and humanitarian groups to engage in Afrin, leaving Turkey to manage its newly seized protectorate on its own.

Demography and humanitarian conditions

The primarily Kurdish population of Afrin has been profoundly affected by the displacement of the YPG and subsequent occupation by Turkish forces and their proxies. Western Afrin was previously almost entirely Kurdish, though the population was more mixed Arab and Kurdish to the east toward Azaz and Tel Rifaat.73 In an email to the authors, Fabrice Balanche, associate professor and research director at the University of Lyon 2—and an expert on Syria—says the area’s prewar population was about , of whom 90 percent were Kurdish; but by Januaryon the verge of the Turkish invasion, it had grown to some ,—80 percent Kurdish—asUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of all ethnicities, primarily from Aleppo, fled to Afrin’s relative stability.74 Turkey’s operation changed this picture dramatically. After two months of active offensive operations by Turkey and its proxies, the United Nations estimated someUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, remained displaced from Afrin,75 though observers such as Balanche put the total at more than , many of whom fled to areas such as Kobane, Manbij, and Hasakah still held by the YPG and, in those areas, the SDF.76 One local group says the Kurdish population has fallen by some 60 percent, leaving slightly less thanKurds and more thandisplaced people from elsewhere in Syria.77 In addition to this displacement of Kurds, Turkey has allowed IDPs from other areas to flee to Afrin, further changing the demographic picture.78 Access to the area is limited by the Turkish authorities, and the issue is politically fraught, making figures difficult to verify, but the scale of displacement is staggering, whether or not one labels it ethnic cleansing.79

As in Idlib, the humanitarian situation in Afrin is poor despite the more direct efforts of Turkish authorities. Turkey’s Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) administers camps housing 7, people in Afrin, provides some food aid, and has coordinated the provision of water and health services with the relevant Turkish ministries.80 The Humanitarian Relief Foundation (İHH), the Turkish Red Crescent, and other Turkish NGOs close to the government are active in the region.81 U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs efforts under the cross-border mechanism help house nearly 50, IDPs and deliver assistance to many more.82 Across northwest Syria—encompassing Idlib and Afrin—the World Food Program distributed general food assistance to million people in its December cycle, with residents increasingly reliant on assistance as the collapse of the Syrian pound and the decline of the Turkish lira have undermined already limited purchasing power.83 The humanitarian organization REACH’s monitoring network reports uneven humanitarian access across Afrin, with limited access outside districts such as Jindires or Bulbul.84

However, these efforts have not alleviated the profound human insecurity in the area. Across Afrin, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, residents and IDPs alike report a lack of income and employment. With the primary agricultural economy devastated, many people in the area cannot afford essential food items.85 This is mainly due to the limitations placed on overall humanitarian support by the Assad regime and Russia, as well as the grim overall reality of the war and the economic crisis. But Turkey’s violent seizure of Afrin has also made many humanitarian organizations wary of operating in the region for fear of legitimizing the Turkish-backed occupation and the displacement of former residents.86 The Turkish AFAD oversees humanitarian aid work in Afrin, and international organizations require its approval to distribute aid.87 The United Nations has also criticized Turkish-backed groups for restricting access to IDPs in Afrin.88

Security dynamics and governance

By the time of Operation Olive Branch, Turkey had refined its tactical cooperation with its rebel proxies—coordination that had been lackluster in the earlier Operation Euphrates Shield, leaving Turkish troops to do more direct fighting than desired, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. FromTurkey cobbled together a patchwork of rebel groups—ranging from the remnants of the U.S.-backed train-and-equip program to committed Salafists—into a new force it named the Syrian National Army (SNA). The SNA now holds sway in Afrin, with Turkey holding a loose rein on the armed groups. The composition of the SNA has Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to evolve, but in DecemberSyria analyst Aron Lund outlined the most prominent of the four dozen factions, including the Sultan Murad Brigade, a largely Turkmen group that is one of Turkey’s closest proxies; the formerly U.S.-backed Moutassem Brigade; Ahrar al-Sharqiya, committed Salafists from eastern Syria accused of many human rights abuses; and the Shamiya Front, Islamists from northern Aleppo.89 Turkey has struggled to corral the many groups into a coherent chain of command but has asserted greater control as the SNA has become more of a mercenary Turkish proxy force and less of a rebel group targeting the Assad regime. According to Elizabeth Tsurkov, an analyst closely following the Turkish proxy groups, the SNA numbers about 35, across northern Syria, and “the fighters’ salaries, training, and supervision in battle are … provided by Turkey.”90 One of Tsurkov’s sources in the Levant Front, a Turkish-backed faction, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, recounts, “All decisions, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, big and small, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, in the ‘National Army’ are made by the operations room run by Turkish intelligence.”91

But while Turkey’s military command and control of its proxies has improved, Ankara has done little to prevent abuses, improve the behavior of these factions, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack address the litany of human rights abuses and war crimes committed by the proxies during the Turkish-backed move into Afrin or their continuing misconduct. Human Rights Watch reports that Turkish-backed forces “seized, looted, and destroyed property of Kurdish civilians” in Afrin and “installed fighters and their families in residents’ homes and destroyed and looted civilian properties without compensating the owners.”92 The Turkish proxies—perhaps emboldened by anti-Kurdish rhetoric from Ankara—tore down Kurdish cultural icons, reinforcing a widespread sense among observers that the conflict was as much about ethnic dominance as political affiliation.93

Even as Afrin has settled into Turkish administration, the proxies’ abuses have continued, severely undermining the prospects of stability. Human Rights Watch has thoroughly documented reports of the Turkish-constituted Free Syrian Army police and the Sultan Murad Brigade, one of Turkey’s most trusted proxies, seizing homes and apartments in Afrin and busing in Syrians from other parts of the country to occupy those formerly Kurdish residences.94 Continuing reports in confirm that many Turkish-backed groups refuse to allow the return of Kurdish families.95 Amnesty International has Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack confirmed the reports of detention, torture, and disappearances as well as widespread looting, seizure of property, and displacement with few returns, noting that the YPG is also responsible for preventing some former residents from returning to Afrin.96

These challenges to basic human security continued in The monitoring group Syrians for Truth and Justice (STJ) reported hundreds of arbitrary arrests and ongoing detention of Kurdish civilians in Afrin carried out by Turkish-backed groups.97 Turkish operatives and proxies have even arrested members of the new, Turkish-backed local councils suspected of having ties to the former YPG administration as well as those who have spoken out against the abuses of the Turkish-supported opposition or demanded the return of property to former owners.98 Reports also emerged in of Turkish-backed armed groups levying high taxes on—mainly Kurdish—farmers or requiring bribes at checkpoints to allow them to bring their crops to market. Once at market, Afrin farmers are required to sell their crops to the Turkish-supported opposition or representatives of Turkey’s Agricultural Credit Cooperatives, according to residents interviewed by Voice of America.99

The evidence of demographic engineering and forcible displacement and resettlement is overwhelming, raising fears of long-term radicalization and ongoing conflict. The volatile security situation and manifest hostility of the Turkish-backed groups has made many displaced Kurds reluctant to return, cementing massive demographic changes as formerly Kurdish homes are rented to Arabs displaced from further south, businesses are seized or shut down, and ethnic and political pressure continues. That volatile security environment is two-sided, as the Turkish occupation has fed a YPG-led insurgency likely responsible for many of the ongoing vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) and other attacks on the SNA and civilian representatives of the Turkish occupation. The Institute for the Study of War concluded that both “ISIS and the PKK [Kurdistan Workers’ Party] are Likely Conducting Separate VBIED Campaigns in Northern Syria.” Though no group claimed a recent VBIED attack that killed four people, including a Turkish-trained Syrian police officer, in Jindires on December 5,the Institute for the Study of War sees the PKK—meaning, in this case, the YPG or affiliates—as the most likely culprit. Some 40 SNA members have been assassinated since the invasion of Afrin, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, some of which have been claimed by the Kurdish so-called Olive Anger operations room that, according to Khayrallah al-Hilu, a researcher at Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack European University Institute, is affiliated with the YPG. SDF commander Gen. Mazloum Kobani Abdi has implicitly acknowledged that the YPG is staging raids on Turkish and SNA forces in Afrin, saying he would welcome a cease-fire with the Turks and their proxies, provided they cease abuse of Afrin civilians and allow IDPs to return to their homes—something that is unlikely to happen in the near term.

In part, this volatility reflects the limitations of Turkey’s military approach; while the Olive Branch operation did secure Syrian territory on which displaced Syrians could be resettled, it equally displaced hundreds of thousands of Kurds, at risk to its international reputation, and fed an ongoing insurgency. And while the loss of Afrin was undoubtedly a major setback to the YPG, Turkey, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, in effect, merely Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack its border with the group further into Syria to a porous line of control without the established border wall and surveillance it possesses at the formal Turkish-Syrian border. Since Turkey could not push further into Syria without risking direct conflict with the Assad regime, the YPG maintains control of a sliver of Afrin around Tel Rifaat, where there are regular border clashes, allowing it to easily infiltrate people and material to feed the Afrin insurgency. Operation Olive Branch moved Turkey’s border with the YPG south but stirred up a security nightmare in Afrin.

While Turkey has shown little interest in redressing the abuse of Kurdish civilians, it has demonstrated a serious desire to make Afrin livable for other displaced Syrians. The provision of basic stability and essential services is essential if Turkey Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to realize its goal of turning Afrin into a “safe zone” for refugees, thus alleviating some pressure on its domestic scene. In service of this goal, as Aron Lund writes, in Afrin, “Turkey appears to be digging in for a long stay” and has set up local councils that “effectively serve … as a Turkish puppet body.” Turkey administers Afrin out of Hatay, with representatives of the Turkish governor directly managing local councils that theoretically report to the Syrian Interim Government.

Khayrallah al-Hilu has perhaps the most comprehensive study of Turkey’s administration of Afrin. Turkish utility companies provide water and regular electricity supply and have sought to repair the grid. The Turkish Provincial Directorate of Health in Hatay oversees medical care, and Turkey repaired and operates Afrin’s main hospital. Turkish authorities have replaced the old Kurdish curriculum with bilingual instruction in Turkish and Kurdish, paid teachers in Turkish lira, repaired schools, and provided opportunities for admission into Turkish universities. The Turkish government has financed and opened a school of education to train teachers in Afrin, though resources and the number of students are understandably limited. Policing is overseen by the local councils, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the collection of fees imposed on agricultural yields, a major source of funding for the councils. Criminal matters are handled by civilian courts staffed and administered by Turkey. These state-building efforts are financed by a combination of revenues from transit fees collected at Turkish-Syrian border crossings and allocations from Turkish state coffers, which help finance the local councils, cover infrastructure repairs, and pay SNA fighters. These Turkish investments are beginning to shape a “new Kurdish political elite oriented around clientelism” with Turkey, according to al-Hilu.

Future prospects and potential for further population movements

Turkey is undoubtedly committed to Afrin and has made significant investments to stabilize the area, though stark ethnic tensions and an ongoing insurgency cloud its future stability. The United Nations estimates that the Turkish offensive in Afrin in January displaced an estimatedpeople, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, nearly 20 percent of its pre-Olive Branch population, though a limited number have since returned. Turkey has also encouraged major Arab resettlement efforts since then; an Afrin local council reported that, as of the end of Maysome 87, IDPs had been resettled in Afrin, largely from Eastern Ghouta and Aleppo—scenes of some of the Assad regime’s most brutal bombing campaigns. Economic and humanitarian conditions in Afrin remain poor, despite Turkey’s efforts, in part because the violent seizure of the region makes it morally and physically hazardous for international humanitarian organizations. But while basic conditions are difficult and the security situation is volatile, the region’s overall security is less tenuous than that of neighboring Idlib—here, there is little imminent threat of Russian or regime attack. Turkey appears committed to protecting the area, and this strategic assurance will likely lead to an ongoing trickle of resettlement of Syrians displaced from other areas. In the event of stepped-up regime or Russian attacks on Idlib—let alone a major offensive—that trickle would likely turn into a flood. The long-term implications of the effective Turkish annexation of Afrin—along with the areas considered in the following sections—demand further study.

The Euphrates Shield zone

Stretching from Azaz in the west through al-Bab to Jarabulus on the Euphrates River, the ESZ was seized from IS in an operation that began in August Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with active operations concluded in March It was Turkey’s first major direct military intervention in Syria, aimed at displacing IS and providing for defense in depth of the border at a time when there were regular IS terror attacks within Turkey. But the operation also aimed to prevent the YPG from linking Afrin—which it then still held—and its eastern cantons, from which the Kurdish force was advancing, having recently liberated Manbij from IS, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. In the Euphrates Shield operation, Ankara sought to use the rebel factions it would later roll into the SNA as its shock troops, but their ineffectiveness meant Turkish forces assumed a more substantial role than intended, taking 69 casualies, primarily at the hands of IS anti-tank missiles and VBIEDs.

The roughly square-mile ESZ is the most stable Syrian territory held by Turkey, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, though security conditions have eroded somewhat in the past year. At the most basic level, Turkey has been there the longest, allowing it to build out its presence and pursue stabilization efforts. The area is also heavily Arab, easing the ethnic tension that plagues the occupations of Afrin and Ras al-Ayn. The zone was also seized from IS, whose brutality few residents miss. Finally, the relatively larger role of Turkish forces in seizing the region—rather than the ill-disciplined Turkish-backed rebel groups—may have prevented more widespread human rights abuses, as occurred in later operations in Afrin and the Tal Abyad to Ras al-Ayn area, reducing communal tensions in the subsequent administration. This relative—though far from complete—stability has meant that, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, while the initial intervention was aimed at IS and the YPG, Ankara has increasingly come to see the area as a potential “safe zone” for refugee resettlement and has made significant investments toward that end.

Demography and humanitarian conditions

Until the Turkish intervention and occupation, control of what became the ESZ changed hands between the regime, Syrian rebels, and jihadi groups, including IS, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. This instability, along with the massive waves of displacement caused by the wider conflict and, in the earlier stages of the war, hundreds of thousands crossing the border into Turkey, makes it very difficult to establish an exact demographic picture of the area. The Turkish occupation brought some stability, but population movements into and out of the ESZ—particularly from Afrin, Idlib, and Turkey itself—mean it is still difficult to pin down population figures. These fluid exchanges across the ESZ, Afrin, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and Idlib include both permanent displacement and temporary displacement and returns, but the ESZ’s population is likely betweenandindividuals.

Like Afrin, the ESZ absorbed many people displaced by the regime’s offensive in Idlib from late intothough some of those people have subsequently returned. As of Julyaccording to U.N. figures, almostIDPs resided in the Azaz, al-Bab, and Jarabulus areas of the ESZ, of whom more than three-quarters have found residence in the community or are in informal settlements, with slightly less than 50, in planned camps. Azaz and Jarabulus, for example, are now likely twice their prewar population. And IDPs continue to arrive in Azaz, a popular destination due to its close access to the Turkish border and it being outside HTS-controlled Idlib and far from both the front lines with the regime and the YPG. Humanitarian conditions in the ESZ are better than in Idlib or Afrin but remain poor. Shelter is more widely available than in desperately overcrowded Idlib or the area around the Bab al-Hawa crossing, but high rents remain an issue for locals, as does a lack of formal shelter and winterization needs for IDPs in camps and informal settlements. High prices for fuel and food are major issues, contributing to increasing malnutrition rates. Still, the relative safety of the area means the U.N. organizations can engage more fully, subject to their limited access through Bab al-Hawa, allowing for a range of efforts including agricultural support and cash for work programs in Azaz, Mare, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and al-Bab. Al-Bab and the surrounding area face water shortages affectingpeople, in part because while electricity is more regular than in much of Syria, interruptions have prevented sufficient pumping at local wells to meet demand.

Security dynamics and governance

Turkey, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as the governing authority in the ESZ, has made major investments to try to address these shortcomings. The Center for Operational Analysis and Research’s (COAR) detailed study of the ESZ found that Turkey dominates “politics, economy and society. … Turkish officials serve on municipal council bodies, Turkish businesses operate widely, and Turkish goods flood local markets.” The Turkish governors of Kilis and Gaziantep have authority over the ESZ, governing the delivery of assistance, stabilization efforts, and economic investments in conjunction with the AFAD and the relevant Turkish ministries. The international community is limited in its ability to help Turkey confront the substantial needs in the ESZ, as Ankara has cracked down on cross-border NGO operations and forced humanitarian groups to abide by onerous regulations meant to ensure Turkish government control of aid delivery, causing hundreds to end their operations in the area.

The Turkish authorities work with and through local councils nominally under the control of the opposition Syrian Interim Government, though Ankara largely controls the council’s membership. These councils organize and coordinate projects in the ESZ, including with international organizations allowed to operate there, and seek to raise funds through their activities and levies on some economic activity to supplement Turkish financing. Turkey maintains final authority through its control of funding—and of the armed groups that dominate the area—but generally allows the councils a level of independence.

Still, the councils are almost wholly reliant on Turkey. Turkey pays the salaries of local councilors, teachers, and doctors as well as those of the local police, military police, and armed factions. The councils partner with Turkish companies to deliver and distribute gas for cooking and heating at more stable prices than are normally available in Syria. Turkey&#;s State Electricity Generating Co. struck a deal with the al-Bab Council to repair the local electrical grid and deliver subsequent supplies, financed by the Turkish government; regular electrical supply is rare in many parts of Syria but essential for refrigeration and to make many businesses viable, given the high cost of fuel for generators. Turkey’s inroads in the ESZ had stoked economic activity and provided some relief, with better availability of commodities, more stable prices, and some recovery in employment at the end ofthough unemployment was still estimated at 60 percent. The collapse of the Syrian pound and the struggles of the Turkish lira, and the economic downturn driven by COVID, has undermined this halting recovery, making the area even more reliant on Turkey, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The collapse of the Syrian pound led the Syrian Interim Government and the councils—as well Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the Turkish-backed business chambers—to push the adoption of the Turkish lira, distributed into circulation through Turkish postal branches established in the area.

Journalist Fehim Taştekin has tracked these Turkish efforts closely, reporting how the Turkish Ministry of Health “has opened five hospitals in al-Rai, Jarablus, Azaz, al-Bab and Marea, while the Religious Affairs Directorate has renovated more than mosques.” In a much-publicized move, Turkey commissioned a new medical school in al-Rai, adding to the previously opened “vocational school in Jarablus, a school of economics and administrative sciences in al-Bab, an Islamic theology school in Azaz … all affiliated with Gaziantep University in the Turkish border province.” While the prospects of these institutions are highly uncertain and enrollment is limited, the schools and hospitals are signs of Turkey’s intent to remain deeply involved in the region. Indeed, the COAR assessment concludes that, given these investments and ESZ residents’ unwillingness to live under Assad, “It is difficult to foresee a reversal in the current trend towards the ‘Turkification’ of all aspects of civic life. At present, the [ESZ] must be viewed as a Turkish-administered proto-state which is now all but officially part of Turkey.”

Unsurprisingly, given these investments and its goals in the ESZ, Turkey dominates the security of the zone, working through the SNA, as in Afrin and the Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn salient. Turkey pays the salaries of the two police forces it has established—a local police force for daily order and a separate military police to patrol the armed factions—and the armed factions themselves, under the banner of the SNA. Turkey has worked to build the SNA into a more cohesive force, but it remains “more of an umbrella designation for Turkish backed armed groups, and each individual group answers directly to Turkey.” COAR counts some 25 armed groups within the SNA, listing the most powerful in ESZ as including: “The Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih Brigade and the Muntasir Billah Brigade (both based in Jarablus); Jaish Al-Islam (based in Jarablus and Al Bab); Sultan Murad (based in Al Bab); Fariq Hamza (based in Azaz); the Al-Mutassim [Moutassem] Brigade (based in Azaz and Al Bab); and Jabhat Shamiya (based in [Al-Rai]).”

Criminality and abuses are rampant in SNA areas, driven primarily by financial motives and worsened by the lack of community ties for fighters relocated or displaced to the ESZ from other parts of Syria. The SNA groups are widely unpopular and “regularly involve themselves in the local war economy, often engage in both open and clandestine military actions against each other, and are largely unaccountable to any actor other than Turkey itself.” And while there remain more conventional security problems—including occasional shelling, bombings, and assassinations—it is the SNA that is the main threat to basic human security in the ESZ. According to Tsurkov’s sources and numerous others, extortion at checkpoints is rampant, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and armed groups fight to control trade routes, particularly those that link the ESZ to non-SNA-controlled areas, and demand protection money from businesses. There are also reports of the armed groups targeting Kurdish homes and businesses or trying to enforce ultraconservative norms on Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack public.

Turkey has sought to build up local police forces to address SNA abuses, training locals and establishing police stations. But while these police units are more popular than the SNA, they cannot control the armed factions and “have effectively become just another armed group themselves. … ultimately, the only actor which is capable of controlling armed groups … is Turkey.” One of Tsurkov’s sources comments on the lawlessness, saying that “it’s impossible… The factions are stronger than the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack police.” The SNA armed groups also operate prisons where detainees are tortured, with horror stories conveyed on “Popular channels on the messaging app Telegram, such as ‘Al-Bab, the Nightmare’ and ‘Jarablus, the Nightmare.’”

Future prospects and potential for further population movements

Turkey seized the ESZ from IS both to stop the jihadi infiltration that had caused a scourge of terror attacks on Turkish soil as well as to prevent the YPG from linking its cantons and, Ankara feared, constituting a viable autonomous Kurdish region across nearly the entirety of its Syrian border. But while this initial intervention was driven by counterterrorism and political concerns, Turkey’s continuing assistance and stabilization activities have had meaningful humanitarian benefits. Even if there may be cynical ulterior motives—perhaps to secure Turkish Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack access or build a Sunni belt of settlement to expand influence in the Levant and insulate against any potential autonomous Kurdish entity—Turkey has sought to make life more livable for residents of the ESZ.

These humanitarian actions may also be intended to prepare ground for anticipated further displacement from Idlib. That remains the largest demographic scenario hanging over ESZ—that some of the million people at risk in Idlib, particularly thepeople living along the M4 in the regime’s immediate crosshairs—will be forced to flee en masse to Afrin and the ESZ. Despite its efforts, Turkey and the local councils in ESZ are not prepared for such a calamity, nor is the international community.

Part of that lack of international preparation results from Turkey’s unilateral approach in the ESZ and its other zones of control. President Erdoğan has been vocal about his hopes to resettle significant numbers of Syrian refugees from Turkey in the ESZ. Humanitarian and economic conditions are a major part of that effort, certainly, and one where Turkey has made strides, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Those efforts are complicated at the best of times, let alone when Turkey is struggling to accommodate million Syrians within its borders, administering several other unstable zones, and facing a deep economic downturn and empty state coffers. But evidence shows most Syrian refugees wish to remain in Turkey, raising fears among many humanitarian actors and potential international sponsors that Erdoğan’s effort will lead to state-sponsored refoulement. More immediately, Turkey’s tight control of relief activities in the ESZ and the politicized constraints Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack on assistance activities—as well as Ankara’s general policy toward the Kurds—similarly give pause to potential outside supporters and are likely counterproductive.

These limitations threaten Turkey’s chances of fashioning the ESZ into a viable economy and society capable of attracting large-scale voluntary resettlement of Syrian refugees from Turkey, much less its prospects for winning international support for that effort, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Ankara has made significant investments and, based on that evidence, seems willing to defend the zone from outside attack. But it is hard to imagine Erdoğan’s grandest resettlement plans coming to fruition. Financing is a major challenge, of course, complicated by the factors outlined above. But most of all, it is Turkey’s unwillingness to control the SNA that undermines the endeavor; without real steps to rein in the armed groups and establish responsive civilian government and courts or other means for redress, Syrians in Turkey will remain reluctant to move to these volatile protectorates, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. To constitute a “safe zone,” the area must be safe.

The Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn salient

In OctoberUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Turkey and its SNA proxies moved into northeastern Syria, attacking SDF positions along a line from Tel Abyad to Ras al-Ayn (which, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, for convenience, will subsequently be called TARA). The Turkish operation, dubbed Peace Spring, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, was the third major Turkish intervention in Syria, following Euphrates Shield and Olive Branch in Afrin, and the first to take place east of the Euphrates River. Like these earlier interventions, Turkey justified the invasion as a necessary step to fight alleged terrorism by the YPG as well as IS; facilitate the return of Syrian refugees from Turkey; and stabilize the region. There is little doubt, however, that a primary purpose was to push the SDF back from the Turkish border, weaken the group’s prospects for political autonomy, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, drive a wedge in the U.S.-SDF partnership, and dilute the Kurdish population on the border to disrupt communications between Syrian and Turkish Kurds. These latter goals have been largely accomplished.

The move was prompted by President Trump’s abrupt announcement—after a phone call with President Erdoğan—that American troops would withdraw from the border, where they had been deployed with the SDF to prevent a Turkish attack, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Prior to the withdrawal, the United States had been attempting to mediate Turkish-SDF tensions, overseeing the removal of SDF border fortifications to address Turkish security concerns. Trump’s withdrawal announcement was the green light for Turkey’s move, which displaced someresidents and led to widespread human rights abuses and, despite significant SDF resistance and international condemnation, to the eventual seizure of some 1, square miles of formerly SDF-controlled territory.

Abandoned by the United States and outmatched by Turkey and its proxies, the SDF cut a deal with the Assad regime and Russia, whose forces raced into contested areas to contain the Turkish offensive. Their presence acted as a political trip wire, with Ankara unwilling to risk a direct confrontation with Syria or Russia. Boxed in by the regime and the Russians, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Turkey signed separate agreements with the United States—which had in fact squandered much of its leverage when it withdrew from the border areas—and Russia to codify an uneasy status quo in which the YPG would withdraw 22 miles from the border, to be monitored by joint Turkish-Russian patrols. The terms of the Russian-Turkish deal—which took on greater importance than the American deal that Washington could do little to USB Safely Remove 6.4.2.1298 Crack + Serial Keygen 2021 {Lifetime} corresponded with the terms of the safety mechanism the United States and Turkey had been negotiating prior to the Turkish incursion.

Turkey’s stated border concerns should thus be seen as pro forma justification for its broader political goals. Ankara claimed that the YPG had launched numerous cross-border attacks against Turkish territory prior to Turkey’s Operation Peace Spring invasion. U.S. officials contest Turkey’s accounts of regular cross-border attacks from northeastern Syria, asserting that the Htmlpad 2018 key “never attacked Turkey” and pointing out that, in fact, Turkey or its proxies had initiated many exchanges of fire. American officials also argue that they had made clear to the SDF that support from the United States was itself contingent on restraint vis-a-vis Turkey; the SDF thus had an incentive to toe the line and had gone to great lengths to placate Turkey at the border, calling Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack a negotiated settlement. Turkey’s attack replaced a relatively stable border situation with a chaotic military conflict and weakened U.S. leverage over the SDF. The SDF knew it was vulnerable to Turkish attack and did not want a conflict, so it had every incentive not to provoke one. When the attack came, the result was to undermine the counter-IS campaign, severely weaken the SDF’s hold Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack northern Syria, and diminish the SDF’s long-term prospects of political autonomy within an eventual postwar Syria.

These outcomes, then, likely represented Ankara’s true goals for the operation. The displaced civilians, international opprobrium, delay in the campaign further south against IS, and the casualties on both sides were acceptable costs for Ankara. As discussed in the section on the SDF-controlled Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES), Turkey and its proxies have used their position in TARA to keep pressure on the AANES, shelling towns on the strategically sensitive M4 highway and thus complicating communications across the AANES and weakening the SDF’s position vis-a-vis Russia and the regime.

Demography and humanitarian conditions

More thanpeople fled the immediate Turkish invasion in October , including almost all Kurds and Christians. Over the following months, as major fighting subsided, aboutreturned. Some 70, people from the TARA area remain displaced, mainly Kurds from Ras al-Ayn, many of whom have not been allowed to return. The remaining population in TARA is virtually all Sunni Arab, with some Turkmen as well. According to Fabrice Balanche, prior to the Turkish invasion, the population of TARA was roughly ,—70 percent Eset smart security premium full, 25 percent Kurdish, 5 percent Turkmen, and a small number of Christians. In NovemberAbdullah Erin, the governor of neighboring Şanlıurfa (Urfa) province in Turkey, with effective responsibility for TARA, said there were currentlySyrians living in the roughly 1,square-mile area—making it the least populated of the Syrian areas occupied by Turkey. Moreover, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Erin said that up to 20, Syrians from the region then living as refugees in Turkey had applied to return to their home area in TARA and would do so as soon as procedures were completed.

The governor is attempting to help carry out President Erdoğan’s sweeping plan to resettle 1 million Syrians in the TARA area, including in new purpose-built towns to be financed, Erdoğan hopes, by some $26 billion in international funds. The vision calls for Turkish-built houses, schools, hospitals, mosques, and industrial facilities, matching some of the steps Turkey has already taken in the ESZ and Afrin, though on a much larger scale and with the international community picking up the tab. President Erdoğan’s ambitions extend further; speaking to the U.N. General Assembly in Septemberhe said, “If we can manage to stretch the depth of the safe zone to Raqqa and Deir Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, we can increase the number of Syrians,” referring to an even more extensive plan to settle up to 3 million Syrians. For this massive effort, Turkey hopes to secure European and U.N. support, though the proposal has met with a chilly response amid concerns of forced resettlement and Turkey’s ulterior political motives. A senior U.S. official described the plan to Reuters as “probably the craziest idea I’ve ever heard.”

On a smaller scale than in Afrin, the process of resettling Arabs apparently to replace displaced Kurds began shortly after Operation Peace Spring ended. On November 22,70 Syrian refugees entered Ras al-Ayn from Turkey, and families entered Tel Abyad two days later. A convoy of vehicles, including 14 buses, entered Tel Abyad on April 20, The Turkish government maintained that these were refugees who had fled SDF rule and were simply returning home. But local testimony and video evidence established that most of the returnees were actually the families of SNA fighters deployed in TARA; rather than returning from Turkey to their original homes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, they were mainly IDPs from elsewhere in Syria being moved from the ESZ across Turkey to TARA. This appears to violate Turkey’s October 29,commitment that refugees would only return to their original places of residence.

Surrounded by the AANES on three sides and the Turkish border on its fourth, the area is fully dependent on Turkey and increasingly integrated into its economy. Turkey coordinates all humanitarian aid, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, including food and clothing provided by Turkish agencies and NGOs. Turkey has reopened its Tel Abyad customs gate—closed by Turkey when the SDF was in control—and established a new gate in Ras al-Ayn to strengthen trade links with the region. Gov. Erin boasts of the scale of Turkish aid, which he claims provides all basic needs and helps support needy families and boost economic development. Turkey’s Agriculture and Forestry Ministry has spent millions on local crops, seeking to support the region’s agricultural economy and set up a system of guaranteed payment. While Erin and other Turkish officials naturally present the most optimistic case, Turkey has undoubtedly made significant investments in TARA, which it hopes can attract Syrian refugees from Turkey.

Occupied more recently, TARA’s integration into Turkey is less far along than that in the ESZ and Afrin. In part, this is because Turkey’s military operation forced the evacuation of international humanitarian staff from northeast Syria; even outside the eventual TARA zone, many international NGOs had to cease, scale back, or hide their activities due to the fighting and the return of Syrian regime forces nearby, invited by the SDF in response to Turkey’s move. Only a few aid organizations have returned, as most are unwilling to legitimize Turkey’s seizure of the zone or comply with Turkish requirements, which international NGOs feel could politicize aid delivery. As a result, the Turkish AFAD and government-linked NGOs such as İHH Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the delivery of assistance. Turkish media report that Turkish authorities have cleared mines and IEDs; reconstructed hospitals, schools, mosques, and roads; and provided free health services to residents of both Tel Abyad and Ras al-Ayn. Turkey has not allowed foreign access to the region, making it difficult to independently verify these claims.

The Alouk water station in TARA—examined in more depth in the following section on the AANES—has been another issue. The station provides water for somepeople, mainly in SDF-controlled areas, but was damaged in the Turkish incursion. Efforts to grids for instagram last version the facility were at one point interrupted by the abduction of the workers by an SNA faction. The Turkish authorities or the SNA have periodically reduced or interrupted service as well, prompting SDF, Russian, and U.N. complaints. The situation remains uneasy, though service has been intermittently restored to AANES areas, which in turn provide electricity to Alouk and other areas in the TARA region from a power station in AANES-controlled al-Darbasiyah, east of Ras al-Ayn.

Security dynamics and governance

International humanitarian engagement in TARA is also limited by the negative human rights picture and volatile security environment. The U.N. Human Rights Council Commission of Inquiry on Syria reported in“All parties in Syria detain civilians without a scintilla of evidence or due process,” but it reserved some of its harshest criticism for the Turkish-backed SNA. According to the commission, in “Afrin and Ra’s al-Ayn region, civilians suffer at the hands of the Syrian National Army – who arbitrarily detain, ill-treat, torture and rape civilians, and loot civilian property.” One Kurdish-owned home was converted into a Quranic studies institute run by the Turkish NGO İHH, with Gov. Erin presiding over its ceremonial opening. The report directly implicates Turkey, claiming that the Turkish Armed Forces appropriated homes for military purposes. In Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack cases, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Kurdish homes and stores were occupied by Syrians from outside the TARA area, often the families of SNA fighters.

The commission is critical of Turkey and the SNA as well as of the former SDF authorities, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, asserting that all parties have used forced detention to suppress dissent or extort money. The cases of unlawful detention by the SNA in TARA are mostly of people accused of links to the AANES or YPG. In some cases, “civilians – primarily of Kurdish origin – were beaten, tortured, denied food or water, and interrogated about their faith and ethnicity.” The investigators directly implicate Turkey: Some Syrian detainees were turned over to Turkish forces by the SNA, taken to Turkey, and charged under Turkish law with crimes allegedly committed in Syria, including murder; terrorism, presumably referring to membership in the YPG; and, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, remarkably, undermining the territorial integrity of the state. Human Rights Watch claims that at least 63 Syrians, and perhaps as many asUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, have been deported to Turkey for trial, with at least five sentenced by Turkish courts to life without parole. The commission claims that removing Syrians to Turkey for trial and imprisonment may be a war crime. Thirty women were reportedly raped by SNA members in February alone, according to the U.N. commission. One woman was reportedly stopped at a Turkish Armed Forces/SNA checkpoint and beaten and raped by SNA members in the presence of Turkish officials.

There are also accusations of war crimes committed by Turkish and SNA forces during the initial October assault. During the Turkish offensive Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, medical facilities in Ras al-Ayn and Tel Abyad and residential neighborhoods in Qamishli city were shelled indiscriminately, killing civilians. Video evidence of civilians with characteristic burns suggest the use of white phosphorus in the attack on Ras al-Ayn. There were also summary executions, including the murder of Kurdish politician Hevrin Khalaf and eight others. Three aid workers from the Kurdish Red Crescent disappeared. Numerous Kurds who tried to return to the area were denied entry; three are alleged to have been murdered. Ambassador James Jeffrey, then-U.S. special envoy for Syria, said American forces witnessed “several incidents which we consider war crimes” during the attack. No international body has taken up any of these potential war crimes.

There has been little public effort by the de facto Turkish authorities to provide redress for the victims of these incidents or prevent further abuses by the SNA. In a rare exception, one SNA member was sentenced by a Syrian Interim Government military court for the killing of Khalaf, according to a U.N, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. report. However, the report gives no details of the purported sentence, and the AANES disputes the claim that anyone was sentenced. Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar says Turkey has established two military tribunals in TARA for the express purpose of investigating war crimes allegations, but little information has emerged about their FortiClient 6.4.1.1519 Crack With Serial Key Free Download 2021 More positively, in Maythe Syrian Interim Government said it Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack banned recruitment of children for the military. Despite these steps, the proxies that Turkey relies on to theoretically secure the TARA area are violent, ill-disciplined, economically desperate, and routinely and credibly accused of human rights abuses, murder, rape, extortion, kidnapping, and petty theft.

As in the ESZ and Afrin, the TARA area is administered by the governor of the adjoining Turkish province—in this case Urfa—currently the aforementioned Erin, assisted by fellow civil servants from Urfa province. As in the ESZ, these Turkish officials oversee an administration under the formal control of the Syrian Interim Government, the theoretical opposition government-in-waiting, and assisted by appointed local councils in both Tel Abyad and Ras al-Ayn. According to local Syrian sources, the Syrian Interim Government is dominated by Turkmen. The local councils officially were appointed by the Syrian Interim Government, presumably with vetting by Ankara; it is not clear on what basis members were chosen, although Syrian Interim Government leader Abdurrahman Mustafa—the former head of the Syrian Turkmen Council and former Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Interim Government president, now prime minister—claims that Tel Abyad’s member council and Ras al-Ayn’s member council represent all local ethnic and religious groups. Mustafa has promised to hold elections after all displaced locals return home. Thus far, no elections have been held or scheduled. Despite this apparatus, local sources say the Turkish National Intelligence Organization is actually the dominant authority in the region.

In NovemberUrfa Gov. Erin outlined the progress made in the year since the Turkish invasion, lauding repairs to public buildings and infrastructure; restored public services, especially health and education; and reopened mosques. Turkey says that Syrians now run all public services, with the support of Turkish civil servants. All costs, including salaries, are borne by Turkey. As in the other areas of Turkish control, analyst Asli Aydıntaşbaş reports that Turkish “authorities have connected local infrastructure to the Turkish electricity grid and … opened branches of the Turkish postal service to provide wire transfers and pay salaries. The areas import most of their food supplies from Turkey, delivering some of it through bakeries and stores built with Turkish aid. Turkish-backed local administrations issue identity papers and title deeds.”

A judicial system of sorts, both civilian and military, has emerged within the Turkish-occupied, Syrian Interim Government-administered area, including TARA. Overseen by the Turkish government, it exists side by side with an informal, traditional reconciliation mechanism in which residents and armed groups often resolve disputes without involving the courts. For the most part, the civilian courts apply Syrian law, except where those laws “contradict the objectives of the [anti-Assad] revolution.” They have adopted Syria’s first constitution—a fairly liberal, pre-Baathist document Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack enshrines judicial independence—as their point of reference, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The military justice system handles violations by members of the armed groups, but there is little information on its operations. Most likely, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the SNA armed militias have significant influence on judicial decisions, with the Turkish government having the final say when it so desires. The situation closely mirrors Turkey’s mode of control in the ESZ and Afrin: working through appointed local councils and seeking to build their capacity but tying their activities closely to the neighboring Turkish provincial government; excluding most critical voices and Kurds; and maintaining final authority on all important political matters.

The TARA area remains highly insecure, despite Turkish claims of stability, for three main reasons: infighting among the SNA factions and the general insecurity they cause; frequent border clashes along the line of control with the SDF, Russia, and the Assad regime; and internal insurgent attacks likely attributable to YPG-affiliated cells and IS remnants. As in Afrin, ESZ, and, indeed, Idlib, in the TARA area, Turkey relies on a limited direct deployment of Turkish forces to support a large and chaotic proxy force. In relative terms, the situation in Tel Abyad is more stable than in Ras al-Ayn.

Turkey has forces deployed to bases in and near Tel Abyad and Ras al-Ayn as well as Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack posts near the M4 highway that serves as the rough boundary of the TARA area, although the precise number of Turkish troops is not publicized. The dominant SNA faction in Ras al-Ayn is the mainly Turkmen Sultan Murad Brigade, whose leader, Fahim Issa, is considered particularly close with Turkish intelligence. The Sultan Murad Brigade and the Hamza Division are the two main SNA militias that joined the Turkish Armed Forces in carrying out Operation Peace Spring. Researcher Khayrallah al-Hilu reports that few of the Sultan Murad Brigade or Hamza Division fighters are from the area, which “has emboldened them to act as they please, facing neither deterrence nor local resistance as they seize civilian homes and prevent the return of the displaced.” Turkish-backed faction Ahrar al-Sharqiya is also known to be active in Tal Abyad, where it has repeatedly and credibly been accused of human rights abuses and theft. But the other SNA factions in Tal Abyad tend to include more locals, while the area was also historically predominantly Arab, reducing some of the ethnic tensions caused by the forced displacement of Kurds by the SNA in Ras al-Ayn.

Turkey has tried to stabilize the area by drafting more locals into the SNA and local police forces. Turkey pays salaries and provides equipment as well as training for the local security forces. Ankara also selects the commanders of the military courts and police forces as well as provides weapons, vehicles, and other support. The SNA factions, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, select the rank-and-file police members, limiting their ability to stop SNA abuses. Turkish officials say more than 2, locals serve in the police force, with training from the Turkish Armed Forces, Jandarma, and Turkish police. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack objective outside observers, it is difficult to gauge the veracity of these claims, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. As of lateUrfa Gov. Erin was seeking to recruit 1, more locals, urging TARA youth living in Urfa to apply. Erin’s remarks contain hints, however, that all is not well, referencing past shortcomings in maintaining public order. Moreover, he urged Syrian religious leaders to “set the local youth, confused by ten years under the terrorists, on the correct path.”

Tension clearly persists in the TARA salient as a result of ongoing fighting among SNA factions. SNA factions have fought pitched battles over control of checkpoints and the division of property appropriated from locals, which the fighters consider “the spoils of war.” Indeed, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reports that these internal disputes worsened in mid, resulting in deadly “clashes in Ras al-Ain between pro-Turkish factions, due to their disagreement over the appointment of the director of the Ras al-Ain border-crossing.” Most SNA fighters are poor, and many have been displaced for years and face the dispiriting recognition that they are fighting less to liberate Syria than to protect Turkish interests. Many of these young men, often lacking local ties, take out their frustration and economic desperation on the local populace. The SNA factions prevent many displaced Kurds from returning to the area, and their behavior makes life difficult for those who remain.

In addition to these challenges inside TARA, the SNA frequently skirmish along the line of control with the SDF and, in places, with the regime. The SNA and Turkish forces have regularly shelled the towns of Ayn Issa and Tel Tamer on the strategic M4 highway in the AANES. According to scholar Amy Austin Holmes, Turkey and its militias committed more than cease-fire violations over the course of the first year following Operation Peace Spring, with of these in the Tel Tamer area, averaging more than two violations per day. The SDF and the SNA routinely accuse each other of attempting to infiltrate opposing positions, and there are frequent casualties. Anti-IS coalition officers have expressed concern that the attacks on Ayn Issa and Tel Tamer are distracting the SDF from its anti-IS mission. The attacks also boost Russian influence; in Decemberthe SDF agreed to have Russian troops deploy in Ayn Issa in an effort to stave off attacks.

An insurgent campaign, including terrorist car bombings, by forces opposed to the Turkish occupation also undermines stability in TARA, as it does in Afrin and the ESZ. Few of the attacks—mainly hit-and-run assassinations or VBIEDs—are claimed, but the Institute for the Study of War assesses that IS and the PKK are likely both conducting separate campaigns. Among the attacks for which Turkey and the SNA specifically blame the PKK are a January 9,car bomb that killed four Turkish soldiers in Ras al-Ayn; a September bombing that wounded 21 people; a December 10,VBIED attack on an SNA checkpoint, which killed up to a dozen people; and a January explosion that killed three and wounded All of these attacks were in or near Ras al-Ayn. Turkey and the SNA’s attributions of responsibility have not been backed up by specific evidence but are plausible in light of the displacement of Kurds from Ras al-Ayn.

In an interview with the International Crisis Group, SDF commander Mazloum reserved the right for the Kurds to take action, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, beyond returning artillery fire, in response to Turkish Armed Forces/SNA attacks. As discussed previously, Mazloum has implicitly acknowledged attacks on Turkish and SNA forces in Afrin, meant to press Turkey to allow Kurdish IDPs to return to their homes—the same dynamics are at play in TARA. In an interview with one of the report’s co-authors, Muhammad Hassan, an official with the foreign relations department of the AANES, affirmed the Kurds’ right to “resist” in TARA as well. In general, then, while the VBIED attacks are unclaimed and it is impossible to know if the perpetrators are IS, PKK cadres, the SDF, or other actors, the signs suggest Kurdish involvement. Given the United States’ support for the SDF, these attacks are a source of bilateral tension between the United States and Turkey.

Future prospects and potential for further population movements

At the strategic level, TARA’s future will be almost entirely shaped by Turkish policy, particularly whether Ankara will: stay and defend the area; maintain its economic commitment; rein in its proxies; and try to expand the salient. Also playing a role in that future will be the Assad regime and Russia’s response to Turkey’s de facto annexation, SDF actions, and the attitude of the international community, particularly the United States.

Turkey seems almost certain to maintain its presence and defend the zone if attacked; its goals of refugee resettlement and weakening the YPG are unlikely to change while President Erdoğan remains in charge. Erdoğan’s need to be seen to take a hard line on the Kurdish issue and decisive action on the refugee question—largely due Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack domestic political imperatives—is not likely to fade either. Resettling Syrians in “safe zones” is the approach the Turkish public most favors, and Turkey’s humanitarian actions and hawkish policy toward the Kurds—presented uncritically by the Justice and Development Party (AKP)-controlled press—are popular in key segments of the electorate. Erdoğan will find it difficult to give up ground in Syria.

Turkey’s commitment to provide basic services and commodities is also likely to last—after all, it is essential to maintain basic humanitarian conditions in order to deter further out-migration—though larger investments may come under pressure due to Turkey’s own economic crisis and budget constraints, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Erdoğan’s grand resettlement plans will likely prove too much for Turkey Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack management will remain a major issue for Turkey. Ankara seems Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack understand it has a problem and has attempted to improve discipline in the SNA and the police forces, but real stability may prove elusive absent a more substantial commitment of direct Turkish force. As the United States has learned in Iraq and Afghanistan, training responsible, professional police and security forces in a war zone is extremely difficult. Turkey has also shown that it finds its unaccountable proxies useful for broader purposes, as in their deployment to Libya and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack as inexpensive ground fighters who can skirt the legal and political limitations placed on direct Turkish deployments.

Regarding expansion, Erdoğan has threatened a new military incursion against the SDF as recently as October Domestic anger about the killing of 13 Turkish hostages by the PKK during a botched rescue operation in Iraqi Kurdistan in February increased the pressure, though Turkey’s response Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack come in Iraqi Sinjar or the Qandil Mountains. On the other hand, Ankara may feel it has already effectively crippled the prospects of Syrian Kurdish autonomy and seized sufficient territory in which to resettle refugees; the strategic rationale for a further incursion is flimsy. Still, the desire to elevate the Kurdish issue domestically, hoping to splinter the opposition’s political coalition, could rise in importance ahead of the next Turkish election, currently scheduled for but possible earlier.

Turkey is also limited by the presence of Russian and Syrian regime forces, meaning any major Turkish attack would need to be coordinated with Moscow or risk causing Russian or Syrian regime casualties—and reprisals. Likewise, the United States will want to dissuade Turkey from further advances south of the TARA salient. The Comfy File Recovery 5.9 Crack With Serial Key [Latest 2021] intervention provoked international outrage and brief U.S. sanctions, even after Trump nominally approved the incursion. The Biden administration is likely to take a clearer line in Syria in defense of the cease-fire with the SDF, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. In addition to possible congressional action, President Biden could wield executive order to impose sanctions on any Turkish official or department determined to have disrupted the cease-fire, prevented voluntary returns of displaced people, forcibly repatriated Syrians, or otherwise obstructed reconciliation efforts.

Were Turkey to move forward despite these restraints, the most likely targets would be Ayn Issa, Tell Tamer, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, or Kobane. Taking Ayn Issa or Tell Tamer, important crossroads along the M4, would allow Turkey to impede SDF communications—as well as international humanitarian assistance—across the northeast. Turkey would thus further divide the AANES, isolating western areas around Kobane and Manbij from the rest of SDF-held territory. The loss of Ayn Issa would force all traffic to divert south to the area around Raqqa, greatly complicating the AANES’ position. A more dramatic—if highly unlikely—scenario could see Turkey and the SNA press on toward Raqqa, the largest city in the AANES, as Erdoğan has discussed in describing his ideal “safe zone.” A move on Kobane would link Turkey’s zones—connecting TARA with the ESZ—and be a huge blow to the morale and credibility of the AANES and the SDF. The town, with its overwhelmingly Kurdish population, was the scene of the YPG’s famous last stand and subsequent victory over IS, in partnership with coalition forces; Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack city is of huge symbolic importance to the Syrian Kurdish and AANES narrative. Indeed, a Syrian Kurdish writer recently told a visitor to the region, “Without Kobane, there is no Autonomy [AANES].”

There are several possible tactical scenarios in these areas, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Turkey—or, more likely, the SNA—could try an outright assault to capture Ayn Issa or Tel Tamer. SNA troops tried to capture Tel Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack on November 15, —shortly after the cease-fire—but were unable to do so. Turkey and the SNA could also seek to make life for Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of Tel Tamer and Ayn Issa sufficiently unbearable that the residents will leave and Turkey will be able to functionally annex the areas. They could do this through constant shelling, drone attacks, and infiltration attempts as well as other means, such as setting fire to agricultural lands, as the SNA attempted to do in Tel Tamer in spring The ongoing shelling fits with this latter approach.

Turkey could also try to dislodge the SDF indirectly, using Russia. The SDF knows it cannot defend against a major Turkish attack and has invited Russian forces into Ayn Issa to prevent that outcome. But this dynamic allows for creeping Russian leverage that can, over time, effectively neutralize SDF autonomy. For example, the Russian forces briefly pulled out of Ayn Issa in December after the SDF rejected its deployment plan; Turkey and the SNA immediately began shelling the town, killing SDF fighters and necessitating the redeployment of Russian forces and the establishment of observation posts, despite SDF concerns. At least along Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack line of control, this approach could allow Turkey to achieve its goals of weakening the AANES without direct, large-scale Turkish intervention.

Barring a major Turkish push or a full U.S. withdrawal, which would scramble the picture, it is possible that the current, unstable status quo could persist for some time, with small-scale clashes along the border, moves to undermine the SDF via Russia, continuing terrorist and insurgent attacks in TARA, and halting Turkish attempts to rein in violent, ill-disciplined SNA factions.

It is therefore unlikely that the TARA region will produce another major refugee flow. While the area is unstable and violent, so are the other areas of Syria to which a local might flee. The Turkish border, meanwhile, is tightly controlled, though smuggling continues. Urfa Gov. Erin has hinted at this latter reality, speaking of the need for unregistered Syrians to leave Urfa and calling on registered Syrians to report new arrivals they do not recognize. Bluntly expressing the general Turkish feeling, Erin complained of people fleeing TARA “even though normal life has returned”—crossing to Urfa, he said, is acceptable “only for health and extraordinary humanitarian needs.” For most, however, life in Turkey remains more attractive than life in the Turkish-controlled zones, including TARA.

This preference for Turkey likewise limits the prospects of voluntary resettlement of refugees in TARA, despite President Erdoğan’s vision. Most Syrians would rather remain settled in Turkey, where their economic prospects are Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and their situation more secure. Beyond small-scale resettlement of families of SNA fighters and those actually from the area, then, Turkey may have to effectively force Syrians to move to TARA. There have already been some moves in this direction, repatriating Syrians “on the pretext that they lack temporary Turkish residence permits (known as ‘Kimlik’ cards) or that they have broken the law.” There are many anecdotal reports of forced returns, while even official returns are not necessarily to a Syrian’s original home.

While there is room for resettlement in TARA—either in new buildings, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, per Erdoğan’s ambitions, or illegally in the homes of Kurds driven from the region—there is little prospect of major voluntary resettlement. Indeed, the researcher al-Hilu found that “within a year of the [October ] operation ending, almost no returns [to TARA] from Turkey have in fact been recorded.” Instead, Turkey has bused Syrians displaced from other parts of the country into the TARA zone, raising concerns among locals. Ironically, the fastest route to major resettlement would be to allow—and provide the conditions for—the return of Kurdish civilians displaced in October But Turkey and the SNA show little desire to enable those returns, hinting at the demographic engineering that lies behind much of the policy. These well-placed fears of demographic engineering make it impossible for humanitarian NGOs or international donors to morally engage in TARA, further Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the goal of resettlement.

The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria

In mid, the Assad regime largely withdrew from Syria’s Kurdish-majority areas to focus on fighting elsewhere. The PYD, the Syrian branch of the PKK, emerged as the strongest force among the Syrian Kurds. The PYD’s militia, the YPG, soon dominated Kurdish-majority regions in Hasakah in the northeast, called Jazira by Kurds, Afrin in the northwest, and Kobane in the center of the border with Turkey. Syrian forces retained a presence in the northeastern towns of Hasakah and Qamishli, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, including the airport—and local civil servants continued to receive wages from Damascus—but the PYD held sway. What was later to be known as the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria took shape as the region’s civilian authority, dominated from the outset by the PYD.

In subsequent years, as the YPG battled IS—at first on its own, then, from autumn onward, in partnership with the U.S.-led coalition—its writ expanded. The YPG soon held the entirety of the Syrian-Turkish border east of the Euphrates, as well territories to the west, including Tabqa, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Manbij, and Afrin. The campaign to destroy IS soon required offensives south into Arab-majority Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor. To limit ethnic tensions and assuage Turkish concerns, the United States folded the YPG into a multiethnic umbrella group, the SDF, which eventually came to be majority Sunni Arab. Announced in Octoberwith the YPG still its dominant force, the SDF eventually defeated IS’ territorial caliphate in March Following the victory, the coalition troop presence—once numbering 2, or more—dwindled to approximately The AANES says the SDF includes 60,–70, troops, the majority of whom are now Arab, while 40,–50, local security forces called Asayish—whose ethnic composition varies by locale—maintain basic internal security.

The AANES lives a precarious existence. Though it is one of the most stable parts of Syria, the Assad regime, Russia, and Turkey and its Syrian proxies all seek its eventual destruction. The Assad regime, supported by Russia, seeks to recapture and centrally govern all of Syria, an outcome the AANES naturally opposes. Despite these antithetical visions, the AANES has at times had to cooperate with the regime and Russia against the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack immediate threat from Turkey. Ankara sees the YPG/PYD as an extension of the PKK. Fearing Kurdish autonomy in Syria as the YPG expanded its territory—and especially the ripple effect it seemed to have among Kurds in southeast Turkey—Ankara launched three major military operations, described in previous sections, aimed at preventing that outcome. Turkey has largely driven the SDF from the border and continues to apply military pressure, seeking its disintegration. Meanwhile, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), the dominant force in the adjoining Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), sees the YPG/PYD as a political rival. The KDP controls the border crossing from Iraq into Syria—the AANES’ overland lifeline to the outside world—and often restricts the movement of people and goods into the AANES. Finally, many in the majority-Arab population of DriverMax 10.1 Keygen Syria resent Kurdish dominance of the AANES, and these ethnic tensions threaten the AANES’ stability. The presence of U.S. troops keeps these enemies at bay for now; a U.S. departure would likely necessitate major concessions in terms of territory or political autonomy by the AANES, under escalating pressure from these adversaries, or result in its outright collapse.

The AANES is significant for several overlapping strategic and political reasons. First, it hosts the only officially acknowledged U.S. troops in Syria, aside from a small deployment at al-Tanf, deployed primarily to prevent any IS resurgence. The U.S. deployment also aims to deny Assad a significant part of Syria’s territory, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The area holds much of Syria’s oil and good agricultural land; once known as Syria’s breadbasket, some 70 percent of Syrian wheat plantings in came in SDF-controlled areas. Some U.S. officials hope that by supporting the SDF and denying the Assad regime control of the region, the coalition secures leverage to advance a political compromise to the overall Syrian problem. At a minimum, the U.S. presence has thus far helped keep a swath of Syria from being drawn back into full-blown civil conflict. Finally, U.S. officials have also sometimes emphasized the need to deny Iran easy overland access to Syria to supply its proxies, especially Hezbollah, with heavy armaments, although Iran has other means of access for that purpose.

Second, the AANES is important because of its negative impact on U.S.-Turkish relations. Turkey sees the YPG as an organic part of the PKK, labeled a terrorist group by both Turkey and the United States; Ankara thus regularly accuses the United States of supporting terrorists, while the United States denies that the YPG takes orders from the PKK. Both sides are somewhat disingenuous; the YPG was created by the PKK nearly two decades ago and retains clear PKK links, but Turkey’s position lacks critical context. Turkey was itself negotiating with the PKK when the U.S.-YPG partnership began, and Ankara twice hosted then-PYD leader Salih Muslim that very year, and other PYD leaders visited Turkey regularly. The YPG—and the SDF—is overwhelmingly a Syrian group with goals focused within Syria. Finally, the United States partnered with the YPG only after exploring other options, including a request to Turkey, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, to save the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobane from IS.

After the Kobane success, the United States expanded its partnership with the YPG to destroy IS; the approach succeeded but vastly complicated U.S.-Turkish relations. Turkey’s Kurdish policy abruptly changed in due in large part to domestic developments, and its subsequent refusal to soften on the Kurdish question has hamstrung U.S. involvement with the AANES, leading the United States to minimize political contact with the PYD and often insist that its cooperation with the YPG is “temporary, tactical, and transactional.” This focus on the short term has limited U.S. leverage, while the reluctance to engage with civilian authorities has slowed any shift away from militia control of the SDF areas. Ironically, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, an end to Turkish military threats might contribute to some demilitarization of politics, perhaps diluting the YPG/PYD’s dominance; the conflict itself guarantees that the strongest militia holds sway. For the SDF, a modus vivendi with Turkey would allow for socioeconomic development in the AANES, help prevent the further return of the Assad regime, and allow for deeper cooperation with the international community. This tenuous path, slim though its prospects are, represents the best hope for a durable, positive outcome in the AANES.

Third, the AANES is Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack experiment in pluralism. Despite the YPG’s dominance, AANES territory is majority Sunni Arab, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as is the SDF, though most of its officers are Kurdish. The AANES also includes small numbers of Christians, Turkmen, and Yazidis. Because of the AANES’ multiethnic character, the PYD often claims the region is a template for a future, decentralized Syria. Still, despite its diversity and proclaimed decentralized system of governance, the Kurdish YPG remains the dominant power in the AANES, and many Arabs chafe under what amounts to Kurdish rule. The Assad Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and Russia try to exploit this discontent to undermine the AANES, but most residents reportedly say that life under the AANES is preferable to a return of the Assad regime. The AANES has an intrinsic identity problem. Its Kurdish leadership and most outsiders see it as an expression of Kurdish autonomy, but its demography dictates pluralism. The success or failure of this multiethnic experiment is therefore important to postwar Syria.

Finally, and most importantly, the AANES is important for the people who live there—its political-military fate will determine whether millions of people will be drawn back into the war or the terror of IS or Assad’s rule.

Demography and humanitarian conditions

Despite its losses to Turkey, today, the AANES remains the largest territory in Syria outside the Assad regime’s control, governing roughly 20 percent of Syria. The precise population is likely between million and 4 million people. Fabrice Balanche puts the figure at million to 3 million, with Kurds making up some 35 percent and Sunni Arabs the majority. If the heavily Arab areas of Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor, the two areas most recently conquered from IS by the SDF, are removed from the equation, the Kurdish percentage rises to an estimated 60 percent. The loss of Afrin in and TARA in has increased the Kurdish percentage of the population in the remaining AANES; at leastKurdish IDPs from those two areas, including some 75, Kurds from TARA, fled to and remain in the AANES. At the same time, the non-Kurdish population of TARA, roughly , is no longer part of the AANES.

Humanitarian conditions in the region are uneven. The northeast was historically neglected despite its natural resources; prior toHasakah province produced roughly one-third of Syria’s oil, half of its grains, and 80 percent of its cotton. Agriculture remains the primary source of income for most inhabitants in the region. As in the rest of Syria, the war and the currency crisis have put massive additional stress on the economy, as have the intermittent blockades of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) authorities. With the American presence, the U.S. dollar has come to dominate major transactions, trade in key commodities, and the civil and military administration; but local markets, where the Syrian pound still holds sway, have not followed suit due to a shortage of dollars. Thanks in part to this dollarization, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the AANES was at least able to raise military and civilian salaries in response to the currency collapse and inflation. Oil, grain, and aid work are now the pillars of the AANES economy—all three of which bring disputes over control, pricing, and politics with the Assad regime. Indeed, COAR argues that the influx of dollars from the U.S. presence and accompanying international NGO activities, as well as the region’s hold on the grain supply, will boost Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack relative economic power toward the regime, perhaps prompting Damascus to lash out militarily.

Despite being better off than much of the rest of Syria, households in the AANES face shortages of basic goods, limited electrical and water supplies, and severely inadequate health care. According to REACH, a humanitarian monitoring group, one-third of communities reported shortages of medicines, and health care is unaffordable for three-quarters of communities. COVID has further worsened economic conditions, with 70 percent of communities reporting loss of wages; the World Food Program reported that roughly half of households in Hasakah and Raqqa governates lost a source of income due to the pandemic. The loss of income was compounded by the rising cost of living; prices for basic food items and essential fuel for cooking and heating increased in Decemberthough by less than in other parts of Syria, while availability for many items continued to be a problem. Some million people in northeastern Syria are in need of humanitarian assistance.

Adding to these economic strains is a large IDP presence. Prior to Turkey’s October invasion, the region hosted aboutIDPs, mainly from Afrin and the Deir ez-Zor region. Turkey’s offensive further scrambled the picture, driving somepeople from their homes, of whom some 75, remain displaced, mainly Kurds who do not feel safe under Turkish rule. There has been some economic development in the areas Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack by the Turkish incursion; for example, reconstruction in the devastated city of Raqqa has facilitated some IDP returns Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack improved commercial activity. Still, aboutIDPs reside in formal camps in the northeast, while the vast majority have taken up residence in communities, with relatives, or in informal camps or shelters.

Compounding these challenges is the problem of persistent water shortages made worse by a drought in early One reason for the shortages is the reduction in output from a major pumping station at Alouk, near Ras al-Ayn, that came under Turkish control following the October invasion. The station supplies water to someresidents of Hasakah, including IDPs and IS prisoners and their families, but was regularly shut down in the first year of Turkish control. Turkey and the SNA may be using Alouk to pressure the AANES to provide water and electricity to Turkish-controlled areas, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as the AANES did before Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Turkish occupation.

The cause of the problems at Alouk is disputed and difficult to parse. Turkey claims the AANES has failed to supply the electricity for TARA that it supplied prior to the Turkish operation—when the entire area was under AANES control—and that powered Alouk and the rest of the area. The AANES retorts that it supplies the necessary electricity but that it is siphoned off by SNA “militiamen” before it reaches Alouk. In lateU.S., Russian, and U.N. intervention seemed to ensure that electricity from the AANES and water from Alouk would flow in the necessary quantities, but an AANES official said in May that the flow from Alouk is still only intermittent at best. The same official accused Turkey of limiting the flow of the Euphrates River and thus hampering the operation of two key dams in the AANES, Tishrin, and Euphrates and further aggravating the water shortage. A senior AANES official publicly charged Turkey with a “blockade approach,” intended “to undermine our authority and harm our Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Turkey acknowledges a diminished flow but attributes it to the drought.

As in many parts of Syria, the AANES has struggled to provide acceptable education, reportedly resulting in diminished attendance at AANES schools. Residents complain about unqualified teachers and curricula too heavy on PKK ideology. Economic needs force many children to work rather than attend school. Another major factor is that AANES school certifications are not recognized by Damascus, nor outside Syria. As a result, many families—particularly Arabs—send their children to accredited schools in regime-held territory. In Arab-majority areas, protestors have demanded changes to the curricula and improved education more generally. A former U.S. official recently lamented that stabilization funds had rebuilt schools without making certain that the curriculum would win accreditation.

Another major challenge is how to deal with accused IS fighters and their families, some 90, of whom were being held in the AANES as of June There are roughly 10, suspected IS fighters, held in separate SDF prisons. The United Kingdom is funding an expansion to double the size of the prison in Hasakah, which currently holds about 5, accused IS fighters, indicating there is no immediate plan for large-scale repatriation or reintegration of the detainees. But the bigger problem is the families of these IS suspects; some 90 percent of the overall detainee population are women and children, more than half younger than age 12, held on presumption of IS links. As of Marchsome 61, of this group were being held in al-Hol (Hasakah province) in a camp designed for half that number, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with others at facilities in Hasakah town and al-Shadadi. Approximately 31, camp occupants are Iraqi, 20, Syrian, and 9, from elsewhere—mainly Central Asia, Europe, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and North America. Due to security concerns, the SDF was initially cautious about releasing people but more recently has stepped up the release of Syrians to tribal or family custody, with more than 6, Syrians leaving al-Hol after the SDF eased departure procedures in October Still, Syrians from regime-held Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack do not want to return home to face near certain arrest and possible execution, and the Iraqi government Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack not PDFMate PDF Converter Professional citizens suspected of IS affiliation to return.

Al-Hol presents serious security challenges, bringing together under conditions of severe overcrowding and deprivation a mix of loyal IS supporters and their relatives with those who chafed under IS rule and fled to SDF territory but were placed in camps and viewed with suspicion. According to the Defense Intelligence Agency, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, IS has “relative freedom of movement and extensive influence” in al-Hol, which it also exploits for recruitment purposes and as a financing node. The camp is often violent; in the first quarter ofthere were 47 murders in al-Hol, most believed to be IS-related, for reasons such as punishment for defecting from the group or for violating IS religious doctrine. Early has seen multiple IS attempts to break detainees out of detention facilities, though the SDF has managed to thwart most attempts.

The October decision to facilitate the departure of Syrians from al-Hol was partly for internal camp security and partly to satisfy Arabs in Deir ez-Zor and Raqqa who asserted that many residents were IS victims, not sympathizers. The releases raised fears of increased IS attacks, especially among Kurds. Attacks declined in the immediate aftermath, but the long-term impact is unclear. Judicial and rehabilitation efforts—as well as repatriation of foreign fighters—remain major challenges; there is little support provided for the reintegration of camp residents into Syrian communities, and many countries refuse to take back citizens accused of IS membership or sympathies.

There are also serious corruption and human rights concerns in the AANES, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack international access provides some accountability. The most recent report of an independent U.N. commission raised a number of human rights concerns regarding the SDF and related entities, including: torture and cruel treatment, recruitment of child soldiers, denial of judicial proceedings to accused IS members, and the confinement of families to al-Hol with little basis for appeal. The report tentatively cites eight documented cases of arbitrary detention of political activists and civil society workers during the January–July period covered by the report. Four individuals claimed they had been interrogated by U.S. officials while detained in SDF facilities, and at least two said they were tortured by SDF military intelligence, which could constitute war crimes. The commission also cites ongoing recruitment of children, though it notes efforts to end the practice. Inthe SDF signed a U.N. agreement to end child recruitment. Journalists Amberin Zaman and Dan Wilkofsky have described how the issue hints at the difficulty of distancing the SDF from the PKK, which has recruited Kurdish youth for decades. According to the authors, SDF commander Mazloum difficulty rooting out the practice may point to lingering PKK influence in the AANES and differences among the YPG, PKK, and affiliated Kurdish groups.

Security dynamics and governance

Conceptually, the AANES is based on local autonomy, starting at the smallest, commune level and scaling up as needed to larger units. The Syrian Democratic Council (SDC) sits atop the pyramid, serving as the civilian arm of the SDF and coordinating across the AANES. The PYD—the political arm of the YPG—dominates the civilian executive of this AANES “federal” government. The councils are meant to be at least partially elected at each level; some elections were held prior to the Turkish invasion of Octoberwhile others had been announced but were subsequently postponed. According to Amy Austin Holmes, a Syria expert and public policy fellow at the Wilson Center, the councils include prominent individuals from major ethnic and religious groups in each area. In Januarythe PYD iobit start menu 8 activation code 2019 a “Charter of the Social Contract” that committed the AANES to “ethnic, religious, and linguistic pluralism, equality, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, democracy, and local self-government.” Indeed, in a sign of relative autonomy, Arabs and Syriacs, as well as Kurds, are all allowed to provide schooling in their own language. And, in at least one case, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Syriac Christians reportedly persuaded the federal government to withdraw a major law.

Yet there is controversy about just how federal and democratic the system really is. For example, the power of taxation seems to rest solely with the federal government, according to a Syriac source. Citing the omnipresence of the YPG militia, Syria expert Fabrice Balanche asserts in a monograph that the AANES is “the most centralized [region in Syria], despite the PYD’s official discourse about local democracy and federalism.” Harriet Allsopp and Wladimir van Wilgenburg, experts on Kurdish politics, largely agree, casting doubt on the fairness of past elections and writing that the governance of the AANES cannot be “untangled from the PYD,” while acknowledging positive developments such as institutionalization of women’s rights.

The PKK created the PYD and YPG, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but there is also some dispute as to how strong the links are today. Allsopp and van Wilgenburg suggest that the PYD remains accountable to the PKK and the associated Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK). to pursue and develop governance structures in Syria, it remained accountable [to the PKK and KCK] within a wider structure and project.”] According to Daphne McCurdy, a former U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) official, the YPG-dominated SDF is “a notoriously opaque and undemocratic organization with indisputable ties to the PKK … [and its] decision-making authority continued to rest in Qandil,” with the PKK. Other U.S. officials familiar with the situation downplay the YPG’s operational ties to the PKK, as does the PYD/YPG itself, admitting that though many senior figures in the YPG, PYD, and SDC were formerly in the PKK, their current relationship is more characterized by “diffuse ideological affiliations.” Sociologically, it is clear that the YPG and the SDF are overwhelmingly Syrian groups with Syrian goals. SDF commander Mazloum is not said to require consultations with the PKK when making major decisions, indicating operational independence, though equally, there are reports of a parallel structure of PKK-linked cadres in the AANES as well as regular contacts and strategic alignment.

Over the years, the United States has sought to dilute both the appearance and reality of PKK influence in the AANES, especially for the sake of relations Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Turkey. That was a primary reason for the establishment in of a major Arab military component to fight alongside the YPG under the SDF umbrella. Other smaller groups, including Syriac Cleanmypc review, joined as well. The addition of the Arab forces, now reportedly a majority of the YPG, was significant both politically and militarily, as the SDF prepared to take on IS in majority-Arab areas. Turkey has dismissed the SDF as a fig leaf for the YPG and the PKK. For Washington, softening Turkey’s view of a crucial proxy in the campaign against IS was undoubtedly part of the calculus; but U.S. officials also hoped Arab recruitment would help secure genuine Arab support for the campaign to defeat IS and broaden the legitimacy of the SDF among local Arabs.

More recently, the United States has encouraged a dialogue between a PYD-dominated group of political parties known as the Kurdish National Unity Party (PYNK) and the more conservative, pro-Barzani Kurdish National Council (KNC). The goal of the dialogue, initiated by SDF commander Mazloum with U.S. encouragement, is to bring the KNC into the government in the AANES, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. There are many obstacles to the success of this attempt, including Turkey’s influence over the KNC and the long rivalry between Barzani and the PKK’s titular leader Abdullah Öcalan. The KNC is now largely in exile in Iraq’s KRG—whether by choice or due to YPG pressure is disputed by the groups—but has a limited presence in the AANES. Strategically, Mazloum and the United States hope that a power-sharing arrangement between the PYD and the KNC will broaden support for the AANES and dilute Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of PKK influence, perhaps making Kurdish autonomy in northern Syria acceptable to both Turkey and Barzani. But the PYD complains that Turkey is blocking these efforts, using its influence with Barzani and the KNC to cripple the reconciliation effort.

Turkey represents the most immediate threat to the AANES. President Erdoğan threatened a new offensive as recently as October Depending on the state of U.S.-Turkish relations and Erdoğan’s domestic imperatives, such an operation cannot be ruled out. Turkish troops and SNA proxies launch regular small arms, artillery, and drone attacks from the TARA salient, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, while periodic infiltration attempts spark heavier fighting. Turkey, in turn, plausibly accuses the YPG of responsibility for VBIED attacks in the TARA area, though the attacks could also be IS cells. Turkish military pressure has mainly aimed at Ayn Issa and Tel Tamer, towns on the critical M4 highway—the most important artery in the AANES, providing access for international humanitarian NGOs from the east and trade in both directions. Turkish shelling has shut down the M4 highway for months at a Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, disrupting transport in the AANES, with many residents avoiding stretches near Turkish lines. Russia helped reopen the highway recently, but it remains dangerous, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Turkey may want to seize Ayn Issa or Tel Tamer to permanently split the AANES. Russia’s Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack is a deterrent to Turkey but could over time facilitate the return of the Assad regime.

The Assad regime is another major threat. Damascus, formally supported by its Russian patron, demands the return of central government control to the east. The regime wants particularly to reclaim oil fields in Deir ez-Zor and Hasakah and was incensed when northern oil fields were leased to the U.S. company Delta Crescent Energy. Russia, too, was angered, as Assad had already leased those fields to a Russian outfit pending their return to Damascus’ control. The regime is unlikely to launch a full-scale military offensive to retake the east, at least in the near term; Damascus lacks manpower and is occupied holding the front lines in Idlib, managing internal security, and dealing with a growing IS insurgency in rural Damascus, Homs, and the portions of Deir ez-Zor it controls west of the Euphrates. For now, the presence of U.S. troops and the threat of the United States’ airpower keeps Syria and Russia at bay, but both will be probing for weaknesses; a string of assassinations of SDF-friendly Arab tribal leaders could be the work of the regime, seeking to destabilize the east and erode SDF control.

Relations between the SDF and the Assad regime have been characterized by intermittent cooperation and conflict. Despite differences, the AANES has had to work with the regime on occasion. Regime troops never fully left parts of Hasakah and Qamishli, requiring awkward coordination. But early has seen growing tension between those regime forces, known as the National Defense Forces (NDF), and the local Asayish, culminating in several days of clashes in Qamishli in late April that left 13 dead and raised fears of a wider conflict. The fighting appears to have been caused by a combination of local disputes, AANES efforts to get greater trade access from the regime, and regional rivalries between locals and the NDF (seen as pro-Iranian). Russian intervention has restored an uneasy calm, but the clashes demonstrate the tenuousness of SDF-regime relations.

Syrian and Russian troops are also arrayed along the line of control with the Turkish-controlled TARA, part of a deal struck in October to head off Turkey’s invasion. The arrangement brought Syrian regime troops back to AANES-administered towns such as Tel Tamer, Tabqa, and Ayn Issa—all evacuated by coalition forces following Trump’s sudden withdrawal announcement—for the first time in years. Russian troops moved into Manbij. One SDF commander described the choice between inviting Syrian troops back to the region or facing the Turkish forces alone as one between “compromise and genocide.” But the return of regime forces was largely nominal, given the regime’s manpower constraints and other commitments, and the SDF continues to be the dominant security force in the northeast. The October arrangement has certainly increased both Russia’s and, potentially, the regime’s leverage, however.

The new security regime was affirmed in a Turkish-Russian memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed October 22, The MOU stipulated that Russian military police and Syrian border guards would operate outside the TARA area to “facilitate the removal of YPG elements and their weapons to the depth of 30 km (19 miles) from the Turkish-Syrian border.” Ankara and Moscow also agreed to joint patrols to the west and east of TARA to “a depth of 10 km, except Qamishli city.” Early Turkish-Russian patrols in this zone met with popular protests, including rock throwing, in Kurdish villages. As a result, an AANES official says that Turkey limits patrols to nonpopulated areas. Russian forces patrol throughout the zone, coordinating their movements with the Asayish and SDF.

Russia’s official position is that Assad should regain sovereignty over the entire country, posing another problem for the AANES. The YPG angered Moscow by allying with the United States, perhaps explaining Russia’s willingness to allow Turkey to intervene in the Russian zone west of the Euphrates, especially its acquiescence to the Turkish invasion of then-Kurdish-majority Afrin. On the other hand, Russia has long-standing relations with the Kurds, including Soviet-era ties with the PKK. Moscow intervened on the Syrian Kurds’ behalf to resolve the Alouk water station problem, reopen the M4 highway, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and mediate the fighting with regime forces in Hasakah and Qamishli. Moscow has also advocated for Kurdish participation in the Geneva peace process and tabled a draft Syrian constitution in January that spoke of “Kurdish Cultural Autonomy,” while still stopping short of any Kurdish political autonomy, the core demand of the AANES. Still, Russia is likely to push for a deal that brings the east back under Assad’s rule. Meanwhile, Turkey can increase Russian leverage over the SDF, at least along the line of control: Through steady shelling and military pressure, Ankara can force the SDF to call for Russian support, shifting de facto control toward Moscow and Damascus.



CHARLES STEWART PARNELL

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Charles Stewart Parnell, by Katharine O'Shea This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at omjanahindia.com If you are not located in the United States, you'll Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to check the laws of the country where you are Stardock WindowBlinds For Windows before using this ebook. Title: Charles Stewart Parnell His Love Story and Political Life Author: Katharine O'Shea Release Date: January 9, [EBook #] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CHARLES STEWART PARNELL *** Produced by Al Haines

CHARLES STEWART PARNELL Taken in the sitting-room at Wonersh Lodge, Eltham by Mrs. Parnell
CHARLES STEWART PARNELL
Taken in the sitting-room at Wonersh Lodge, Eltham
by Mrs. Parnell

His Love Story and Political Life

BY

KATHARINE O'SHEA

(Mrs. Charles Stewart Parnell)

"No common soul was his; for good or ill
There was a mighty power
"
                    HAWKSHAW—Sonnet IX

CASSELL AND COMPANY, LTD
London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne

First published in Two Volumes
One Volume Edition

DEDICATED TO
LOVE

Had the whole rich world been in my power,
I should have singled out thee, only thee,
From the whole world's collected treasury."
                                                                                MOORE

PUBLISHERS' NOTE

Of all the love stories in history possibly none had more intense reactions upon politics than that of Charles Stewart Parnell and Katharine O'Shea, which is unfolded with candour so compelling in this record of their life.

The engrossing interest in Ireland has demanded a new and popular edition of Mrs. Parnell's book. No real comprehension of the Irish question is possible without a thorough knowledge of Parnell's life and his part in the creation of the modern Home Rule movement; and no intimate knowledge of Parnell's character and the springs of his policy during the critical decade of the 'eighties can be had without studying the revelations of his correspondence with his wife.

In this edition some abridgment has been necessary to bring the book within the compass of a single volume. The less material parts of Mrs. Parnell's narrative of her own girlhood have been curtailed, and the long correspondence of Captain O'Shea has been summarised in a note appended to Chapter xxvii. One or two omissions are indicated in footnotes. The text has been subject to no other interference.

La Belle Sauvage,
        September
,

{ix}

MRS. PARNELL'S PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

On October 6th,nearly twenty-three years ago, Charles Stewart Parnell died in the arms of his wife; nearly twenty-three years ago the whole of the civilized world awoke to laud—or to condemn—the dead chief. It ranked him with the greatest heroes, or with the vilest sinners, of the world, because he had found and kept the haven of her arms with absolute disregard of that world's praise or blame, till death, the only power greater than the love that held him there, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, tore him from them.

And then the hate that followed him to the grave turned to the woman he had loved, to vent upon her its baffled spleen; not considering that such a man as he would keep the heart of his wife as closely in death as he had kept it in life, so closely that none could come near it, so secretly that none could find the way to plant therein a sting. And so for these more than twenty-two years, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I, his wife, have lived upon memories so happy and so precious that, after time had brought back some meaning to my life, I took a certain pleasure in reading all men had to say of him whom they so little knew. Never in all the "lives," "articles," or "appreciations" I read had there been one that could say—or one that desired to say—that Parnell was not a man who stands out sharp and clear from other men for good or ill.

But now, after all these years, one of Parnell's erstwhile followers has arisen to explain to another generation that Parnell was not really such a man as this, that he {x} was one of Ireland's eternal failures. One who held her dear indeed, but one who balanced her welfare against the clutches of a light o' love with all the foolishness of callow degeneracy, so fondly imagined chivalry by the weak, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Not a man who gave his country his whole life, and found the peace and courage of that life in the heart of the woman he loved. No, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, that is how a man lives and loves, whether in secret or before the whole world. That is how Parnell lived and loved, and now after these long years I break my silence lest the unmanly echo of excuse given forth by Mr. O'Brien in an age that loves excuse may cling about the name of the man I loved. It is a very poignant pain to me to give to the world any account of the sacred happiness of eleven years of my life and of the agony of sorrow that once seemed too great to bear; but I have borne it, and I am so near him now that I fear to leave near the name of that proud spirit the taint of excuse that Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack loathed.

Parnell never posed as "rather the victim than the destroyer of a happy home," as Mr. O'Brien suggested in the Cork Free Press of last year, and he maintained to the last day of his life that he suffered no "dishonour and discredit" in making the woman he loved his own.

And because Parnell contravened certain social laws, not regarding them as binding him in any way, and because I joined him in this contravention since his love made all else of no account to me, we did not shrink at the clamour of the upholders of those outraged laws, nor resent the pressing of the consequences that were inevitable and always foreseen. The freedom of choice we had ourselves claimed we acknowledged for others, and were wise enough to smile if, in some instances, the greatness of our offence was loudly proclaimed by those who he {xi} knew lived in a freedom of love more varied than our own. For the hypocrisy of those statesmen and politicians who, knowing for ten years that Parnell was my lover, had with the readiest tact and utmost courtesy accepted the fact as making a sure and safe channel of communication with him, whom they knew as a force to be placated; for those who, when the time came to stand by him in order to give Ireland the benefits they had promised him for her, repudiated him from under the cloak of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack religion they thereby forswore, he, and I with him, felt a contempt unspeakable.

In this book I am giving to the public letters so sacred to my lover and myself that no eyes other Adobe Flash Player 31.0 Product Key our own should ever have seen them, but that my son was jealous for his father's honour, and that I would not my lover's life should seem in these softer days a lesser thing, beset with fears and indecisions that he did not know. I have, lived in those eleven years of Parnell's love so constantly that nothing has been lost to me of them, and the few details of them that Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack give will show a little of what manner of man he was, while still I keep for my own heart so much that none shall ever know but he and I.

In regard to the political aspect of the book those who know the Irish history of those days will understand. My lover was the leader of a nation in revolt, and, as I could, I helped him as "King's Messenger" to the Government in office. It has been erroneously said by some of the Irish Party that I "inspired" certain measures of his, and biased him in various ways politically. Those who have said so did not know the man, for Parnell was before all a statesman; absolutely convinced of his policy and of his ability to carry that policy to its logical conclusion. Self-reliant and far-seeing, the master of his own mind.

{xii}

I was never a "political lady," and, apart from him, I have never felt the slightest interest in politics, either Irish or English, and I can honestly say that except for urging him to make Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack with the Government in order to obtain his liberation from prison, I did not once throughout those eleven years attempt to use Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack influence over him to "bias" his public life or politics; nor, being convinced that his opinions and measures were the only ones worth consideration, was I even tempted to do so. In my many interviews with Mr. Gladstone I was Parnell's messenger, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and in all other work I did for him it was understood on both sides that I worked for Parnell alone.

KATHARINE PARNELL.

Brighton, April,

{xiii}

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1. MY EARLY LIFE

2. VISITORS AT RIVENHALL

3. MY FATHER'S DEATH AND MY MARRIAGE

4. A DAY ON THE DOWNS

5. MORE Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack DIFFICULTIES

6. CAPTAIN O'SHEA ENTERS POLITICAL LIFE

7. MR. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack AND THE IRISH PARTY

8. THE FIRST MEETING WITH MR. PARNELL

9. AT ELTHAM

THE LAND LEAGUE TRIALS

PARLIAMENTARY ASSOCIATIONS

HOBBIES AND A CHALLENGE

ASTRONOMY, "SEDITION," AND ARREST

KILMAINHAM DAYS

MORE KILMAINHAM LETTERS

THE "KILMAINHAM TREATY"

THE PHOENIX PARK MURDERS AND AFTER

ENVOY TO GLADSTONE

THE FIRST HOME RULE BILL

MR. PARNELL IN DANGER—FOUNDING OF NATIONAL LEAGUE

{xiv}

A WINTER OF MEMORIES

HORSES AND DOGS

SEASIDE HOLIDAYS

LONDON REMEMBRANCES

THE PARNELL COMMISSION

BRIGHTON HAUNTS

THE DIVORCE CASE

A KING AT BAY

PARNELL AS I KNEW HIM

MARRIAGE, ILLNESS AND DEATH

INDEX

{1}

Charles Stewart Parnell

CHAPTER I
MY EARLY LIFE

"Go forth; and if it be o'er stoney way
    Old Joy can lend what newer grief must borrow,
And it was sweet, and that was yesterday.
    And sweet is sweet, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, though purchased with sorrow.
"
                                                                                F. THOMPSON.

My father, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Sir John Page Wood, was descended from the Woods of Tiverton, and was the eldest of the three sons of Sir Matthew Wood, Baronet, of Hatherley House, Gloucestershire. He was educated at Winchester and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and after entering into holy orders, before he was twenty-four years of age, was appointed private chaplain and secretary to Queen Caroline, performing the last offices for her at her death inand attending her body to its final resting-place in Brunswick. He then became chaplain to the Duke of Sussex, and in was appointed by the Corporation of London to the rectory of St. Peter's, Cornhill.

In my father married Emma Caroline, the youngest of the three daughters of Admiral Michell (and my father's uncle, Benjamin Wood, M.P. for Southwark at the time, married the second daughter, Maria, the "Aunt Ben" of this book). She was eighteen. My father was still at Cambridge. The improvident young pair found it difficult to live on the small allowance that was {2} considered sufficient for my father at college. They appear to have been very happy Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack their difficulties, which were augmented a year later by the birth of a son; and while my father became "coach" to young men of slower wit, my mother, who was extremely talented with her brush, cheerfully turned her beautiful miniature painting to account for the benefit of her young husband and son. She soon became an exhibitor of larger works in London, and the brothers Finden engraved several of her pictures.

She and my father seem to have idolized their first child, "Little John," and his early death, at about four years old, was their first real sorrow, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The boy was too precocious, and when he was three years old his proud young parents were writing "he can read well now, and is getting on splendidly with his Latin!"

Constable, the artist, was a friend of my mother's, who thought highly of her work, and gave her much encouragement, and the young people seem to have had no lack of friends in the world of art and letters. Of my mother, Charles Sheridan said he "delighted in her sparkling sallies," and the young Edwin Landseer was "mothered" by her to his "exceeding comfort."

My mother was appointed bedchamber woman to Queen Caroline, and became very fond of her. The consort of George IV. appears to have taken the greatest interest in "Little John," and I had until a short time ago—when it was stolen—a little workbox containing a half-finished sock the Queen was knitting for the little boy when her fatal illness began.

My parents then lived in London for some years while my father did duty at St. Peter's. In my father became vicar of Cressing, in Essex, and he took my {3} mother and their (I think three) children there, leaving a curate in charge of St. Peter's. Thirteen children in all were born to my parents (of whom I was the thirteenth), and of my brothers and sisters there were seven living at the time of my birth.

There was little room for all these young people in the vicarage at Cressing, and it was so extremely damp as to be unhealthy; so my parents moved to Glazenwood, a charming house with the most beautiful gardens I have ever seen in a place of moderate size, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I think my brother Fred died here; but my first memories are of Rivenhall, where my parents moved soon after my birth, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Rivenhall Place belonged to a friend of my father's, Sir Thomas Sutton Weston, of Felix Hall. The beautiful old place was a paradise for growing children, and the space and beauty of this home of my youth left me with a sad distaste for the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack houses of many conveniences that it has been my lot to inhabit for the greater part of my life.

In politics my father was a thoroughgoing Whig, and as he was an able and fluent speaker, and absolutely fearless in his utterances, he became a great influence in the county during election Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I remember, when he was to speak at a political meeting, how he laughed as he tied me up in enormous orange ribbons and made me drive him there, and how immensely proud of him I was (though, of course, I could not understand a word of it all) as he spoke so persuasively that howls and ribald cries turned to cheers for "Sir John's man."

When he went to London to "take duty" at St. Peter's Cornhill, he and I used to stay at the Green Dragon, Bishopsgate Street. There was a beautiful old courtyard to this hotel with a balcony, overhung with creepers, {4} running all round the upper rooms. I loved this place, and when I was too young to care much for the long service and sermons, I was quite content that my father should tuck me up safely in bed before going to evensong at St. Peter's.

Sometimes I was not well enough to go to London with him, and on these occasions comforted myself as much as possible with a compensating interest in the habits of the Rev. Thomas Grosse, who took my father's place at Cressing. He was very good and kind to me, and in the summer evenings, when he knew I was missing my father, he would take me out to look for glow-worms, and show me the stars, teaching me the names of the planets. Years afterwards the knowledge I thus gained became a great happiness to me, as I taught Mr. Parnell all I knew of astronomy, and opened up to him a new world of absorbing interest.

Friends of my brother Evelyn frequently stayed at Rivenhall, and one of them, a colonel of Light Dragoons, was engaged to one of my elder sisters. This gentleman appealed to my youthful mind as being all that a hero should be, and I used to stick a red fez on my golden curls and gallop my pony past the dining-room windows so that he might see and admire the intrepid maiden, as the prince in my fairy book did!

I loved the winter evenings at Rivenhall when my brothers were not at home. My father used to sit by the fire reading his Times, with his great white cat on his knee, while I made his tea and hot buttered toast, and my mother and sister Anna read or sketched. I used to write the plots of tragic little stories which my "Pip"[1] used to read and call "blood-stained bandits," owing to the {5} violent action and the disregard of convention shown by all the characters concerned.

However, these childish efforts of mine led to greater results, as one evening my mother and sister laughingly offered to buy my "plot" in order to "write it up" into a novel. I was, of course, very proud to sell my idea, and thenceforth both my mother and sister wrote many successful novels, published by Chapman and Hall—and, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I believe, at prices that are rarely realized by present-day novelists.

I was thus the unwitting means of greatly relieving my parents' anxiety of how to meet, with their not very large income, the heavy expense of educating and maintaining my brothers, and the responsibilities of their position.

My brothers loved to tease me, and, as I was so much younger than they, I never understood if they were really serious or only laughing at me. Evelyn was specially adroit in bewildering me, and used to curb my rebellion, when I was reluctant to fetch and carry for him, by drawing a harrowing picture of my remorse should he be killed "in the next war." The horror of this thought kept me a ready slave for years, till one day, in a gust of temper, I burst out with: "I shan't be sorry at all when you're Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack in a war cos' I didn't find your silly things, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and I wish you'd go away and be a dead hero now, so there!" I remember the horrified pause of my mother and sister and then the howl of laughter and applause from Evelyn and Charlie. Evelyn was very good to me after this, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and considered, more, that even little girls have their feelings.

As a matter of fact, my mother was so entirely wrapped up in Evelyn that I think I was jealous, even though I {6} had my father so much to myself. My mother was most affectionate to all her children, but Evelyn was her idol, and from the time when, as a mere lad, he was wounded in the Crimean War, to the day of her death, he was first in all her thoughts.

Of my brothers and sisters I really knew only four at all well. Clarissa had died at seventeen, and Fred when I was very young; Frank was away with his regiment, my sister Pollie was married and away in India before I was born, and my sister Emma married Sir Thomas Barrett-Lennard while I was Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack very young. She was always very kind to me, and I used to love going to visit her at her house in Brighton. Visiting Sir Thomas Barrett-Lennard's country seat, Belhus, I did not like so much, because, though Belhus is very beautiful, I loved Rivenhall better.

My mother was a fine musician, and as I grew older, I began to long to play as she did. There was a beautiful grand piano in the drawing-room, and I used to try to pick out tunes upon it. My mother had spent much money on her eldest daughter's—Maria's (Pollie)—musical education. At the end of this Pollie said she detested it, and would never play a note again if she could help it. When I asked that I might be taught to play my mother said, "No. There is the piano; go and play it if you really want to learn." In time I could play very well by ear, and began to compose a little and seek for wider knowledge. My love of music led me to try composition, and I used to set to music any verses that took my fancy. Among these I was much pleased with Longfellow's "Weariness," and was so encouraged by my mother's praise of the setting that I sent the poet a copy. I was a very happy girl when he wrote to thank me, {7} saying that mine was the best setting of his poem he had ever heard.

Armed with the manuscript of this music and some others, the next time I went to London with my father I went to Boosey's, the musical publishers, and asked their representative to publish them.

"Quite impossible, my dear young lady," he answered at once. "We never take beginners' work!" I plaintively remarked that even Mozart was a "beginner" once, and could not understand why he laughed. Still, with a smile, he consented to look at the manuscript, and to my joy he ceased to laugh at me and tried some of it over, finally agreeing, much to my joy, to publish "Weariness" and a couple of other songs.

I remember my father's pleasure and the merry twinkle in his eye as he gravely assented to my suggestion that we were a very gifted family!

While my brother Frank (who was in the 17th Foot) was stationed at Aldershot he invited my sister Anna and myself down to see a review. He was married, and we stayed with him and his wife and children in the married officers' quarters, which appeared to us to be very gay and amusing.

I greatly enjoyed seeing the cavalry, with all the officers and men in full dress.

Many of the officers came over to call after the review, and among them was Willie O'Shea, who was then a cornet in the 18th Hussars. There was a small drama acted by the officers in the evening which my brother's wife took us to see, and there were many of the 18th Hussars, who paid us much attention, though, personally, I found the elderly and hawk-eyed colonel of the regiment far more interesting than the younger men.

{8}

CHAPTER II
VISITORS AT RIVENHALL

"A chiel's amang you takin' notes,
And, faith, he'll prent it!
"—BURNS.

Among other visitors to Adobe photoshop cs6 full version Free Activators was Lieut.-Colonel Steele, of the Lancers, a dark, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack man, who married my sister Anna.

I remember looking at Anna consideringly when I was told this was to be, for, as children do, I had hitherto merely regarded Anna as a sister too "grown-up" to play with on equal terms, and yet not as a person sufficiently interesting to be married to one of the magnificent beings who, like Evelyn's friends, wore such beautiful uniforms and jingly spurs. But my sister had soft brown hair and a lovely skin, blue eyes that were mocking, gay, or tender in response to many moods, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and a very pretty figure. And I solemnly decided that she was really pretty, and quite "grown-up" enough to be loved by the "beautiful ones."

Anthony Trollope was a great friend of my father and mother, and used to stay with us a good deal for hunting. He was a very hard rider to hounds, and was a cause of great anxiety to my mother, for my sister Anna loved an intrepid "lead" out hunting, and delighted in following Trollope, who stuck at nothing. I used to rejoice in his "The Small House at Allington," and go about fitting the characters in the book to the people about {9} me—a mode of amusement that palled considerably on the victims.

I was always glad when our young cousin George (afterwards Sir Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Farwell (Lord Justice Farwell) came to see us. A dear lad, who quite won my childish Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack with Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack courtly manners and kind, considerate ways.

The Hon. Grantley-Barkley (who was seventy, I believe) was a dear old man who was very fond of me—as I was of him. I was but a child when he informed my parents that he wished to marry me when I was old enough! He was a dear friend of my father's, but, though the latter would not consider the matter seriously, my mother, who was an extraordinarily sympathetic woman, encouraged the idea.

Grantley-Barkley was always called the "Deer-slayer" by his friends. A fine old sportsman, his house, "The Hut," at Poole, Dorset, was a veritable museum of slain beasts, and I used to shudder secretly at the idea of becoming mistress of so many heads and horns.

The dear old man used to write long letters to me before I could answer them in anything but laborious print, and he wrote sheets to my mother inquiring of my welfare and the direction of my education. I still have many of the verses he composed in my honour, and though the last line of the verse that I insert worries me now as much as it did when I received it, so many years ago, I still think it very pretty sentiment:

"Then the Bird that above me is singing
    Shall chase the thought that is drear,
When the soul to her side it is winging
    The limbs must be lingering near!"

This little one-sided romance died a natural death as {10} I grew up, my old friend continuing to take the kindest interest in me, but accepting the fact that I was no exception to the law of youth that Adobe Flash Player 31.0 License Key to youth in mating.

My brother Frank suggested to my brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Barrett-Lennard, that Willie O'Shea, who was a first-class steeplechase rider, would no doubt, if asked, ride the horse Honesty that Tom was going to run in the Brentwood Steeplechase. He had already ridden and won many races. Willie readily agreed to ride, and came to stay at Belhus for the race.

I was staying there at the time, and though I was considered too young to be really "out," as a rule I had my share in any festivities that were going on. I remember my brother-in-law saying casually to my sister Emma, who was giving a dinner party that evening: "Who is Katie to go in with, milady?" and she answered promptly, "Oh, she shall go in with O'Shea." A mild witticism that rather ruffled my youthful sense of importance.

My first sight of Willie then, as a grown-up, was on this evening, when I came rather late into the hall before dressing for dinner. He was standing near the fire, talking, with the eagerness that was not in those days bad form in young men, of the steeplechase he had ridden and won Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Early Bird.

I had been so much the companion of older men than he that I was pleased with his youthful looks and vivacity. His dress pleased me also, and, though it would appear a terrible affair in the eyes of a modern young man, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, it was perfectly correct then for a young officer in the 18th Hussars, and extremely becoming to Willie: a brown velvet coat, cut rather fully, sealskin waistcoat, black-and-white check trousers, and an enormous carbuncle and diamond pin in his curiously folded scarf.

{11}

When introduced to me he was most condescending, and nettled Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack so much by his kindly patronage of my youthfulness that I promptly plunged into such a discussion of literary complexities, absorbed from my elders and utterly undigested, and he soon subsided into a bewildered and shocked silence.

However, in the few days of that visit we became very good friends, and I was immensely pleased when, on parting, Willie presented me with a really charming little poem written about my "golden hair and witsome speech."

Of course, as usual, I flew to show my father, who, reading, sighed, "Ah, too young for such nonsense. I want my Pippin for myself for years to come."[1]

In the summer at Belhus I met Willie again. Unconsciously we seemed to drift together in the long summer days. The rest of the household intent on their own affairs, we were content to be left together to explore the {12} cool depths of the glades, where the fallow deer ran before us, or the kitchen garden, where the high walls were covered with rose-coloured peaches, warm with the sun as we ate them. What we talked about I cannot remember, but it was nothing very wise I should imagine.

Week after week went by in our trance of contentment. I did not look forward, but was content to exist in the languorous summer heat—dreaming through the sunny days with Willie by my side, and thinking not at all of the future. I suppose my elders were content with the situation, as they must have known that such propinquity could have but one ending.

There was a man by whom I was attracted and who had paid me considerable attention—E.S., stationed at Purfleet. He was a fine athlete, and used to fill me with admiration by jumping over my pony's back without touching him at all. I sometimes thought idly of him during these days with Willie, but was content to drift along, until one day my sister asked me to drive over with a note of invitation to dinner for the officers at Purfleet.

In the cool of the evening I set out, with Willie, of course, in attendance. Willie, on arrival, sprang out of the pony cart to deliver the note, and as he was jumping in again glanced up at the window Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack us, where it happened E. S. and another officer were standing. Without a moment's hesitation Willie leant forward and kissed me full on the lips. Furious and crimson with the knowledge that the men at the window had seen him kiss me, I hustled my poor little pony home, vowing I would never speak to Willie again; but his apologies and explanation that he had only just wanted "to show those fellows that they must not make asses of themselves" seemed so funny download axure rp 8 cracked Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack keeping with the dreamy sense I had of belonging {13} to Willie that I soon forgave him, though I felt a little stab of regret when I found that E. S. declined the invitation to dinner. He never came again.

Willie had now to rejoin his regiment, and in the evening before his going, as I was leaving the drawing-room, he stopped to offer me a rose, kissing me on the face and hair as he did so.

A few mornings after I was sleeping the dreamless sleep of healthy girlhood when I was awakened by feeling a thick letter laid on my cheek and my mother leaning over me singing "Kathleen Mavourneen" in her rich contralto voice. I am afraid I was decidedly cross at having been awakened so suddenly, and, clasping my letter unopened, again subsided into slumber.

So far nearly all my personal communication with Willie when he was away had been carried on by telegraph, and I had not quite arrived at knowing what to reply to the sheets of poetic prose which flowed from his pen. Very frequently he came down just for a day to Rivenhall, and I drove to meet him at the station with my pony-chaise. Then we used to pass long hours at the lake fishing for pike, or talking to my father, who was always cheered by his society.

At this time Colonel Clive, of the Grenadier Guards, was a frequent visitor. I was really fond of him, and he pleased me by his pleasure in hearing me sing to my own accompaniment. I spent some happy hours in doing so for him when Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack at Claridge's Hotel with my sister, and I remember that when I knew he was coming I used to twist a blue ribbon in my hair to please him.

Once, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, when staying at Claridge's, my sister and I went to his rooms to see the sketches of a friend of my brother Evelyn's, Mr. Hozier, the clever newspaper {14} correspondent, afterwards Sir H. Hozier, and father of Mrs, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Winston Churchill. The drawings were, I Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, very clever, and I know the tea was delicious.

It was some time after this that the 18th Hussars were stationed at Brighton. Willie loved early morning gallops on the Downs, and, on one occasion, he rode off soon after daybreak on his steeplechaser, Early Bird, for a gallop on the race-course. At the early parade that morning Willie was missing, and, as inquiries were being made as to his whereabouts, a trooper reported that Early Bird had just been brought in dead lame, and bleeding profusely from a gash in the chest.

He had been found limping his way down the hill from the race-course. Willie's brother officers immediately set out to look for him, and found him lying unconscious some twenty yards from a chain across the course which was covered with blood, and evidently the cause of the mishap. They got him down to the barracks on a stretcher, and there he lay with broken ribs and concussion of the brain.

He told us afterwards that he was going at a hard gallop, and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack he nor Early Bird had seen the chain till they were right on it, too late to jump. There had never been a chain up before, and he had galloped over the same course on the previous morning.

I was at Rivenhall when I heard of the accident to Willie, and for six unhappy weeks I did little else than watch for news of him. My sister, Lady Barrett-Lennard, and Sir Thomas had gone to Preston Barracks to nurse him, and as soon as it was possible they moved him to their own house in Brighton. For six weeks he lay unconscious, and then at last the good news came that he was better, and that they were going to take him to Belhus to convalesce.

{15}

A great friend of Willie's, also in the 18th—Robert Cunninghame Graham—was invited down to keep him amused, and my sister, Mrs. Steele, and I met them in London and went down to Belhus with them. Willie was looking very ill, and was tenderly cared for by his friend Graham. He was too weak to speak, but, while driving to Belhus, he slipped a ring from his finger on to mine and pressed my hand under cover of the rugs.

Robert Cunninghame Graham, uncle of Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, the Socialist writer and traveller, walked straight into our hearts, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, so gay, so careful of Willie was he, and so utterly bon camarade, that we seemed to have known him for years. In a few days Anna and I left Belhus, and Willie's father came over from Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to stay with him till he was completely recovered.

Before Willie left I was back at Belhus on the occasion of a dinner party, and was shyly glad to meet him again and at his desire to talk to me only.

While the others were all occupied singing and talking after dinner Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack sat on the yellow damask sofa, and he slipped a gold and turquoise locket on a long gold and blue enamel chain round my neck. It was a lovely thing, and I was very happy to know how much Willie cared for me.

{16}

CHAPTER III
MY FATHER'S DEATH AND MY MARRIAGE

"Fair shine the day on the house with open door;
Birds come and cry there and twitter in the chimney,
But I go for ever and come again no more.
"
                                                                                    —STEVENSON.

The following autumn my father, mother, and I went to stay at Belhus on a long visit, my father going to Cressing each week for the Sunday duty, and returning to us on Monday morning.

We all enjoyed spending Christmas at Belhus. My mother and my sister Emma were devoted Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack one another, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and loved being together. We were a much larger party also at Belhus, and there were Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack many visitors coming and going that I felt it was all more cheerful than being at home.

Among other visitors that winter, I well remember Mr. John Morley—now Lord Morley—as he was told off for me to entertain during the day. He was a very brilliant young man, and my elders explained to me that his tense intellect kept them at too great a strain for pleasurable conversation. "You, dear Katie, don't matter, as no one expects you to know anything!" remarked my sister with cheerful kindness. So I calmly invited John Morley to walk with me, and, as we paced through the park from one lodge to the other, my companion talked to me so easily and readily that I forgot my rôle of "fool of the family," and responded most intelligently to a really very interesting conversation.

With the ready tact of the really clever, he could already {17} adapt himself to great or small, and finding me simply ready to be interested, was most interesting, and I returned to my family happily conscious that I could now afford to ignore my brother Evelyn's advice to "look lovely and keep your mouth shut!"

John Morley, so far as I remember him then, was a very slight young man with a hard, keen face, the features strongly marked, and fair hair. He had (to me) a kindly manner, and did not consider it beneath him to talk seriously to a girl so young in knowledge, so excessively and shyly conscious of his superiority, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and so much awed by my mission of keeping him amused and interested while my elders rested from his somewhat oppressive intellectuality. I remember wondering, in some alarm, as to what topic I should start if he suddenly stopped talking. But my fear was entirely groundless; he passed so easily from one thing interesting to me to another that I forgot to be self-conscious, and we discussed horses and dogs, books and their writers—agreeing that authors were, of all men, the most disappointing in appearance—my father, soldiers, and "going to London," with the greatest pleasure and mutual self-confidence. And I think that, after that enlightening talk, had I been told that in after years this suave, clever young man was to become—as Gladstone's lieutenant—one of my bitterest foes, I should perhaps have been interested, but utterly unalarmed, for I had in this little episode lost all awe of cleverness as such.

My father died in February, The vexed question of ways and means—always a vexed question in a clergyman's household when the head of the house dies—pressed heavily on my mother, who was left almost penniless by my father's death.

My mother and sisters were discussing what was best {18} to be done, and my mother was speaking sadly as I went into her room. "We must sell the cow, and, of course, the pig," my eldest sister (Emma) replied in her sweet, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, cheerful voice, which produced a little laugh, though a rather dismal one, and our sorrow was chased away for the moment.

My mother's sister, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Mrs. Benjamin Wood, on hearing of her troubles, settled a yearly income on her, thus saving her from all future anxiety, most of her children being provided for under our grandfather's—old Sir Matthew Wood's—will.

During that year we lived chiefly at Rivenhall. It was a very quiet, sad year, but we had a few pleasant visitors. Sir George Dasent, of the Times, and also Mr. Dallas, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, who wrote leading articles for the same paper, were frequent visitors, and Mr. Chapman (of Chapman and Hall, publishers), with pretty Mrs. Chapman, Mr. Lewes, and many other literary people were very welcome guests. My mother and sister Anna (Mrs. Steele) were writing Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and much interested in all things literary. At the end of the year we joined my eldest sister and her husband at Brighton, and soon after this Willie returned from Spain and called on us at once, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with the ever-faithful Cunninghame Graham. I now yielded to Willie's protest at being kept waiting longer, and we were married very quietly at Brighton on January 25, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I narrowly escaped being married to Mr. Cunninghame Graham by mistake, as Willie and he—the "best man"—had got into wrong positions. It was only Mr. Graham's horrified "No, no, no," when asked whether he would have "this woman" to be his wife, that saved us from many complications.

My mother, brothers and sisters gave me beautiful {19} presents, and my dear sister Emma gave me my trousseau, while Willie himself gave me a gold-mounted dressing-bag. My old Aunt H. sent me a gold and turquoise bracelet. Willie Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack this after I had shown him what my sister Mrs. Steele had given me—a carbuncle locket with diamond centre. Aunt H. was a very wealthy woman, my sister not at all well off, though in any case her present would have been much more to me than that of Aunt H. However, Willie merely remarked of Anna's gift: "That is lovely, darling, and this," taking up Aunt H.'s bracelet, "this will do for the dog," snapped it round the neck of my little Prince.

Long afterwards he and I went to call on Aunt H., and as usual I had Prince under my arm. I noticed Aunt H. break off in a sentence, and fix a surprised and indignant eye on my dog. I had forgotten all about Prince's collar being Aunt H.'s bracelet, and only thought she did not like my bringing the dog to call, till I caught Willie's eye. He had at once taken in the situation, and became so convulsed with laughter that I hastily made my adieu and hustled him off.

Sir Seymour Fitzgerald lent us Holbrook Hall for our honeymoon, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, a kindness that proved unkind, as the pomp and ceremony entailed by a large retinue of servants for our two selves were very wearisome to me. There was little or no occupation for us, as the weather was too bad to get out much; our kind host had naturally not lent us his hunters, and we were, or Willie was, too much in awe of the conventions to ask anyone to come and relieve our total av antivirus mac crack. Indeed, I think that no two young people were ever more rejoiced than we were when we could return to the life of the sane without comment.

Willie had sold out of the army just before his marriage, {20} and his Uncle John, who had married a Spanish lady and settled in Madrid, offered Willie a partnership Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack his bank, O'Shea and Co., if he would put the £4, he received for his commission into it. This was too good an offer to be refused, so I said good-bye to my people, and bought some little presents for the servants at home, including a rich silk dress for my old nurse Lucy, who had been in my mother's service since the age of sixteen, and who was much upset that her youngest and dearest nursling should be taken away to such "heathenish, far-off places."

Before leaving England Willie and I stayed for a few days in London, and his mother and sister Mary called on us. They had not attended the marriage, as they would not lend their countenance to a "mixed" marriage, though once accomplished Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack accepted the situation. They were very nice and kind, and so gently superior that at once I became politely antagonistic, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They brought me some beautiful Irish poplins which were made into gowns to wear in Madrid to impress the Spanish cousins, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and a magnificent emerald bracelet, besides £ worth of lovely Irish house-linen. My mother-in-law and sister-in-law were most generous indeed, and I then, and always, acknowledged them to be thoroughly good, kind-hearted women, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but so hidebound with what was to me bigotry, with conventionality and tactlessness, that it was really a pain to me to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack near them. They admired me, and very plainly disapproved of me; I admired them for their Parisian finish—(for want of a better term)—and for their undoubted goodness, but, though I was rather fond of Mary, they wearied me to death.

That week we crossed over to Boulogne, and there we had to stay for a few days, as I was too ill from the crossing to go farther. The second morning Willie, seeing I {21} was better, wanted to go out to déjeuner, and told me to lie still in bed, and he would tell them to send a maid with my food, as he knew that I, not being used to French customs, would not like a waiter to bring it. To make sure of my not being disturbed he locked the door. To my horror half an hour after he had gone there was a tap at the door, and a manservant opened it with his key, and marched in, despite my agitated protests in very home-made French. Once in, however, he made me so comfortable by his deft arrangement of a most tempting meal and paternal desire that "Madame should eat and recover herself," that I was able to laugh at Willie's annoyance on his return to find the waiter once more in possession and removing the tray.

We then Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to Paris to stay with my mother-in-law and Mary for a few days, while they found me a French maid and showed me the sights. I had a great quantity of very long hair in those days, and Willie insisted on my having it very elaborately dressed—much to my annoyance—in the latest French fashion, which I did not consider becoming to me, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. My maid was also much occupied in making the toilet of my little dog. He was a lovely little creature, and Caroline would tie an enormous pale blue bow on him as a reward for the painful business of combing him. From the time Willie gave me this little dog to the day it died, about six years afterwards, it went everywhere with me. He was as good and quiet as possible when with me, but if I ever left him for Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack moment the shrill little howls would ring out till the nearest person to him would snatch him up, and fly to restore him to his affectionate, though long-suffering, mistress.

At Paris there was trouble with my mother-in-law and Mary at once because of him. They took me to see Notre {22} Dame, and as a matter of course Prince was in my arm under my cloak. As we came out I let my little dog down to run, and the Comtesse nearly fainted. "You took the dog into the church! Oh, Katie, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, how wrong, how could, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, you! Mary! what shall we do? Do you not think——?" and turning a reproachful glance on me, Mary responded, "Come, mother," and, leaving me amazed and indignant on the steps, they passed into Notre Dame again. With some curiosity I peeped in after them, and beheld them kneeling at prayer just inside the door. They came out almost at once, and the old Comtesse looked happier. "You did not understand, dear," said Mary kindly, "it is better not to take the little dog into a church." I was young enough to resent being told I did not understand, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and promptly returned, "I understand, Mary, that you and the Comtesse consider it wicked to take Prince into Notre Dame. Well, I don't, and you must excuse me if I remind you that God made the dog; and I seem to remember something about a Child that was born in a stable with a lot of nice friendly beasts about, so you need not have gone back to pray about me and Prince, I think!" And, scooping up Prince, I stalked off with a dignity that was rather spoilt by my not having sufficient French to find my own way home, and having to wait at the carriage for them. We drove home with much stiffness, and only thawed sufficiently to assure Willie how much we had enjoyed ourselves!

While I was abroad I often used to get away by myself to spend many happy hours in the beautiful churches with Prince tucked under my arm, and often a friendly old priest would give us a smile as he passed on his way about the church, so it was apparently not a very deadly sin to take him with me.

{23}

Willie's mother and Mary became more reconciled to the little dog when they found how much admired he was in Paris. An old Frenchman, after seeing him one evening as Willie and I were leaving table d'hôte, made inquiries as to where we were staying, and called on Willie to offer £ for "madame's pet" if at any time she wished to sell him. Willie was too wise to approach me with the offer, and assured monsieur that madame would consider the offer an insult only to be wiped out in monsieur's blood!

{24}

CHAPTER IV
A DAY ON THE DOWNS

"A son to clasp my finger tight."—NORMAN GALE.

When we had been in Spain for nearly a year, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, there was some dispute about the business arrangements of Willie's partnership in his uncle's bank, and Willie withdrew altogether from the affair. We then decided to return to England. Though glad to go home, I parted from my Spanish relations with regret, and have always since my visit to them thought that the admixture of Irish and Spanish blood is most charming in its result.

On our return to England we lived in Clarges Street, London, for some time, while Willie was looking for a place in the country where he could start a stud farm. Willie was very fond of horses, and understood them well, and I was delighted at the idea of his getting some really good brood mares and breeding race-horses. We knew, of course, nothing of the enormous expense and many losses such an undertaking was certain to entail.

At last we decided to take Bennington Park, Hertfordshire, and on going there Willie bought some good blood stock, among the pick of which were Alice Maud, Scent, and Apricot. Soon we had all the boxes tenanted, and I spent many happy hours petting the lovely thoroughbred mares with their small velvety noses and intelligent eyes.

The chief form of social intercourse in the county was the giving of long, heavy, and most boring dinners. People thought nothing of driving eight or even ten miles {25} (and there were no motor-cars then) to eat their dinner in each other's houses, and this form of entertainment used to produce such an absolutely painful boredom in me that I frequently hid the invitations from Willie, who wished to "keep up with the county."

Willie and I were a good-looking young couple, and people liked to have us about. Willie, too, was a good conversationalist, and had a ready wit that made him welcome, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, since an Irishman and wit are synonymous to the conventional mind. That his witticisms pertained rather to the France of his education than the Ireland of his birth was unrecognized because unexpected.

I was—rather, I fear, to Willie's annoyance—labelled "delightfully unusual" soon after our going to Bennington, the cause being that I received my guests one evening with my then abundant hair hanging loosely to below my waist, twisted through with a wide blue ribbon. To Willie's scandalized glance I replied with a hasty whisper, "The very latest from Paris," and was rewarded with the mollified though puzzled expression very properly awarded by all men to the "latest fashion" of their womenkind.

I put off the queries of the ladies after dinner in the same way, and was rewarded by them by the general admission that it was a fashion for the few—who had the hair. Never did I admit that I had been out with the horses so late that I had had just time for Caroline to hurry me into a gown and shake down my hair as my first guest arrived. So little do we deserve the fame forced upon us.

Willie was never good at dunning friends for money owed, and as we had many brood mares, not our own, left with us for months at a time, the stable expenses, both for forage and wages, became appallingly large. It was always difficult to get the accounts in, and while Willie {26} did not like to worry the owners even for the amount for the bare keep of the animals, he was himself perpetually worried by forage contractors, the shoeing smith, and the weekly wage bill, besides the innumerable extra expenses pertaining to a large stable.

As I urged against the sale of the mares, which he so often threatened, their happy, peaceful maternity, in the long lush grass and shade of trees by day, their comfortable boxes at night, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and their fondness of me, he used to stare gloomily at me and swear gently as he wished there were more profit than peace in their maternity and my sentimentality. But he could forget his worries in the pleasure of schooling the yearlings, and we agreed always to hold on as long as possible to a life we both found so interesting, and with the facile hope of youth we thought to get the better of our expenses in time.

In this year () my eldest (surviving) brother, Frank, became very ill, and Willie and I went to Rivenhall to see him. He wanted me to nurse him, so I stayed on in my old home while Willie returned to Bennington.

Frank had consumption, and very badly; he suffered intensely, and I think I have never longed for the presence of a doctor with more anxiety than I did for Dr. Gimson's at that time. My perpetual fear was that the effect of the opiate he gave Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack deaden poor Frank's pain would wear off before he came again. When it grew dusk Frank desired me to put candles in every window, that he might not see the shadows—the terrifying shadows which delirium and continual doses of morphia never fail to produce.

Frank's very dear friend, Captain Hawley Smart, the novelist, came to Rivenhall in the hope that he could cheer poor Frank's last hours; but he was too ill to know or care, {27} and Hawley Smart could, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, like the rest of us, only await the pitying release of death.

We went on at Bennington in very much the same way until the end of that year. Willie had been betting very heavily in the hope of relieving the ever-increasing difficulty of meeting our heavy expenses, and now, in view of his losses in racing Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to the cost attendant on keeping up such a large stud, the kind-hearted bank manager insisted that the large overdraft on his bank must be cleared. Hitherto, whenever he had become very pressing, Willie had sent him "something on account," and we had given a breakfast for his hunt, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as Willie said such a good fellow "could not eat and ask at the same time." Now, however, Mr. Cheshire sorrowfully declined to eat, and maintained that his duty to his firm necessitated his insisting upon the clearing of the overdraft.

When Willie was made bankrupt, Mr. Hobson—a gentleman living near us with his very charming wife, who afterwards became Mrs. A. Yates—very kindly took my little old pony across the fields at night to his own place and kept him there so that he should not go into the sale of our goods. This defrauded no one, as the pony (my own) was beyond work, being my childhood's pet.

I was now nearing my first confinement, and my aunt, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Mrs. Benjamin Wood, took a house for me at Brighton close to my sister's, Lady Barrett-Lennard. There my son Gerard was born, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

I was very ill for some time after this, and my mother, Lady Wood, stayed with me, employing her time in making a lovely water-colour sketch for me.

Willie's affairs were Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack settled, and I had to give up all hope of returning to my dearly loved country home and all my pets; but I had the consolation of my beautiful babe, {28} and I forgot my sorrow in my greater possession. He was very healthy, so I had no trouble on that score, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

A young solicitor who took Willie's affairs in hand, Mr. Charles Lane (of Lane and Monroe), very kindly took upon himself to call on my Uncle William, who was then Lord Chancellor of England, and ask him to assist us in our financial difficulties. Uncle William was much astonished at the application of this obviously nervous young solicitor, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, who with the courage born of despair went on to suggest that Lord Hatherley might give Willie a lucrative appointment.

Strangely enough it had never occurred to me to apply to Uncle William for anything, and when Mr. Lane called on us and solemnly presented me with a substantial cheque and a kind message from my uncle, Willie and I were as surprised as we were pleased, even though Mr. Lane explained that "the Lord Chancellor had no post suitable" for Willie's energies.

We then moved into a house on the Marine Parade, as the one we were in was very expensive, and though I was glad to be next door to my sister, I felt it was not fair to my aunt, Mrs. Wood, who was paying the rent for us.

My faithful French maid Caroline stuck to us all through our fallen fortunes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as also did our stud-groom, Selby, and though we could no longer pay them the high wages they had always had, they refused to leave us.

My aunt now took a cottage for me at Patcham, just put of Brighton, and I was able to have my pony there. The house at Patcham was a dear, little, old-fashioned place right against the Downs, and there I used to walk for miles in the early morning, the springy turf almost forcing one foot after the other, while the song of the {29} larks and scent of the close-growing, many-tinted herbage in the clear bright air filled me with joyous exhilaration.

Willie went to town, and often was away for days, on various businesses, and I was very lonely at home—even though I daily drove the old pony into Brighton that I might see my sister.

I had a cousin of Willie's, Mrs. Vaughan, to stay with me for some time, but she was perpetually wondering what Willie was doing that kept him so much away, and this added irritation to loneliness. I had had such a busy life at Bennington that I suffered much from the want of companionship and the loss of the many interests of my life there. I felt that I must make some friends here, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and, attracted by a dark, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack woman whom I used to meet riding when I walked on to the Downs, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I made her acquaintance, and found in her a very congenial companion. Quiet and rather tragic in expression, she thawed to me, and we were becoming warmly attached to one another when Willie, in one of his now flying visits, heard me speak of my new friend. On hearing her name—it was one that a few years before had brought shame and sudden death into one of the oldest of the "great" families of England—he professed to be absolutely scandalized, and, with an assumption of authority that at once angered me, forbade me to have any more to do with her. He met my protests with a maddening superiority, and would not tell me why she was "beyond the pale." I explained to him my own opinion of many of the women he liked me to know and almost all the men, for I had not then learnt the hard lesson of social life, and that the one commandment still rigorously observed by social hypocrisy was, "Thou shalt not be found out."

{30}

When I met Mrs. —— again she soothed my indignation on her behalf, and as we sat there, high on a spur of a hill, watching the distant sea, she smiled a little sadly as she said to me: "Little fool, I have gambled in love and have won, and those who win must pay as well as those who lose. Never gamble, you very young thing, if you can help it; but if you do be sure that the stake is the only thing in the world to you, for only that will make it worth the winning and the paying."

It was nearly ten years afterwards that I, feeling restless and unhappy, had such a sudden longing for the sea, that one morning I left my Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack (at Eltham) very early and went down to Brighton for the day. I was alone, and wished to be alone; so I got out of the train at Preston, for fear I should meet any of my relations at Brighton station. A fancy then seized me to drive out to Patcham, about a mile farther on, to see if my former little house was occupied. Having decided that it was I dismissed my fly and walked up the bridle path beyond the house out on to the Downs, where, turning south, towards the sea, I walked steadily over the scented turf, forcing out of my heart all but the joy of movement in the sea wind, with the song of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack skylarks in my ears.

I sang as I walked, looking towards the golden light and sullen blue of the sea, where a storm was beating up with the west wind. Presently I realized that I was very tired, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack I sat down to rest upon a little hilltop where I could see over the whole of Brighton. The wind brought up the rain, and I rose and began to descend the hill towards Brighton. I wondered apathetically if my sister was in Brighton or if they were all at Belhus still. Anyhow, I knew there would be someone at her house who {31} would give me something to eat. Then I turned round, and began deliberately to climb up the hill on to the Downs again. After all, I thought, I had come here to be alone, and did not want to see my sister particularly. The family might all be there, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and anyhow I did not want to see anybody who loved me and could bias my mind. I had come down to get away from Willie for a little while—or rather from the thought of him, for it was rarely enough Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack saw him. If I went down to see Emma and Tom they would ask how Willie was, and really I did not know, and then how were the children. Well, I could thankfully answer that the children were always well. Why should I be supposed to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack no other interests than Willie and my children? Willie was not, as a matter of fact, at all interesting to me. As to my children, I loved them very dearly, but they were not old enough, or young enough, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, to engross my whole mind. Then there was dear old Aunt Ben, who was so old that she would not tolerate any topic of conversation of more recent date than the marriage of Queen Victoria. What a curiously narrow life mine was, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I thought, narrow, narrow, narrow, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and so deadly dull. It was better even to be up there on the Downs in the drifting rain—though I was soaked to the skin and so desperately tired and hungry. I paused for shelter behind a shepherd's hut as I saw the lithe spare form of my brother-in-law, Sir Thomas, dash past, head down and eyes half closed against the rain. He did not see me, and I watched him running like a boy through the driving mist till he disappeared. He had come over from Lewes, I supposed. He was a J.P., and had perhaps been over to the court; he never rode where he could walk—or rather run, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

I waited, sheltering now from the rain, and through the {32} mist there presently came a girl riding. On seeing me she pulled up to ask the quickest way to Brighton, as the mist had easeus data recovery wizard license code mac her. As I answered her I was struck by a certain resemblance, in the dark eyes and proud tilt of the chin, to my friend of many years ago, whose battles I had fought with Willie, and who had told me something of her life while we sat very near this place. The girl now before me was young, and life had not yet written any bitterness upon her face; but as she thanked me, and, riding away, laughingly urged me to give up the attempt to "keep dry," and to fly home before I dissolved altogether, I had the voice of my old-time friend in my ears, and I answered aloud, "I am afraid; I tell you, I am afraid." But she was dead, I knew, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and could not answer me, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and I smiled angrily at my folly as I turned down the track to Preston, while I thought more quietly how the daughter whose loss had caused such bitter pain to my dear friend, when she had left all for love, had grown to happy womanhood in spite of all.

I was now feeling very faint from my long day of hard exercise without food, but there was a train about to start for London, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and I would not miss it.

On the platform for Eltham, at Charing Cross, stood Mr. Parnell, waiting, watching the people as they passed the barriers. As our eyes met he turned and walked by my side. He did not speak, and I was too tired to do so, or to wonder at his being there. He helped me into the train and sat down opposite me, and I was too exhausted to care that he saw me wet and dishevelled. There were others in the carriage. I leant back and closed my eyes, and could have slept but that the little flames deep down in Parnell's eyes kept flickering before mine, though they were closed. I was very cold; and I felt that he took off {33} his coat and tucked it round me, but I would not open my eyes to look at him. He crossed over to the seat next to mine, and, leaning over me to fold the coat more closely round my knees, he whispered, "I love you, I love you. Oh, my dear, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, how I love you." And I slipped my hand into his, and knew I was not afraid.

{34}

CHAPTER V
MORE FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES

"Thus while Thy several mercies plot
And work on me, now cold, now hot,
The work goes on and slacketh not.
"
                                                                —VAUGHAN.

Willie was away more than ever after this, and I became so bored and lonely that I told him that I must join him in London if he meant to be there so much. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack then proposed to give up the Patcham house and move the small household to Harrow Road, London, temporarily, till we had time to find something less depressing, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

In going we also hoped to shake off an acquaintance who haunted us at Brighton and Patcham, a Mr. D., but he soon found us out, and, realizing that I was determined to be "not at home" to him, he took to leaving gifts of beautiful Spanish lace at the door, directed to me, and only the words "from Romeo" inside.

This man had lived most of his life in Spain, and was a remarkably good judge of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack lace, and I must confess I was tempted to keep the rich creamy-white stuff that arrived anonymously. This "Romeo" was more than middle-aged, and, when he wrote that for "safety's sake" he would address messages to me Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the "agony" column of the newspapers, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Willie's wrath was unbounded.

He wrote to poor "Romeo" in sarcastic vein, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, alluding to his age and figure, his insolence in addressing "a young and beautiful" woman with his "pestilent" twaddle. He told him, too, that he withdrew from all business transactions {35} with him, and would have much pleasure in kicking "Romeo" if he dared call at the house again. I was almost sorry for the foolish old man; but that was wasted on him, for he continued, undeterred by Willie's anger, to address "Juliet" in prose and verse in the daily papers. As he said, the "Daily Press was open to all, and the Captain could not stop that!" I used to laugh helplessly as Willie opened the morning paper at breakfast, and, first gravely turning to the "agony" column, would read the latest message to "Juliet" from her devoted "Romeo," becoming so angry that breakfast was spoiled to him. The sudden cessation of our acquaintance prevented our making that of Mme. Adelina Patti though "Romeo" had arranged a dinner in order that I should meet her.

A Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack weeks after we arrived in Harrow Road Willie began to complain of feeling ill, and a swelling that had formed on his neck became very painful. He was confined to bed, and after great suffering for weeks, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Mr. Edgar Barker, who was constantly in attendance, said he must operate to save Willie's life. I had no nurse, as at this time we were in such financial straits that I really did not know which way to turn, and Willie was too ill to be asked about anything. Mr. Barker said to me, "You must hold his head perfectly still, and not faint." So he operated, and all went well, in spite of my inexperience in surgical nursing. Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Barker, for whose kindness at this time I can never be sufficiently grateful, helped me in every way, and would not allow even Willie's mother and sister to do so, as their presence irritated the patient so intensely.

During this time of trouble a Mr. Calasher, a money-lender, called to have some acceptances of Willie's met. I left Willie's bedside for a few minutes to see him, and he was kindness itself, agreeing to a renewal on my signature {36} alone, and most kindly sending in some little delicacies that he thought Willie might fancy. When Willie had recovered and went to see Mr. Calasher about the bills, it being then more than ever impossible to meet them, he (Mr. Calasher) would not consent to a further renewal, but tore the bills across and gave them back to Willie, saying, "Don't worry yourself, Captain O'Shea, but tally erp 9 crack torrentz2 me when Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack can, and add six per cent. interest if you are able." I am glad to say we did this within the year. His courtesy about these bills was a great relief to me, as Willie was far too ill to be spoken to about business, and I was at my wits' end for money to meet everyday expenses. The accommodating Jew who lends the indiscreet Christian his money—naturally with a businesslike determination to increase it—has so much said against him that I am glad to be able to speak my little word of gratitude of one who was considerate and chivalrous to Willie as well as myself, to his own detriment.

Better circumstances arising on Willie's recovery of health, we were anxious to get away from the depressions of Harrow Road, with its constant procession of hearses and mourners on the way to Kensal Green Cemetery. After a weary hunt we finally decided upon a house in Beaufort Gardens. My French maid rejoiced in returning to her light duties as lady's maid, and reigned over a staff of maids in unison with the butler. Selby, at last convinced that race-horses were out of the question with us, left us, with mutual expressions of esteem, to seek more congenial surroundings, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

We went to Beaufort Gardens inand Willie insisted upon my making many new acquaintances, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. We soon found ourselves in a social swirl of visits, visitors and entertainments. I had always disliked society, as such. {37} Willie, however, thoroughly enjoyed this life, and as he was always worrying me to dress in the latest fashion, and would have a Frenchman in to dress my hair before every party, I became very rebellious.

Here my eldest daughter was born, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack I was glad of the rest from parties and balls—even though so many people I did not care to see came "to cheer me up!" As soon as I was about again the life I found so wearisome recommenced, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. After escorting me home from a dance or reception that I had not wanted to go to, Willie would go off again to "finish up the night," and one night, when in terror I was seeking for burglars, I found a policeman sitting on the stairs. He explained genially that the door was open, and he thought it better to come inside and guard the door for the Captain's return!

Alfred Austin—not then Poet Laureate—was a great friend and constant visitor of ours at that time. He had been at school—at Oscott—with Willie, and he was, I remember, extremely sensitive to criticism. "Owen Meredith," Lord Lytton, was also a frequent visitor, especially when my sister Anna was with us—she being sympathetic to his genius.

I think Willie and I were beginning to jar upon one another a good deal now, and I loved to get away for long walks by myself through the parks of London. Kensington Gardens was a great solace to me in all seasons and weathers, and I spent much of my time there. I often turned Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the Brompton Oratory on my way home for a few minutes' peace and rest of body and soul, and these quiet times were a comfort to me when suffering from the fret and worry of my domestic life, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

I first made my way to the Oratory when my daughter Norah was baptized, and some little Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack afterwards one {38} of the Fathers called on me. Finally Father —— undertook to call regularly to instruct me in the Catholic religion. He and the other priests lent me any books I wanted, and "The Threshold of the Catholic Faith," and one other I have now. That I never got beyond the "Threshold" was no fault of these good Fathers, who taught me with endless patience and uncompromising directness. But I had before me two types of Catholic in Willie and his mother and sister, and both were to me stumbling-blocks. The former was, as I knew, what they call a "careless Catholic," and I thought that if he who had been born in that faith that means so much made so little of it, perhaps it was more of a beautiful dream than a reality of life. Yet when I turned and considered those "good Catholics," his mother and sister, I found such a fierce bigotry and deadly dullness of outlook, such an immense piety and so small a charity, that my whole being revolted against such a belittling of God-given life. Now, I know that Mary and the Comtesse disliked me personally, and also that my temperament was antagonistic to theirs, as indeed to Willie's, though the affection he and I had for one another eased the friction between us; but youth judges so much by results, and my excursion into the Catholic religion ended in abrupt revolt against all forms and creeds, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. This feeling was intensified when my second little girl, Carmen, was born and christened at the Oratory. I would not go in, but stood waiting in the porch, where I had so often marked tired men and women passing in to pray after their hard and joyless day of toil, and I felt that my children were taken from me, and that I was very lonely.

My Uncle William, Lord Hatherley, was Lord High Chancellor at this time, and we were a good deal at his house, both at "functions" and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. His great {39} friend, Dean Stanley, was very kind to me; Dean Hook came, too, and many other Churchmen were continually in and out in their train. My cousin, William Stephens, who afterwards became Dean of Winchester, was then a very good-looking and agreeable young man; he followed my uncle about like a shadow, and my uncle and Aunt Charlotte were devoted to him. But my uncle gathered other society than that of Churchmen about him, and it amused me to watch for the pick of the intellectual world of the day as they swarmed up and down the stairs at the receptions, with the necessary make-weight of people who follow and pose in the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of the great.

Willie insisted upon his wife being perfectly gowned on these occasions, and as he so often got out of going to those functions and insisted on my going alone, certain other relations of Lord Hatherley's would hover round me with their spiteful remarks of: "Dear Katie, alone again I poor dear girl, where does he go? How odd that you are so often alone—how little you know!" I was Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of my old uncle and he of me, but these little amenities did not make me like these social functions better, especially as his wife, my Aunt Charlotte, had a most irritating habit of shutting her eyes when greeting me, and, with her head slightly to one side, saying, "Poor dear! Poor lovely lamb!"

This winter, following the birth of my second girl, was bitterly cold, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and my health, which had not been good for some time before her birth, caused much anxiety. After a consultation between Sir William Gull, Sir William Jenner, and my usual doctor, it was decided that we should go to Niton, Isle of Wight, as I was too weak to travel far. My dear old aunt, Mrs. Benjamin Wood, sent her own doctor to me, and he recommended me to inject opium—an {40} expression of opinion that horrified Sir William Jenner into saying, "That man's mad, or wants to get Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of you!"

Our pecuniary affairs were again causing us considerable anxiety, but my dear aunt played the fairy godmother once more, and sent Willie a cheque so that we could go to Niton without worry or anxiety, and stop there until my health should Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack re-established. We were delighted with the summer warmth of the sun, and spent a happy Christmas basking in it. Since the hotel was very expensive, Willie established me in lodgings with the children and nurses in Ventnor, and, finding the place decidedly dull, returned to London.

The local doctor at Ventnor, who had been put in charge of my shattered health, was not satisfied that it was in any way improving, and, finding one day that I was in the habit of taking sleeping draughts, he snorted angrily off to the chemist and returned with a large tin of meat extract, with which he presented me, adding the intimation that it was worth a dozen bottles of my Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack happened to be a powder—and that my London doctors were bereft of intelligence. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack was too tired to argue the point and contented myself with the observation that all doctors save the one in attendance were fellows in intelligence—a sentiment he considered suspiciously for some moments before snorting away like the amiable little steam engine he was. His specific for sleeplessness was much more wholesome than drugs, and I have always found it so since then.

{41}

CHAPTER VI
CAPTAIN O'SHEA ENTERS POLITICAL LIFE

"D'un coeur qui t'aime,
    Mon Dieu, qui peut troubler la tranquille paix?
Il cherche, en tout, ta volunté suprème,
    Et ne se cherche jamais.
Sur la terre, dans le ciel même,
    Est-il d'autre bonheur que la tranquille paix
D'un coeur qui t'aime?
"—RACINE.

Willie was too busy to come down to Ventnor again, and I became so depressed by the relaxing air and by the sight of the many poor consumptive people I met at every turn, veritable signposts in their different Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of disease of the road I had been warned that I was on, that I decided to go nearer home. My doctor suggested Hastings, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and there I went, taking my small family under the kindly escort of one of my nephews, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

Willie soon came down, and, as my health improved rapidly, we stayed on for some time, making frequent visits to my Aunt "Ben" at Eltham, who was making our stay at the seaside possible. This was practically my first introduction to my aunt, as my former visits were when, as a little child, I was only allowed to sit by her side in the "tapestry room" trying to do some needlework under her supervision, and assisting her in the consumption of the luscious peaches she always had on the table. In those days I would have been wild with terror at the idea of being left alone with this aunt, who always wore the fashions of her early Victorian youth, and who would not tolerate the slightest noise in the house. I now found her {42} of fascinating interest, and even the painful sense of "hush" in her house, the noiseless stepping of the servants and the careful seclusion of sunlight had attractions for me. My uncle, Benjamin Wood, had died very many years before, and my aunt never alluded to him. She herself had never left Eltham since his death, and had only once been in a railway train, living in complete seclusion in her fine old Georgian house, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, only "taking the air" in the grounds Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack or emerging forth in her chariot to drive for an hour daily.

She lived in the intellectual world of the Greek poets, and of Addison, Swift and Racine; and there was a leisure and a scholarly atmosphere about her life that seemed to banish the hurry and turmoil of the modern world at her gate. She was extremely generous in subscribing to what she termed "Organizations for the better conduct of charitable relief," and, though of no particular religious belief, she subscribed to the various objects of local charity when asked to do so by the clergyman of the Avast Virus Definitions VPS. The latter gentleman once made the mistake of offering to read the Scriptures to her on the occasion of an illness, and I well remember Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack face of consternation when she replied: "I thank you, Mr. ——, but I am still well able to read, and the Scriptures do not interest me." Yet Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the many years I spent in constant companionship with her the quiet peace which reigned by her side gave me the most restful and soothing hours of my life.

After we had paid her several visits in this way she informed me that she had ascertained that I was much alone, that she was very tenderly attached to me, and would wish to provide for me and my children if I would come to live near her so that I could be her constant companion. She added that she considered that this arrangement would {43} be more "seemly" for me, as Willie was obliged to be away from home so much.

After consultation with the (county court) judge, Gordon Whitbread, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, her nephew and my cousin, who always transacted her business for her, she bought a house for me at the other side of her park, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and arranged to settle a regular income on me and to educate my children. In return she asked that her "Swan"—as she Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack called me—should be her daily companion. This I was until her death, at the age of ninety-four, about fifteen years later.

My aunt lived a life of great seclusion, and, with the exception of George Meredith (the author), and the Rev. —— Wilkinson, who each came down once a week to read to her, her oculist and great friend, Dr. Bader, and two old ladies, friends of her youth, she rarely saw anyone. Her house—"The Lodge," Eltham—was fine old Georgian, spoilt inside by the erection of mock pillars in the hall. She was very particular that no one should tread upon the highly polished floors, and, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as the two large halls had only rugs laid about on the shining surface, one had either to make many "tacks" to reach the desired door or seat, or take a short cut on tiptoe and risk her "displeasure."

It was amusing to watch George Meredith on his excursion from the front door to the dressing-room at the foot of the stairs, where my aunt kept three pairs of slippers for the use of her "gentlemen readers" lest their boots should soil the carpets. To reach this little room he had—if in a good mood and conforming to his old friend's regulations—to walk straight ahead past the room, and make a detour round a pillar of (imitation) green marble and a table, back to the door, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. On days of rebellion against these forms and ceremonies he would hesitate for {44} a moment just inside the door, and, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with a reckless uplifting of his head, begin a hasty stride across the sacred places; a stride which became an agitated tip-toeing under the scandalized gaze of the footman. Before he began to read to my aunt the following dialogue invariably took place:—

"Now, my dear lady, I will read you something of my own."

"Indeed, my dear Mr. Meredith, I cannot comprehend your works."

"I will explain my meaning, dear Mrs. Wood."

"You are prodigiously kind, dear Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Meredith, but I should prefer Molière to-day."

While Willie and I were still living in London we went down one day to see a furnished house we wished to rent for a few weeks, and, remembering my Aunt Ben's injunction to convey her "felicitations to her dear Mr. Meredith," we called on him.

I had not before Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack George Meredith, and had only read one of his works—and that "behind the door" when I was very young, owing to some belated scruple of my elders. I remember, as we neared the house, asking Willie the names of Meredith's other works, so that I might be ready primed with intelligent interest, and Willie's sarcastic little smile, as he mentioned one or two, adding, "You need not worry yourself; Meredith will soon enlighten us as to his books. They say it's the one thing he ever talks about." But we spent a delightful afternoon with Mr. Meredith, who Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack us all his literary treasures and the little house at the end of the garden where he wrote. While we sat in the lovely little garden drinking tea our host descanted on the exquisite haze of heat that threw soft shadows about the house and gave the great trees {45} in the background the appearance of an enchanted forest. George Meredith was "reader" to Chapman and Hall in those days, and he spoke to me appreciatively of the work of my mother and sister, who published with Chapman and Hall.

In these days at Eltham I learnt to know George Meredith very well, as I saw him almost every week when he came down to read to my aunt. The old lady did not like triangular conversation, so as soon as they were fairly launched in reading or conversation, I would gladly slip away to my own occupations. To Aunt Ben, Meredith appeared to be a very young man indeed, and in her gentle, high-bred way she loved to tease him about his very great appreciation of his own work—and person. Meredith took her gentle raillery absolutely in good part and would hold forth upon what the literary world "of all time" owed him in his books, and also upon what Lady This-or-that had said in admiration of his good looks at such-and-such a gathering. My aunt used to delight in these tales, which were delivered in the mock serious manner of a boy telling his mother of his prowess, real or imagined; and after a time of listening to him, with only her gently modulated little bursts of laughter to encourage him, she would say, "Oh, my dear Mr. Meredith, your conceit is as wonderful as your genius!"—bringing forth from him the protest, "My dear lady, no! But it is a pleasure to you to hear of my successes and to me to tell you of them." And so I would leave them to their playful badinage and reading.

Meredith was driver talent for network card crack Free Activators fond of his old friend, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and always treated her with the chivalrous and rather elaborate courtesy that he well knew she delighted in. His weekly visits were a great pleasure to her, and although she would not {46} allow him to read anything modern and never anything of his own work, I think he must have enjoyed his reading and talk with this clever old lady, for often the stipulated two hours of the "classics and their discussion" lengthened into the three or four that caused him to miss all the most convenient trains home.

One evening as I was going into the house I saw him standing on the terrace gazing after the retreating form of my little girl Carmen, then about six years old. As I came up he pointed at the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack little back and said, "She was flying along like a fairy Atalanta when I caught her, and said, 'What is your name?' 'Miss Nothin'-at-all!' she replied, with such fierce dignity that I dropped her in alarm."

I called the child to come back and speak politely to Mr. Meredith, but, to his amusement, was only rewarded by an airy wave of the hand as she fled down a by-path.

As I sometimes chatted to Mr. Meredith on his way through the grounds disk cleanup software for windows 10 the station, he would tell me of "that blessed woman," as he used to call his (second) wife, already then dead, and of how he missed her kind and always sympathetic presence on his return home and in his work. Sometimes the handsome head would droop, and I thought he looked careworn and sad as he spoke of her, and in doing so he lost for the moment all the mannerisms and "effectiveness" which were sometimes rather wearisome in him. As my aunt grew very old she—in the last few years of her life—became unequal to listening and talking to her "gentlemen readers," and to me she deputed the task of telling them so. In the case of George Meredith it was rather painful to me, as I feared the loss of the £ a year my aunt had so long paid him for his {47} weekly visits might be a serious one to him. But he, too, had aged in all these years, and perhaps his visits to his old friend were becoming rather irksome to him in their regularity. Curiously enough, I shared my aunt's inability to enjoy his work, and to the last I met his mocking inquiry as to my "progress in literature" (i.e. his novels) by a deprecating "Only 'Richard Feverel.'"

The house my aunt bought for me was just across her park, and she had a gate made in the park fence so that I might go backwards and forwards to her house more quickly. My house was a comfortable villa with the usual little "front garden" and larger one in the rear. There were excellent stables at the end of this garden. The house, "Wonersh Lodge," had the usual dining-room and drawing-room, with two other sitting-rooms opening severally into the garden, and a large conservatory, which I afterwards made over to Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Parnell for his own use. My aunt furnished the house, and we were most comfortable, while my children rejoiced in having the run of the park and grounds after the restraint of town life.

Willie was very much in London now, and occupied himself in getting up a company to develop some mining business in Spain. He always drew up a prospectus excellently; on reading it one could hardly help believing—as he invariably did—that here at last was the golden opportunity of speculators. Some influential men put into the Spanish venture sums varying from £1, to £10, Our old friend Christopher Weguelin took great interest in it, and eventually Willie was offered the post of manager, at La Mines, at a good salary. It was a very acceptable post to Willie, as he loved the life in foreign countries. There was a very good house, and he had it planted round with eucalyptus trees to keep off the {48} fever so prevalent there, and from which the men working the mines suffered greatly, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

Willie was, however, immune to fever, and never had it. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack was away in Spain for over eighteen months this time, and did not come home at all during the period.

My son now, at eight years old, proved too much for his French governess, so we arranged for him to go to a school at Blackheath, though he was two years younger than the age generally accepted there. The little girls were autocad 2018 download student afresh with a German governess, and on Willie's return from Spain he stayed at Eltham for a time.

We pdf creator mac pleased to see one another again, but once more the wearing friction caused by our totally dissimilar temperaments began to make us feel that close companionship was impossible, and we mutually agreed that he should have rooms in London, visiting Eltham to see myself and the children at week-ends, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. After a while the regularity of his week-end visits became very much broken, but he still arrived fairly regularly to take the children to Mass at Chislehurst on Sunday mornings, and he would often get me up to town to do Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack when he wished to give a dinner-party. I had all my life been well known at Thomas's Hotel, Berkeley Square, as my parents and family had always stayed there when in London. So here I used to help Willie with his parties, and to suffer the boredom incidental to this form of entertainment.

On one occasion Willie, who always said that even if only for the sake of our children I ought not to "drop out of everything," worried me into accepting invitations to a ball given by the Countess Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, whom I did not know, and for this I came up to town late in the afternoon, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, dined quietly at the hotel by myself, and dressed {49} for the ball, ready for Willie to fetch me as he had promised after his dinner with some friends. I was ready at half-past eleven as had been arranged, and the carriage came round for me at a quarter to twelve. At twelve the manageress, a friend from my childhood, came to see if she could "do anything for me" as Captain O'Shea was so late. At the head waiter, who used to lift me into my chair at table on our first acquaintance, came to know if "Miss Katie" was anxious about "the Captain," and got snubbed by the manageress for his pains. At one o'clock, white with anger and trembling with mortification, I tore off my beautiful frock and got into bed. At nine o'clock the next morning Willie called, having only just remembered my existence and the ball to which he was to have taken me.

Willie was now longing for some definite occupation, and he knew many political people. While he was on a visit to Ireland early in he was constantly urged by his friends, the O'Donnells and others, to try for a seat in the next Parliament. A dissolution seemed imminent. He had often talked of becoming a member for some Irish constituency, and now, on again meeting The O'Gorman Mahon in Ireland, he was very easily persuaded to stand in with him for County Clare. He wrote home to me to know what I thought of the idea, saying that he feared that, much as he should like it, the expenses would be almost too heavy for us to manage. I wrote back strongly encouraging him to stand, for I knew it would give him occupation he liked and keep us apart—and therefore good friends. Up to this time Willie had not met Mr. Parnell.

{50}

CHAPTER VII
MR. PARNELL AND THE IRISH PARTY Web Freer Crack 21.0 & License Key [Latest] 2021 "I loved those hapless ones—the Irish Poor—
                                                        All my life long.
Little did I for them in outward deed,
And yet be unto them of praise the meed
For the stiff fight I urged 'gainst lust and greed:
                                                        I learnt it there.
"
                                                                    —SIR WILLIAM BUTLER.

"The introduction of the Arms Bill has interfered with Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Parnell's further stay in France, and it is probable he will be in his place in the House of Commons by the time this is printed."

This paragraph appeared in the Nation early in On the 8th March of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack year, the Disraeli Parliament dissolved, and on the 29th April Mr. Gladstone formed his Ministry.

In the Disraeli Parliament Mr. Parnell was the actual, though Mr. Shaw had been the nominal, leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party since the death of Mr. Isaac Butt in Shaw continued the Butt tradition of moderation and conciliation which had made the Irish Party an unconsidered fraction in British politics. Parnell represented the new attitude of uncompromising hostility to all British parties and of unceasing opposition to all their measures until the grievances of Ireland were redressed. He carried the majority of his Party with him, and in Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack he was already the people's hero.

Born in June,Parnell was still a young man. {51} He came of a fine race; he was a member of the same family as the famous poet, Thomas Parnell, as Lord Congleton, Radical reformer and statesman, and, above all, Sir John Parnell, who sat and worked with Grattan in Ireland's Great Parliament and shared with him the bitter fight against the Union. On his mother's side he was the grandson of the famous Commodore Charles Stewart, of the American Navy, whose bravery and success in the War of Independence are well known. It was natural that a man of such ancestry should become a champion of the rights of his native land.

Yet though in he was the virtual chief of the Irish Party, eight years before he was an Irish country gentleman, living quietly on his estates at Avondale in County Wicklow.

It is a mistake to say that his mother "planted his hatred of England in him," as she so seldom saw him as a boy. He was sent to school in England at six years old, and he used to tell me how his father—who died when he (Charles S. Parnell) was twelve years old—would send for him to come to Ireland to see him. His mother, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Mrs. Delia Parnell, lived chiefly in America, going over to Avondale that her children might be born in Ireland, and returning as soon as possible to America. After her husband's death she only visited the place occasionally, and altogether saw very little of her son Charles. He often told me how well he remembered being sent for in his father's last illness to go to him at Dublin, and the last journey with his dying father back to Avondale. His father had made him his heir and a ward of Court.

In reality Parnell's hatred of England arose when he began to study the records of England's misgovernment {52} in Ireland, and of the barbarities that were inflicted upon her peasantry in the name of England's authority.

For years before he left the seclusion of Avondale this hatred had been growing. He followed the Fenian movement with the liveliest interest, and he often accompanied his sister Fanny when she took her verses to the offices of the Irish World. The sufferings of the Fenian Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, so courageously borne, stirred his blood and awakened his imagination. It can be imagined with what inward anger the young man heard of the detective raid on his mother's house in Temple Street, Dublin—when they found and impounded the sword he was privileged to wear as an officer of the Wicklow Militia.

But it was the Manchester affair of and the execution of Allen, Larkin and O'Brien which crystallized his hatred of England. From that moment he was only biding his time. Yet he was slow to move, and loath to speak his mind, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and, until he went to America inhe was better known for his cricketing and his autumn shooting than for his politics. When he returned to Avondale with his brother John in the Ballot Act had just been passed, and it was the consciousness of the possibilities of the secret vote as a weapon against England that finally persuaded him to be a politician.

But, though he joined the newly formed Home Rule League, it was not until that he stood for Parliament in Dublin County. He came out at the bottom of the poll. The election cost him £2,; the £ which he had received from the Home Rule League he handed back to them. In April,he stood for Meath and was placed at the top of the poll.

When he entered Parliament the Irish Party, as I have said, was of little account. The case for Ireland was {53} argued by Isaac Butt with fine reasonableness and forensic skill, but it produced absolutely no effect. The English parties smiled and patted the Irish indulgently on the head. In Ireland all the more resolute and enthusiastic spirits had an utter contempt for their Parliamentary representatives; from the machine nothing was to be hoped. It was the mission of Parnell to change all that, to unite all the warring elements of the Nationalist movements into one force to be hurled against England.

But still he waited and watched—learning the rules of the House, studying the strength and weaknesses of the machine he was to use and to attack. He found it more instructive to watch Biggar than Butt, for Biggar was employing those methods of obstruction which Parnell afterwards used with such perfect skill. From June,he took a hand in affairs. Side by side with Biggar, he began his relentless obstruction of Parliamentary business until the demands of Ireland should be considered, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Already in he was fighting Butt for the direction of the Irish Party. On September 1st of that year Parnell became President of the Home Rule Confederation of Great Britain in place of Butt, and the victory was really won. Thenceforward Parnell was the true leader of the Irish movement inside Parliament and out of it. He attracted the support of Fenians by his uncompromising tactics and his fearless utterances, and when the New Departure was proclaimed by Michael Davitt (just out of prison) and John Devoy, and the Land League was formed inParnell was elected president.

The objects of the League were "best to be attained by defending those who may be threatened with eviction for refusing to pay unjust rents; and by obtaining such reforms in the laws relating to land as will enable every {54} tenant to become the owner of his holding by paying a fair rent for a limited number of years." The League was meant by its founders, Davitt and Devoy, to work for the abolition of landlordism in Ireland, which, in turn, should pave the way for separation, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Though Parnell was himself working for Home Rule, the League became a tremendous driving power behind his constitutional demands. For some months Disraeli's Government did nothing, while the agitation spread like wildfire. Then in November three of the leaders were arrested, on December 5th a fourth—and in a few days released! Ireland laughed, and the League grew. On December 21st Parnell and Dillon sailed for New York to appeal for funds to save the tenant farmers and to tighten the bond between the new movement and the revolutionary societies of America. His triumphal progress through the States and Canada, his reception by the Governors of States, members of Congress, judges and other representative men, and finally his appearance before Congress to develop his views on the Irish situation, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, are well known. It was on this journey—at Toronto—that he was first hailed as the "Uncrowned King."

The unexpected news of the dissolution summoned him home. In going out Disraeli tried to make Home Rule the issue of the election, but Lord Hartington—who was then leading the Liberal Party—and Mr. Gladstone refused to take up the challenge. All the English parties were united in hostility to Home Rule.

But the violent manifesto of Disraeli threw the Irish voting strength in England into the Liberal scale, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The Liberals swept the country.

Curiously enough, even in Ireland the issue of the election was not Home Rule. There it was the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and {55} nothing but the land. For the harvest of had been the worst since the great famine; evictions were in full swing, and the Land League had begun its work.

The demand was for a measure securing the "three F's": Fixity of tenure, fair rents determined by a legal tribunal, and free sale of the tenant's interest. But in many constituencies the demand was for the extinction of landlordism.

Parnell carried the election on his back. He Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack fighting not only the Liberals and the Tories, but the moderate Home Rule followers of Mr. Shaw. His energy seemed inexhaustible; from one end of Ireland to the other he organized the campaign, and addressed meetings. The result was a triumph for his policy and for the Land League. Of the 61 Home Rulers elected, 39 were Parnellites.

{56}

CHAPTER VIII
THE FIRST MEETING WITH MR. PARNELL

"One evening he asked the miller where the river went."
"'It goes down the valley,' answered he, 'and turns a power
of mills.'
"—R. L. STEVENSON.

Willie and The O'Gorman Mahon had been returned at the General Election, and many and varied were the stories The O'Gorman Mahon told me subsequently of their amusing experiences. How they kissed nearly every girl in Clare and drank with every man—and poor Willie loathed Irish whisky—how Willie's innate fastidiousness in dress brought gloom into the eyes of the peasantry until his unfeigned admiration of their babies and live stock, scrambing together about the cabins, "lifted a smile to the lip."

The O'Gorman Mahon was then a tall, handsome old man with a perfect snowstorm of white hair, and eyes as merry and blue Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack those of a boy. He could look as fierce as an old eagle on occasion, however, and had fought, in his day, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, more duels than he could remember. A fine specimen of the old type of Irishman.

When he came down to Eltham to see us, Willie and I took him over to Greenwich and gave him a fish dinner. We sat late into the night talking of Irish affairs, and The O'Gorman Mahon said to me, "If you meet Parnell, Mrs. O'Shea, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack good to him. His begging expedition to America has about finished him, and I don't believe he'll last the session out."

{57}

He went on to speak of Mr. Parnell; how aloof and reserved he was, and how he received any inquiries as to his obviously bad health with a freezing hostility that gave the inquirers a ruffled sense of tactlessness.

Willie broke in to say that he and I were going to give some political dinners in London and would ask Parnell, though he was sure he would not come. The O'Gorman Mahon paid some idle compliment, but I was not interested particularly in their stories of Parnell, though I mentally decided that if Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack gave any dinners to the Irish Party for Willie I would Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack a point of getting Parnell.

On the 26th of April the members of the Irish Party met in Dublin to elect a chairman, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and the meeting was adjourned without coming to a decision, but in May Mr. Parnell was chosen as leader. Willie voted for him, with twenty-two others, and telegraphed to me to say that he had done so, but feared that Mr. Parnell might be too "advanced." The fact was that many people admired steady-going William Shaw, the then chairman, as being very "safe," and doubted whither their allegiance to Mr. Parnell would lead them. Years after, when their politics had diverged, Mr. Parnell said: "I was right when I said in '80, as Willie got up on that platform at Ennis, dressed to kill, that he was just the man we did not want in the Party."

After the meeting of Parliament Willie was insistent that I should give some dinner parties in London, and, as his rooms were too small for this purpose, we arranged to have a couple of private rooms at Thomas's Hotel—my old haunt in Berkeley Square. There were no ladies' clubs in those days, but this hotel served me Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack many years as well as such a club could have done.

{58}

We gave several dinners, and to each of them I asked Mr. Parnell. Among the first to come were Mr. Justin McCarthy (the elder), Colonel Colthurst, Richard Power, Colonel Nolan, and several others; but—in spite of his acceptance of the invitation—Mr. Parnell did not come. Someone alluded to the "vacant chair," and laughingly defied me to fill it; the rest of our guests took up the tale and vied with each other in tales of the inaccessibility of Parnell, of how he ignored even the invitations of the most important political hostesses in London, and of his dislike of all social intercourse—though he had mixed freely in society in America and Paris before he became a politician for the sake of the Irish poor. I then became determined that I would get Parnell to come, and said, amid laughter and applause: "The uncrowned King of Ireland shall sit in that chair at the next dinner I give!"

One bright sunny day when the House was sitting I drove, accompanied by my sister, Mrs. Steele (who had a house in Buckingham Gate), to the House of Commons and sent in a card Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Mr. Parnell to come out and speak to us in Palace Yard.

He came out, a tall, gaunt figure, thin and deadly pale. He looked straight at me smiling, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and his curiously burning eyes looked into mine with a wondering intentness that threw into my brain the sudden thought: "This man is wonderful—and different."

I asked him why he had not answered my last invitation to dinner, and if nothing would induce him to come, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. He answered that he had not opened his letters for days, but if I would let him, he would come to dinner directly he returned from Paris, where he had to go for his sister's wedding.

{59}

In leaning forward in the cab to say good-bye a rose I was wearing in my Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack fell out on to my skirt. He picked it up and, touching it lightly with his lips, placed it in his button-hole.

This rose I found long years afterwards done up in an envelope, with my name and the date, among his most private papers, and when he died I laid it upon his heart.

This is the first letter I had from Mr. Parnell:—

LONDON,
    July 17,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—We have all been in such a "disturbed" condition lately that I have been quite unable to wander further from here than a radius of about one hundred paces allons. And this notwithstanding the powerful attractions which have been tending to seduce me from my duty towards my country in the direction of Thomas's Hotel.

I am going over to Paris on Monday evening or Tuesday morning to attend my sister's wedding, and on my return will write you again and ask for an opportunity of seeing you.—Yours very truly, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

On his return from Paris Mr. Parnell wrote to me, and again we asked him to dinner, letting him name his own date. We thought he would like a quiet dinner, and invited only my sister, Mrs, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Steele, my nephew, Sir Matthew Wood, Mr. Justin McCarthy, and a couple of others whose names I forget. On receiving his reply accepting the invitation for the following Friday, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, we engaged a box at the Gaiety Theatre—where Marion Hood was acting (for whom I had a great admiration)—as we thought it would be a relief to the "Leader" to get away from politics for once.

On the day of the dinner I got this note:—

{60}

HOUSE OF COMMONS,
    Friday.

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I dined with the Blakes on Wednesday, and by the time dinner was over it was too late to go to the meeting—the Post Office is all right here.

I cannot imagine who originated the paragraph. I have certainly made no arrangements up to the present to go either to Ireland or America or announced any intention to anybody.—Yours, CHAS. S, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. PARNELL.

He arrived late, but apologetic, and was looking painfully ill and white, the only life-light in Spybot Anti-Beacon 2020 Free Download with Crack face being given by the fathomless eyes of rich brown, varying to the brilliance of flame. The depth of expression and sudden fire of his eyes held me to the day of his death.

We had a pleasant dinner, talking of small nothings, and, avoiding the controversial subject of politics, Mr. Parnell directed most of his conversation to my sister during dinner. She could talk brilliantly, and her quick, light handling of each subject as it came up kept him interested and amused. I was really anxious that he should have an agreeable evening, and my relief was great when he said that he was glad to go to the theatre with us, as the change of thought it gave was a good rest for him.

On arrival at the theatre he and I seemed to fall naturally into our places in the dark corner of the box facing the stage and screened from the sight of the audience, while my sister and the others sat in front.

After we had settled in our seats Mr. Parnell began to talk to me. I had a feeling of complete sympathy and companionship with him, as though I had always known this strange, unusual man with the thin face and pinched nostrils, who sat by my side staring with that curious {61} intent gaze at the stage, and telling me in a low monotone of his American tour and of his broken health.

Then, turning more to me, he paused; and, as the light from the stage caught his eyes, they seemed like sudden flames. I leaned a little towards him, still with that odd feeling of his having always been there by my side; and his eyes smiled Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack mine as he broke off his theme and began to tell me of how he had met once more in America a lady to whom he had been practically engaged some few years before.

Her father would not dower her to go to Ireland, and Parnell would not think of giving up the Irish cause and settling in America. The engagement therefore hung fire; but on this last visit to America he had sought her out and found himself cold and disillusioned.

She was a very pretty girl, he said, with golden hair, small features and blue eyes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. One evening, on this last visit, he went to a ball with her, and, as she was going up the stairs, she pressed into his hand a paper on which was written the following verse:

"Unless you can muse in a crowd all day
    On the absent face that fixed you,
Unless you can dream that his faith is fast
    Through behoving and unbehoving,
Unless you can die when the dream is past,
    Oh, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, never call it loving."

He asked me who had written the lines, and I answered that it sounded like one of the Brownings (it is E. B. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and he said simply: "Well, I could not do all that, so I went home."

I suggested that perhaps the lady had suffered in his desertion, but he said that he had seen her, that same evening, suddenly much attracted by a young advocate {62} named A——, who had just entered the room, and decided in his own mind that his vacillation had lost him the young lady, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The strenuous work he had then put his whole heart into had driven out all traces of regret.

After this dinner-party I met him frequently in the Ladies' Gallery of the House. I did not tell him when I was going; but, whenever I went, he came up for a few minutes; and, if the Wednesday sittings were not very important or required his presence, he would ask me to drive with him. We drove many miles this way in a hansom cab out into the country, to the river at Mortlake, or elsewhere, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. We chiefly discussed Willie's chances of being returned again for Clare, in case another election was sprung upon us. Both Willie and I were very anxious to secure Mr. Parnell's promise about this, as The O'Gorman Mahon was old, and we were desirous of making Willie's seat in Parliament secure.

While he sat by my side in the meadows by the river he promised he Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack do his best to keep Willie in Parliament, and to secure County Clare for him should the occasion arise. Thus we would sit there through the summer afternoon, watching the gay traffic on the river, in talk, or in the silence of tried friendship, till the growing shadows warned us that it was time to drive back to London.

Soon after my first meeting with Mr. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, my sister, Mrs, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Steele, invited Mr. Parnell, Mr. McCarthy and myself to luncheon. We had a very pleasant little party at her house. During lunch Mr. Parnell told us he was going to his place in Ireland for some shooting, and Mr. McCarthy and my sister chaffed him for leaving us for the lesser game of partridge shooting, but he observed {63} gravely, "I have the partridges there, and here I cannot always have your society."

I had to leave early, as I was anxious to return to see my aunt; and Mr. Parnell said he would accompany me to the station. When we got to Charing Cross the train had already gone; and Mr. Parnell picked out a good horse from the cab rank, saying it would be much pleasanter to drive down on such a beautiful afternoon. We did so, but I would not let him stay, as I was not sure what state of confusion the house might be in, left in my absence in the possession of the children and governess. I told him I had to hurry over the park to my aunt, as really was the case, and he reluctantly returned to London.

On the next Wednesday evening Mr. Parnell was to dine with me at Thomas's Hotel. He met me at Cannon Street Station as the train came in, and asked me to have some tea with him at the hotel there and go on to Thomas's together. We went to the Cannon Street Hotel dining-rooms, but on looking in he saw some of the Irish members there and said it would be more comfortable for us in his private sitting-room. I was under the impression that he lived at Keppel Street, but he told me he had just taken rooms in the Cannon Street Hotel. We had tea in his sitting-room, and he talked politics to me freely till I was interested and at ease, and then lapsed into one of those long silences of his that I was already beginning to know were dangerous in the complete sympathy they evoked between us.

Presently I said, "Come! we shall be late!"; and he rose without a word and followed me downstairs. There were some members of his Party still standing about in the hall, but, as he always did afterwards when I was {64} with him, he ignored them absolutely and handed me into a waiting cab.

He and I dined at Thomas's Hotel that evening, and after dinner I returned home to Eltham. Mr. Parnell left for Ireland by the morning mail.

From Dublin he wrote to me:—

September 9,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—Just a line to say that I have arrived here, and go on to Avondale, Rathdrum, this evening, where I hope to hear from you before very long.

I may tell you also in confidence that I don't feel quite so content at the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of ten days' absence from London amongst the hills and valleys of Wicklow as I should have done some three months since.

The cause is mysterious, but perhaps you will help me to find it, or her, on my return.—Yours always, CHAS. S, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. PARNELL.

Then from his home:—

AVONDALE, RATHDRUM,
    September 11,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I take the opportunity which a few hours in Dublin gives me of letting you know that I am still in the land of the living, notwithstanding the real difficulty of either living or being, which every moment becomes more evident, in the absence of a certain kind and fair face.

Probably you will not hear from me again for a few days, as I am going into the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack for some shooting, removed from post offices and such like consolations for broken-hearted politicians, but if, as I hope, a letter from you should reach me even there, I shall try and send you an answer.—Yours very sincerely, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

{65}

CHAPTER IX
AT ELTHAM

"But then—I supposed you to be but a fellow guest?"
"Ah, no" he answered, he in that cold, unshaken voice, "I
have but come home.
"—(THE BAGMAN) HONORA SHEE.

Whenever I went to town, or elsewhere, I always returned at night to see that my children were all right and to be ready to go to my aunt as usual every morning. One day, on my return from a drive with my aunt, I found that my old nurse Lucy, who still lived with me, was very ill, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, having had a stroke of paralysis while I was away. She lingered only a couple of days before she died and left a great void in my heart. My children missed their admiring old confidante sadly. She had always been devoted to me as the youngest of her "own babies," as she called my mother's children, and had shared in all my fortunes and misfortunes since I returned from Spain. She was always very proud, and so fearful of becoming a burden to anyone, that she rented a room in her sister's house so that she should feel independent. So often, when "times were bad" with us, she would press some of her savings into my hand and say that "The Captain must want a little change, Dearie, going about as he does!"

In her earlier life she had had her romance, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and had spent some years in saving up to marry her "sweetheart," as she called him; but shortly before the wedding her father's business failed, and she immediately gave him {66} all her little nest-egg, with the result that her lover refused to marry her. So then, at the great age of ninety, after her blameless life had been passed since the age of sixteen in unselfish devotion to us all, we laid her to rest by Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack side of my father and mother at Cressing, Willie taking her down to Essex and attending the funeral.

As she lay dying I got this note from Mr. Parnell:—

DUBLIN,
    September 22,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I cannot keep myself away from you any longer, so shall leave to-night for London.

Please wire me to 16, Keppel Street, Russell Square, if I may hope to see you to-morrow and where, after 4 p.m.—Yours always, C. S. P.

Owing to the piteous clinging to my fingers of my old Lucy I was unable to go to London even for an hour to meet Mr. Parnell, so I telegraphed to that effect, and received the following letter:—

EUSTON STATION,
    Friday evening, September 24,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—On arriving at Keppel Street yesterday I found that your wire had just arrived, and that the boy refused to leave it as I was not stopping there, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Going at once to the district postal office I asked for and received the wire, and to-day went to London Bridge Station at

The train from Eltham had just left, so I came on to Charing Cross and sent a note by messenger to you at Thomas's, with directions to bring it back if you were not there, which turned out to be the case. I am very much troubled at not having seen you, especially as I must return to Ireland to-night—I came on purpose for you, and had no other business. I think it possible, on reflection, that the telegraph people may have wired you that they were unable to deliver your message, and, if xmedia recode filehippo, must reproach myself for not having written you last night.—Your very disappointed C. S. P.

{67}

From Dublin he wrote me:

Saturday Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, September 25,

MY DEAR MRS, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. O'SHEA,—In my hurried note to you last night I had not time to sympathize with you in this troublesome time you have been going through recently; how I wish it might have been possible for me to have seen you even for a few minutes to tell you how very much I feel any trouble which comes to you.

I am just starting for New Ross, where Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack is a meeting to-morrow.

If you can spare time to write me to Avondale, the letters will reach me in due course.—Yours always, C. S. P.

September 29,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I have received your wire, but not the letter which you say you were writing me to Dublin for Monday.

I suppose then you may have sent it to Rathdrum instead, whither I am going this evening, and that I may soon have the happiness of reading a few words written by you.

I am due at Cork on Sunday, after which I propose to visit London again, and renew my attempt to gain a glimpse of you. Shall probably arrive there on Tuesday if I hear Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack you in the meanwhile that you will see me.

On Friday evening I shall be at Morrison's on my way to Kilkenny for Saturday, and shall be intensely delighted to have a wire from you to meet me there.—Yours always, CHAS, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. S. PARNELL.

Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Willie was in communication with Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Tintern (one of the Liberal agents) and others, in reference to a meeting held by him.

Mr. Tintern wrote from Tenby commenting with satisfaction on the report of Willie's successful meeting, on Willie's kind mention of the Government, and on the good the meeting must do by promoting orderly progress and better feeling between one class and another. But he {68} expressed surprise that Willie should think the Government had not treated him and West Clare well. He at least! Mr. Gladstone wrote from Downing Street on the 21st September about the meeting in much the same terms. He expressed himself as gratified to think that the important local proceedings with regard to the land question showed the union of people and pastors against the extremists.

Life at Eltham went on in the same routine. My aunt was well, and would sit for long hours at the south door of her house—looking away up "King John's Chase"—the ruins of King John's Palace were at Eltham, and my aunt's park and grounds were part of the ancient Royal demesne. In these summer evenings she loved to sit at the top of the broad flight of shallow steps with me, and tell my little girls stories of her life of long ago.

Sometimes her favourite Dr. Bader would bring his zither down from London and play to us; or my aunt and I would sit in the great tapestry room with all of the seven windows open, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, listening to the song of the æolian harp as the soft breeze touched its strings and died away in harmony through the evening stillness.

Sometimes, too, she would sing in her soft, gentle old voice the songs of her youth, to the accompaniment of her guitar. "We met, 'twas in a crowd," was a favourite old song of hers, half forgotten since she used to sing it to the music of her spinet seventy years before, but Dr. Bader found the words in an old book, and the dear old lady crooned it sentimentally to me as we sat waiting for the hooting of the owls which signalled to her maid the time for shutting her lady's windows.

And I was conscious of sudden gusts of unrest and revolt against these leisured, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, peaceful days where the {69} chiming of the great clock in the hall was the only indication of the flight of time, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and the outside world of another age called to me with the manifold interests into which I had been so suddenly plunged with the power to help in the making and marring of a destiny.

In the autumn of Mr. Parnell came to stay with us at Eltham, only going to Dublin as occasion required. Willie had invited him to come, and I got in some flowers in pots and palms to make my drawing-room look pretty for him.

Mr. Parnell, who was in very bad health at that time, a few days later complained of sore throat, and looked, as I thought, mournfully at my indoor garden, which I industriously watered every day. It then dawned upon me that he was accusing this of giving him sore throat, and I taxed him with it. He evidently feared to vex me, but admitted that he did think it was so, and "wouldn't it do if they were not watered so often?" He was childishly touched when I at once had them all removed, and he sank happily on to the sofa, saying that "plants were such damp things!"

His throat became no better, and he looked so terribly ill when—as he often did now—he fell asleep from sheer weakness on the sofa before the fire, that I became very uneasy about him. Once, on awaking from one of these sleeps of exhaustion, he told me abruptly that he believed it was the green in the carpet that gave him sore throat. There and then we cut a bit out, and sent it to London to be analysed, but without result. It was quite a harmless carpet.

During this time I nursed him assiduously, making him take nourishment at regular intervals, seeing that these day-sleeps of his were not disturbed, and forcing {70} him to take fresh air in long drives through the country around us. At length I had the satisfaction of seeing his strength gradually return sufficiently to enable him to take the exercise that finished the process of this building-up, and he became stronger than he had been for some years. I do not think anyone but we who saw him then at Eltham, without the mask of reserve he always presented to the outside world, had any idea of how near death's door his exertions on behalf of the famine-stricken peasants of Ireland had brought him.

Once in that autumn, after he came to us, I took him for a long drive in an open carriage through the hop-growing district of Kent. I had not thought of the fact that hundreds of the poorest of the Irish came over for the hop-picking, and might recognize him.

After driving over Chislehurst Common and round by the lovely Grays, we came right into a crowd of the Irish "hoppers"—men, women, and children. In a moment there was a wild surge towards the carriage, with cries of "The Chief! The Chief!" and "Parnell! Parnell! Parnell!" The coachman jerked the horses on to their haunches for fear of knocking down the enthusiastic men and women who were crowding up—trying to kiss Parnell's hand, and calling for "a few words."

He lifted his cap with that grave, aloof smile of his, and said no, he was not well enough to make the smallest of speeches, but he was glad to see them, and would talk to them when they went home to Ireland. Then, bidding them to "mind the little ones," who were scrambling about the horses' legs, to the manifest anxiety of the coachman, he waved them away, and we drove off amid fervent "God keep your honours!" and cheers.

These Irish hop-pickers were so inured to privation {71} in their own country that they were very popular among the Kentish hop-farmers, as they did not grumble so much as did the English pickers at the scandalously inefficient accommodation provided for them.

Often before Parnell became really strong I used to watch for hours beside him as he slept before the drawing-room fire, till I had to rouse him in time to go to the House. Once, when he was moving restlessly, I heard him murmur in his sleep, as I pulled the light rug better over him: "Steer carefully out of the harbour—there are breakers ahead."

He now had all the parcels and letters he received sent on to me, so that I might open them and give him only those it was necessary for him to deal with. There were hundreds of letters to go through every week, though, as he calmly explained, "If you get tired with them, leave them and they'll answer themselves."

Often among the parcels there were comestibles, and among these every week came a box of eggs without the name and address of the sender. I was glad to see these eggs as the winter came on and with it the usual reluctance of our hens to provide us with sufficient eggs, but Mr. Parnell would not allow me to use them, for he said: "They might be eggs, but then again they might not," and I had to send them a good distance down the garden and have them broken to make free netflix premium on pc Free Activators of their genuineness, and then he would worry lest our dogs should find them and poison themselves.

On his visits to Ireland he wrote to me continually:—

DUBLIN,
    Tuesday.

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I have just a moment on my return from Ennis to catch the late post and reply to your wire.

{72}

I received your two letters quite safely, and you may write me even nicer ones with perfect confidence. I blame myself very much for not having written you on my way through Dublin on Saturday, as you were evidently anxious about your notes, but I hope you will forgive me as there were only a few minutes to spare.

I trust to see you in London on Tuesday next. Is it true that Captain O'Shea is in Paris, and, if so, when do you expect his return? I have had no shooting, weather too wet, but shall try to-morrow, when you may expect some heather.

DUBLIN,
    Friday evening, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, October 2,

Have just received your wire; somehow or other something from you seems a necessary Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of my daily existence, and if I have to go a day or two without even a telegram it seems dreadful.

I want to know how you intend to excuse yourself for telling me not to come on purpose if I must return. (To Ireland.) Of course, I am going on purpose to see you; and it is also unhappily true that I cannot remain long.

Shall cross Monday evening, and shall call at Morrison's for a message.

Please write or wire me in London to 16 Keppel Street, Russell Square, where I shall call on Tuesday.

DUBLIN,
    Monday night, October 4,

Just arrived I write you on the only bit of paper to be found at this late hour (a scrap taken from one of your own notes), to say that I hope to reach London to-morrow (Tuesday) evening and to see you on Wednesday when and where you wish, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Please write or wire me to Keppel Street. This envelope will present the appearance of having been tampered with, but it has not.

DUBLIN,
    Tuesday evening, October 5,

A frightful gale has been blowing all day in Channel and still continues.

{73}

Under these circumstances shall postpone crossing till to-morrow evening.

Can meet you in London at 9 to-morrow evening anywhere you say.

DUBLIN,
    Monday evening, October 17,

MY OWN LOVE,—You cannot imagine how much you have occupied my thoughts all day and how very greatly the prospect of seeing you again very soon comforts me.

On Monday evening I think it will be Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack for me to go to Avondale; afterwards I trust, if things are propitious on your side, to return to London on Tuesday or Wednesday.—Yours always, C.

AVONDALE, RATHDRUM,
    October 22,

I was very much pleased to receive your wire this morning, forwarded from Dublin, that you had received my note of last Saturday. I was beginning to fear that it had gone wrong.

After I had finished at Roscommon and received your message in Dublin on Monday I decided upon coming here where I have been unexpectedly detained.

If all goes well you will see me in London on Monday evening next I send you enclosed one or two poor sprigs of heather, which I plucked for you three weeks ago, also my best love, and hope you will believe that I always think of you as the one dear object whose presence has ever been a great happiness to me.

Meanwhile the Government had been temporizing with the land question. They had brought in a very feeble Compensation for Disturbances Bill and they had allowed it to be further weakened by amendments. This Bill was rejected by the House of Lords, with the result that the number of evictions in Ireland grew hourly greater and the agitation of the Land League against them; outrages, too, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, were of common occurrence and increased in intensity.

{74}

Speaking at Ennis on September 19th Mr. Parnell enunciated the principle which has since gone by the name of "The Boycott."

"What are you to do," he asked, "to a tenant who bids for a farm from which another tenant has been evicted?"

Several voices cried: "Shoot him!"

"I think," went on Mr. Parnell, "I heard somebody say 'Shoot him!' I wish to point out to you a very much better way—a more Christian and charitable way, which will give the lost man an opportunity of repenting. When a man takes a farm from which another has been unjustly evicted, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, you must shun him on the roadside when you meet him; you must shun him in the shop; you must shun him on the fair-green and in the market-place, and even in the place of worship, by leaving him alone; by putting him into a sort of moral Coventry; by isolating him from the rest of the country, as if he were a leper of old—you must show him your detestation of the crime he has committed."

Forster, the Irish Secretary, who had some amount of sympathy for the tenants, was, however, a Quaker, and the outrages horrified him more than the evictions. Nor, strangely, was he able to connect the one with the other, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Undoubtedly the evictions almost ceased, but, said he, they have ceased because of the outrages, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and the outrages were the work of the Land League; and he pressed for the arrest of its leaders. This was unwise, considering that it Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Parnell who had advocated the abandonment of violence for the moral suasion of the boycott.

On November 3rd Forster decided to prosecute the leaders of the Land League, and among them Parnell, Dillon, Biggar, Sexton and T. D. Sullivan. Two days {75} later, in a speech at Dublin, Parnell expressed his regret that Forster was degenerating from a statesman to a tool of the landlords. Biggar when he heard the news exclaimed, "Damned lawyers, sir, damned lawyers! Wasting the public money! Wasting the public money! Whigs damned rogues! Forster damned fool!"

DUBLIN,[1]
    November 4,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I take advantage of almost the first moment I have had to myself since leaving you to write a few hasty lines. And first I must again thank you for all your kindness, which made my stay at Eltham so happy and pleasant.

The thunderbolt, as you will have seen, has at last fallen, and we are in the midst of loyal preparations of a most appalling character.

I do not suppose I shall have an opportunity of being in London again before next Thursday, but trust to be more fortunate in seeing Captain O'Shea then than the last time.—Yours very truly, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

DUBLIN,[1]
    Saturday.

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I hope to arrive in London on Tuesday morning, and trust to have the pleasure of seeing you before I leave. Do you think you shall be in town on Tuesday?

Kindly address 16, Keppel Street.—Yours very truly, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

On November 5th that year the village was great on the subject of "gunpowder, treason, and plot," and during dinner that evening there was such a noise and shouting outside my house that I asked the maid who was waiting what all the excitement was about.

She answered breathlessly that "the procession, ma'am, {76} have got Miss Anna Parnell in a effigy 'longside of the Pope, and was waiting outside for us to see before they burnt 'em in the village."

This electrifying intelligence was received with grave indifference by Mr. Parnell till the disappointed maid left the room; then with a sudden bubble of laughter—"Poor Anna! Her pride in being burnt, as a menace to England, would be so drowned in horror at her company that it would put the fire out!"

The cheering and hooting went on for some time outside the house, but, finding we were not to be drawn, the crowd at last escorted the effigies down to the village and burnt them, though with less amusement than they had anticipated, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

DUBLIN,[2]
    November 6,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—You can have very little idea how dreadfully disappointed I felt on arriving here this evening not to find a letter from either you or Captain O'Shea. I send this in hope that it may induce you to write in reply to my last letter and telegram, which would appear not to have reached you.—Yours very sincerely, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

AVONDALE,
    Monday.

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I enclose keys, which I took away by mistake. Will you kindly hand enclosed letter to the proper person[3] and oblige,—Yours very truly, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

DUBLIN,
    Wednesday night, November 11,

MY DEAREST LOVE,—I have made all arrangements to be in London on Saturday morning, and shall call at Keppel Street for a letter from you. It is quite impossible for me to {77} tell you just how very much you have changed my life, what a small interest I take in what is going on about me, and how I detest everything which has happened during the last few days to keep me away Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack you—I think of you always, and you must never believe there is to be any "fading." By the way, you must not send me any more artificial letters. I want as much of your own self as you can transfer into written words, or else none at all.—Your always, C. S. P.

A telegram goes to you, and one to W.,[4] to-morrow, which are by no means strictly accurate.

DUBLIN,
    December 2,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I succeeded in getting the train at Euston with just ten minutes to spare, and, arriving here this morning, found that my presence to-day was indispensable.

I need not tell you how much I regretted leaving Eltham so suddenly; but we cannot always do as we wish in this world.

My stay with you has been so pleasant and charming that I was almost beginning to forget my other duties; but Ireland seems to have gotten on very well without me in the interval.

Trusting to see you again next week on my way to Paris.—Yours very sincerely, CHAS. S. PARNELL.

I have been exceedingly anxious all day at not receiving your promised telegram to hear how you got home.

{78}

CHAPTER X
THE LAND LEAGUE TRIALS

"The surest way to prevent seditions is to take away the matter of them."—LORD BACON.

Through the whole of Parnell was determinedly organizing the Land League throughout Ireland, and during the winter, doubtless encouraged by the enormous distress that prevailed over the whole country, the force and power of the League grew with a rapidity that surpassed even the expectations of Parnell and his party. All through the vacation Parnell and his followers held meetings in carefully calculated areas of Ireland, and in his speeches Parnell explained the meaning and wide-reaching scope of the League's agitation, i.e. that tenant farmers were to trust in their own combination alone and "should give no faith to the promises of the English Ministers."

During the early session that year Parnell had introduced a Bill called "Suspension of Ejectments Bill," and this first pressed upon the House the necessity of dealing with the Irish landlord troubles. Parnell's party urged this Bill with so united a front that Mr. Gladstone was obliged to consider the main substance of it, and he agreed to insert a clause in the "Relief of Distress Bill" which would deal with impending evictions of Irish tenants. But the Speaker of the House held that the interpolation of such a clause would not be "in order," and the Chief Secretary for Ireland (Mr. Forster) then, by Mr. Gladstone's direction, brought in his "Disturbances Bill," {79} which was to all practical purposes Parnell's Bill under another name.

In the course of the debate on this Bill Mr. Gladstone himself said that "in the circumstances of distress prevalent in Ireland (at that time) a sentence of eviction is the equivalent of a sentence of death." These absolutely true words of Gladstone's were used by Parnell very many times during his Land League tours both in speeches and privately, and many times he added—as so often he did to me at home—bitter comment upon the apathy of the English Government, upon the curious insensibility of the English law-makers, who knew these things to be true in Ireland and yet were content to go on in their policy of drift, unless forced into action by those who saw the appalling reality of the distress among the Irish poor that was so comfortably deplored in London.

In this connexion Parnell used to say that the fundamental failure in the English government of Ireland was: First, the complete inability of the Ministers in power to realize anything that was not before their eyes; and, secondly, their cast-iron conviction that Ireland was the one country of the world that was to be understood and governed by those to whom she was little but a name.

In all this time of trouble and eviction Parnell went backwards and forwards between England (Eltham) and Ireland as occasion required, and so successful were his efforts in spreading the agitation and linking up the League that the Government became uneasy as to the outcome of this new menace to landlordism. Finally Parnell and fourteen of his followers were put on trial, charged with "conspiracy to impoverish landlords." Parnell, of course, went over to Ireland for these "State trials," but he considered the whole thing such a farce, in that it was {80} an impotent effort of the Government to intimidate him, that he could not take it seriously in any way. No jury (in Ireland) would agree to convict him he was well aware, and he attended the trials chiefly, he said, for the "look of the thing," and to give the support of his presence to his colleagues. Incidentally he told me on one occasion that he had considerably hurried the jury when he was very anxious to catch a train in time for the night mail to England (Eltham) by "willing" them to agree (to disagree) without the long discussion of local politics with which all self-respecting Irish jurors beguile the weary ways of law. He observed that here, in the question of how far an unconscious agent can be "willed" into a desired action, he had discovered another and most entrancing study for us when we had more time to go into it thoroughly.

Talking of the Land League's procedure against the interests of the Irish landlords, I may, I think, here pertinently remind those who have, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, among so many other accusations, brought against Adobe Illustrator CC Free Download the charge of self-seeking in regard to money matters, that Parnell himself was an Irish landlord and of very considerable estates, and that this land campaign (really, of course, directed against eviction), meant, to all practical purposes, the loss of his rents, and that not only for a time, as in other cases, but, with the very generous interpretation put upon his wishes by the "Chief's" tenants, for all time—or rather for all his lifetime. Captain O'Shea also had certain estates in Ireland, and naturally, not being in sympathy with Parnell's policy, but being at heart a thorough Whig and a strong advocate for Mr. Shaw, the ex-leader of the Irish party, he was furious at the Hma vpn license key for android 2020 Activators Patch anti-landlord work, and refused to have any hand in it. He considered {81} that hapless as was the plight of those who had to pay in rent the money they did not possess, that of the landlord whose rent was his all was but little to be preferred.

During this period the stories of the evictions brought home to me by Parnell Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack made my heart sick, and often he sat far into the night at Eltham speaking in that low, broken monotone, that with him always betokened intense feeling strongly held in check, of the terrible cruelty of some of the things done in the name of justice in unhappy Easeus data recovery wizard license key generator. How old people, and sometimes those sick beyond recovery, women with the children they had borne but a few hours before, little children naked as they had come into the world, all thrust out from the little squalid cabins which were all they had for home, thrust out on the roadside to perish, or to live as they could. I in my English ignorance used to say: "Why did they not go into the workhouse or to neighbours?" and Parnell would look wonderingly at me as he told Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that for the most part such places were few and far between in Ireland, and "neighbours," good as they were to each other, were in the same trouble. There were instances where a wife would beg, and with none effect, that the bailiffs and police should wait but the little half-hour that her dying husband drew his last breath; and where a husband carried his wife from her bed to the "shelter" of the rainswept moor that their child might be born out of the sight of the soldiers deputed to guard the officials who had been sent to pull their home about their ears. And, remembering these and so many other tales of some of the 50, evictions that he afterwards calculated had taken place in Ireland, I have never wondered at the implacable hatred of England that can never really die out of the Irish heart.

{82}

On December 4th,he Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to me from Dublin:

I was exceedingly pleased to receive your letters; to say the truth, I have been quite homesick since leaving Eltham, and news from you seems like news from home.

The Court refused our application to-day for a postponement of the trial (of the Land League), but this we expected, and it does not much signify, as it turns out that we need not necessarily Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the trial unless absolutely directed to do so by the Court.

You will also be pleased to hear that the special jury panel, of which we obtained a copy last night, is of such a character as in the opinion of competent judges to give us every Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of a disagreement by the jury in their verdict, but we cannot, of course, form an absolute conclusion until the jury has been sworn, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, when we shall be able to tell pretty certainly one way or the other.

Since writing Captain O'Shea it does not look as if I could get further away from Ireland than London, as Paris is inconvenient from its distance.

I have no letter from him yet in reply to mine.

And again on the 9th:—

I returned from Waterford last night, and shall probably get through all necessary work here by Saturday evening so as to enable me to start for London on Sunday morning. I do not know how long I can remain in London, but shall run down and see you on Monday, and perhaps my plans will be more fixed by that time.

I have decided not to attend any more meetings until after the opening of Parliament, as everything now can go Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack without me.

Kindly inform Captain O'Shea that the meeting of Irish members will be in Dublin on the 4th January.

On December 12th of that year Mr. Parnell wrote from Avondale to say that the jury panel was to be struck on the following Monday for the prosecution of the Land League.

{83}

And it will be necessary for me to see it before giving final directions.

I have consequently postponed my departure till Monday evening.

I have come here to arrange my papers and find a number which I should not like to destroy, and which I should not like the Government to get hold of in the event of their searching my house in the troublous times which appear before us. May I leave them at Eltham?

And the next day:—

I have just received a note from Healy, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack is to be tried at Cork on Thursday, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, saying that his counsel thinks it of the utmost importance I should be present.

This is very hard lines on me, as I had looked forward to a little rest in London before my own trial commences; but I do not see how it can be helped, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, as Healy's is the first of the State trials, and it is of the utmost importance to secure an acquittal and not merely a disagreement. I shall leave Cork on Thursday night and arrive in London Friday evening, and shall call to see you at Eltham Saturday. Your letters, one directed here and the others to Morrison's, reached me in due course, and I hope to hear from you again very soon.

Parnell, now, always made my house his headquarters in England, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and on his return from Ireland after the trials came down at once as soon as he had ascertained that I was alone.

There were times when he wished to keep quiet and let no one know where he was; and, as it became known to the Government that Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Parnell frequented my house a good deal, it was somewhat difficult to avoid the detectives who were employed to watch his comings and goings.

On one occasion in he was informed privately that his arrest for "sedition" was being urged upon the Government, and that it would be well to go abroad for a short time. I think his enigmatic reply, "I will {84} disappear for a few weeks," must have puzzled his informant. He came down to me at night, and when I answered his signal at my sitting-room window, and let him in, he told me with a deprecating smile that I must hide him for a few weeks. As I sat watching him eat the supper I always had ready for him at 3 a.m. I felt rather hopeless, as he was a big man, and I did not see how he could be hidden from the servants. He said the latter must not know he was there, as they would talk to the tradespeople, and they to the Government men. He did not wish to be arrested until later on, when it might be more useful than not.

Then he awaited suggestions, and at length we decided that a little room opening out of my own must be utilized for him, as I always kept it locked and never allowed a servant into it—except very occasionally to "turn it out." It was a little boudoir dressing-room, and had a sofa in it.

Mr, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Parnell was then still feeling ill and run down, and enjoyed his fortnight's absolute rest in this room. None of the servants knew that he was there, and I took all his food up at night, cooking little dainty dishes for him at the open fire, much to his pleasure and amusement, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. He spent the time very happily, resting, writing "seditious" speeches for future use, and reading "Alice in Wonderland." This book was a favourite of his, and I gave it to him with the solemnity that befitted his grave reading of it. I do not think he ever thought it in the least amusing, but he would read it earnestly from cover to cover, and, without a smile, remark that it was a "curious book."

In all this fortnight no one had the least idea that he was in the house, and the only comment I ever heard upon {85} my prisoner's diet was that "the mistress ate much more when she had her meals served in her sitting-room."

At the end of this fortnight he had arranged to go to Paris on some Land League business, and wanted me to go to see him off. He had brought certain political correspondence from Avondale and London and placed it in my charge, and this I kept in a box in this little private room, where I hid them. But there were two papers that he did not Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack left even here, and, fearing arrest, could not carry on Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. For these he had a wide, hollow gold bracelet made in Paris, and after inserting the papers he screwed the bracelet safely on my arm; there it remained for three years, and was then unscrewed by him and the contents destroyed.

The winter of was terribly cold, and as I let him out of the house in the bitterly cold morning I wished he did not consider it necessary to go to Paris by such a roundabout route as he had chosen.

However, we drove off to Lewisham that morning, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, quite unobserved; from thence we went by train to New Cross, and drove by cab to London Bridge. At Vauxhall we started for Lowestoft; for Mr. Parnell had arranged to go to Paris via Harwich. I was anxious about him, for the cold was intense, and the deep snow over the large dreary waste of salt marshes seemed reflected in his pallor. Our train slowly passed through the dreary tract of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, feet deep in its white covering, and we could see no sign of life but an occasional seagull vainly seeking for food, and sending a weird call through the lonely silences.

I wrapped Parnell up in his rugs as he tried to sleep. I loathed the great white expanse that made him look so ill, and I wished I had him at home again, where I could {86} better fight the great fear that so often beset my heart: that I could not long keep off the death that hovered near him. A lady and gentleman in the carriage remarked to me—thinking he slept—that my husband looked terribly ill, could they do anything? And I noticed the little smile of content that flitted over his face as he heard me briskly reply that, No, he had been ill, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but was Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack much better and stronger that I was not at all uneasy. It was the cold glare of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack snow that made him look so delicate, but he was really quite strong. He hated to be thought ill, and did not see the doubt in their faces at my reply.

Arrived at Lowestoft I insisted upon his resting and having a good meal, after which he felt so cheered up that he decided to return to London with me, and go to Paris by the usual route the next day!

We had a new Irish cook at this time, from County Tipperary, and her joy exceeded all bounds when she learnt that the Irish leader was really in the house and she was to cook for him. I had to ask Mr. Parnell to see her for a moment, as she was too excited to settle to her cooking. Directly she got into the room Ellen fell down on her knees and kissed his hands, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, much to his horror, for, although used to such homage in Ireland, he disliked it extremely, and he told me with some reproach that he had expected to be quite free from that sort of thing in my house.

At Christmas he tipped my servants generously, and indeed Ellen and the parlourmaid Mary vied with each other in their attention to his comfort. The enthusiasm of the cook was so great that she bought an enormous gold locket, and, having inserted a portrait of Mr. Parnell in it, wore it constantly. Mary, not to be outdone, thereupon bought a locket of identically the same design, and {87} wore it with an air of defiance, when bringing in tea, on New Year's Day.

This was against all regulations, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and I said laughingly to Mr. Parnell that he was introducing lawlessness into my household. He answered, "Leave it to me," and when Mary appeared again he said gently to her, "Mary, that is a magnificent locket, and I see you are kind enough to wear my portrait in it. Mrs. O'Shea tells me that Ellen has bought one also, but I just want you and Ellen not to wear them outside like that, for Mrs. O'Shea lets me come down here for a rest, and if people know I'm here I shall be worried to death with politics and people calling." So Mary promised faithfully, and Ellen came running in to promise too, and to threaten vengeance on "the others" if absolute silence was not observed. The lockets went "inside," and only a tiny bit of chain was allowed to show at the throat in evidence of homage continued, though hidden.

Meanwhile, events were fusing in Ireland. Parnell had gone over there immediately after Christmas. From Dublin he wrote:—

DUBLIN,
    Monday evening, December 27,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I have been exceedingly anxious all day at not receiving your promised telegram to hear how you got home; trust I may have something to-morrow morning that it is all right.[1]—Yours in haste, C. S. P.

MORRISON'S HOTEL,
    Tuesday, December 28,

MY DEAREST WIFE,—You will be delighted to learn that everything is proceeding first-rate so far.

The jury sworn to-day cannot possibly convict us, and there is a very fair chance of an acquittal. I do not think {88} Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Government will attempt to prevent me from being present at the opening of Parliament, though I am not quite sure yet whether it will be prudent for me to leave until Wednesday evening. So far as I can see there is no necessity for the presence of any of the Traversers; one of them, Gordon, who has broken his leg, has not appeared at all, and his absence has not been even mentioned or noticed.

I was immensely relieved by your letter this morning. You must take great care of yourself for my sake and your and my future.—Yours always, C. S. P.

I have wired and written to Madrid[2] explaining situation lest my observations at yesterday's meeting as to doubt of my being in Parliament, intended to throw dust in eyes Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Government, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, might be literally interpreted.

DUBLIN,
    Thursday, December 30,

MY DEAREST LOVE,—Your letters have reached me quite safely, and you cannot tell how much pleasure they give me. I fear I was very foolish to allow you to come with me the day of my departure; I felt sure it would do much harm, and until your first letter arrived I was in a continual panic lest some dreadful disaster had happened.

That my poor love should have suffered so much makes my heart very sore, and she must take great care of herself for the sake of our future

I enclose letter from W.S.[3]—Yours always affectionately, C. S. P.

Will send you photo to-morrow.

DUBLIN,
    January 3,

MY Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack WIFIE,—Was most delighted on return this morning from Avondale to find your three letters and telegrams. I think it would make you happy and more contented during my absence if you knew how I watched for your letters, and how often I read and re-read them.

I felt very much tempted to run over and spend the New Year and Sunday with you, but feared you might not be alone.

{89}

It pains me very much that my own love was unhappy about that stupid thing in the Freeman on Thursday. An old and ugly woman with whom I was very slightly acquainted, but who wanted to put herself en evidence, perched herself just behind me, and got a gentleman sitting next to her to hand me down a slip of paper, on which was written some message of congratulation, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I only rewarded her with a stare, did not even bow or smile, and certainly sent no communication of any kind in reply. That was all. I will ask my own dearest to believe in me while I am away, and never again to feel unhappiness from want of confidence.

I have made all arrangements to leave by mail on Wednesday morning, and shall be with my own wifie on Wednesday evening about eight.—Yours, C. S. P.

Mr. Parnell held the Party meeting in Dublin on January 4th, and returned to me on January 5th, in time for the meeting of the House (on 6th January, ), not having thought it necessary to remain in Ireland till the termination of the trials—a circumstance which, curiously enough, was not publicly remarked upon, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. We spent some days together at Eltham, and I took Mr. Parnell to see my aunt, who was much charmed with him. His quiet manners and soft, clear voice pleased her greatly, as also did his personal appearance. She took his arm, and paced up and down the tapestry room with him, while she told him how she was introduced to O'Connell in the old days, when her husband, Benjamin Wood, was M.P. for Southwark. She had met O'Connell at the House, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and heard what was said to have been one of his greatest speeches. She said, "I much prefer your voice, Mr. Parnell, for Daniel O'Connell's enunciation was startling to me."

Though such a great age, my aunt had still a very pretty round arm, and as she always wore the net sleeves of her youth, fastened with old-fashioned bracelets, Mr. Parnell noticed this, and commented upon the fact to me. {90} The old lady was much gratified when I told her of this. She enlisted his sympathy by telling him that she had to pay £ a year in order to keep her beautiful old grounds intact, as the Crown desired to sell the place for building lots, and she was determined to die in the old house she had lived in for over fifty years.

The State trial ended on January 25th,the foreman of the jury stating: "We are unanimous that we cannot agree," as Mr. Parnell had assured me they would. He was in Court and loudly cheered as he hastened off to catch the boat to England.

{91}

CHAPTER XI
PARLIAMENTARY ASSOCIATIONS

"Live to-day—the past is registered—the future is unguessed—the instant ours."—MORTIMER COLLINS.

Forster's Coercion Bill was introduced on January 24th,and on the 25th Mr. Gladstone moved that it should have precedence of all other business before the House. Mr. Parnell fiercely opposed this motion, and kept his followers hard at work in opposition—thus forcing the House to sit from 4 p.m. on Tuesday until 2 p.m. of the next day. The details of these sittings have been recounted ad nauseam, and I need not repeat them here, but only record Parnell's fierce joy in these political fights, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and my pride in him as I watched him from the Ladies' Gallery. Sometimes Willie would wish to give the seats he secured in the Ladies' Gallery to friends of his, and on such occasions I always knew that Mr. Parnell would ballot one for me. Of course, later on I could always secure a seat without ballot, if one was vacant, as I had to wait to receive messages from Mr. Parnell and Mr. Gladstone, and it was made known to the attendants that on any important occasion I held priority of place.

As a rule, after an all-night sitting he used to drive down to Eltham in order Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to become well known on the Eltham railway, and come through the conservatory into my sitting-room, where I would have supper ready for him before the fire, with his smoking-jacket and slippers ready to put on, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. He seldom spoke after his first {92} greeting. He would take off his frock-coat and boots, and, when I slipped on the others for him, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, he would eat his supper quite silently, thinking over the events of the night. I never worried him to talk. Supper finished, he would light a cigar and sit down in his own arm-chair, saying, "Well, Queenie, the Old Man spoke to-night," or "So-and-so spoke," and then slowly tell me of all that had passed during the sitting, and his opinion of the present and future, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, so far as politics were concerned.

Sometimes when he had spoken himself he would say: "I did not speak Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to-night," and sometimes it was: "I lost that quotation you gave me and brought it out sideways, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and there it was all the time crushed up in my hand! Then I forgot the fellow's name and called him 'the poet.'"

"Well, Shakespeare can be called 'the poet,'" I would return soothingly.

"Yes? Is that so? It seemed to worry some of the reporters; one came and asked me what I meant! You must make me learn it better next time."

Once he began to talk he confided all his thoughts to me unreservedly, and the more freely that he had not been worried to talk when he came in cold or tired. He used to say that it was such a relief to get right away from the House when a sitting was over, and he enjoyed the drive down to Eltham in a hansom cab every night or early morning. It was only an eight-miles drive, but part of it was then very pleasant, through country lanes and over a common. Now London has swallowed up most of these pretty bits.

After relieving his mind of all political affairs of the day he would talk of things that were of home interest to us—of his stone quarries at Arklow, his saw-mills, etc., {93} of what Kerr, his Irish agent, was doing at Avondale; or of some of his hobbies at home. So we would talk till daylight sent pale gleams of light under the window curtains, and he would say: "I am really sleepy, Queenie; I'll go to bed," and as a rule he would sleep soundly until about four o'clock in the afternoon, when he would come down to breakfast in my sitting-room, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

Parnell was always generous in letting any members of his Party speak when they had a chance of distinguishing themselves, and he would at once give way when he thought any member could speak better on any subject than himself. This most of his Party, if not all, acknowledged at one time. I mention the characteristic because I have noticed in more than one of the so-called "Lives" written by those strangely ignorant of the man's real character, that considerable stress is laid upon Parnell's jealousy. He was jealous, abnormally so where his affections were concerned, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but not in political life.

Gladstone once said that "Parnell always knew what he wanted Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack say, and said it," but he was not a ready speaker, and his constitutional nervousness, hidden though it was under the iron mask of reserve he always wore in public, rendered public speaking very painful work to him. He was extremely modest about his own speeches, and frequently would say to me that So-and-so "would have put that much better to the House, but I could not have trusted him to say it and leave it." He considered that most Irishmen spoilt things by over-elaboration. Here also I may record a protest at the tales of gross discourtesies, spoken utterly without motive, recorded in some of these "Lives."

The Parnell I knew—and I may claim to have known him more intimately than anyone else on earth, both in {94} public and private life—was incapable of such motiveless brusqueries. That Parnell could crush utterly and without remorse I know; that he could deal harshly, even brutally, with anyone or anything that stood against him in the path he meant to tread, I admit; but that he would ever go out of his way to say a grossly rude thing or make an unprovoked attack, whether upon the personal appearance, morals, or character of another man, I absolutely deny. Parnell was ruthless in all his dealings with those who thwarted his will, but—he was never petty.

Parnell had a most beautiful and harmonious voice when speaking in public. Very clear it was, even in moments of passion against his own and his country's foes—passion modulated and suppressed until I have seen, from the Ladies' Gallery, his hand clenched until the "Orders of the Day" which he held were crushed into pulp, and only that prevented his nails piercing his hand. Often I have taken the "Orders" out of his pocket, twisted into shreds—a fate that also overtook the slips of notes and the occasional quotations he had got me to look out for him.

Sometimes when he was going to speak I could not leave my aunt long enough to be sure of getting to the Ladies' Gallery in time to hear him; or we might think it inexpedient that I should be seen to arrive so soon after him at the House. On these occasions, when I was able, I would arrive perhaps in the middle of his speech and look down upon him, saying in my heart, "I have come!"; and invariably I would see the answering signal—the lift of the head and lingering touch of the white rose in his coat, which told me, "I know, my Queen!"

This telepathy of the soul, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, intuition, or what you will, was so strong between us that, whatever the business {95} before the House, whether Parnell was speaking or not, in spite of the absolute impossibility of distinguishing any face or form behind the grille of the Ladies' Gallery, Parnell was aware of my presence, even though often he did not expect me, as soon as I came in, and answered my wordless message by the signal that I knew, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

Sometimes he would wish to speak to me before I went home, and would signal by certain manipulations of his handkerchief to me to go and await him at Charing Cross, or another of our meeting-places, and there he would come to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack to tell me how things were going, or to chat for a few minutes, or get from me the replies to messages sent through me to Mr. Gladstone.

* * * * * *

DOVER,
    Wednesday, February 23,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—Am just starting for Calais.

Kindly send on my portmanteau with my letters and other things in my room or in the wardrobe to me at Hotel Brighton, Rue de Rivoli, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Paris.—Yours always, C. S, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. P.

February 25,

MY DEAREST KATIE,—I have just received your three letters, and am so delighted to read them hurriedly before sending you this line in time for post.

I never had Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack slightest doubt of my darling, and cannot imagine why she should think so.

Did not know I was going when leaving here, but was induced to leave by private information, the nature of which I will send you in my next.

Am not yet sure whether I shall return, but shall manage to see you in any case.—Yours, C.

HOTEL BRIGHTON, RUE DE RIVOLI, PARIS,
    Sunday evening, February 27,

MY DEAR MRS. O'SHEA,—I cannot understand your {96} telegram received to-day at all, although I have been thinking it over all the evening. I wired back as you appeared to request in it, "All right."

There was no letter for me from you at the usual address, so I enclose another, as I fear something may have gone wrong. You can write me freely in my own name under cover to this address: Thomas Adams and Co., Limited, 33 Rue d'Hauteville, Paris, and they will forward the letters safely to me.

I have been warned from Dublin that there is some plot on foot against us which has been originated by information received from Cork, and you will guess the original source.

I am expecting further information to-morrow in reference to it. I have received five letters in all from you since my arrival in Paris. Best not post your letters at Eltham.

I did not know when leaving you that I was going my departure was influenced by information of reliable kind that my arrest was intended for passage in Clare speech, and that bail would be refused, and I should be left in jail until Habeas Corpus was suspended, when I could have been again arrested. I think, however, they have now abandoned this intention, but will make sure before I return.

This is my third letter to you since my arrival here.—Yours, C. S. P.

HOTEL BRIGHTON, RUE DE RIVOLI, PARIS,
    Tuesday, March 1,

MY DEAREST LOVE,—To-day I have received your four letters, the earliest of which was written on Saturday, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. You do not seem to have written on Friday, as there was nothing for me on Saturday or Sunday.

I propose returning to London on Thursday morning, leaving here Wednesday evening, but it is just possible I may not leave till Thursday morning, in which case I shall not be able to see my Katie until Friday.

If I return Thursday morning, my Queen may expect to see me about one o'clock, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

Your letters make me both happy and sad, happy to hear from my own, but sad when I see how troubled you are.—Always yours, CHARLES.

{97}

GLASGOW,
    Tuesday, April 19,

DEAREST KATIE,—I send you authority for letters. They are in two forms, one authorising delivery to you, and the other to' bearer.

To-night I leave by boat for Dublin, arriving to-morrow morning. I trust my own wifie has not Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack herself to be too unhappy, and that she has not been worried. I am writing with her own beautiful face before me, and have just kissed it.—Always your husband.

Please write me to Morrison's.

{98}

CHAPTER XII
HOBBIES AND A CHALLENGE

"Admire, exult—despise—laugh, weep—for here
There is much matter for all feeling: Man!
Thou Pendulum betwixt a smile and tear.
"
                                                                                    —BYRON.

In the early summer of my aunt had one of her old friends to stay with her, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and I seized the opportunity of freedom to take my children to Brighton for a month, after settling the old ladies together. I had gone down before the children to take rooms for them, and was walking across Brighton Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack when I was suddenly joined by a tall man whom I did not recognize for a moment until he said quietly, "Don't you know me?" It was Mr. Parnell, who had slipped into the train at Clapham Junction, knowing that I was going to Brighton, and had cut off his beard with his pocket scissors in the train in order to avoid being recognized at Brighton. He had wrapped a white muffler round his throat, and pulled it as high as possible over the lower part of his face, with the result that the manageress of the hotel he stayed at was certain that he had an infectious illness of the throat, and rather demurred at letting him in. It was only by the expedient of complaining loudly at being kept waiting in the draught with his "raging toothache" that "Mr. Stewart" was reluctantly admitted. I could not bear his appearance neither bearded nor shaven—so he went off soon after arrival, was properly shaved, and relieved the {99} hotel staff by discarding the muffler and assuring them that he was free from pain now his "tooth" was out.

He went to Cork soon after this and, to please me, was photographed without his beard and with the ring I had given him on his finger. We had had a little quarrel, and were very unhappy until we had made it up again, and he had this photograph done to remind me that he wore my ring. He also gave sittings to Henry O'Shea (no relation of Captain O'Shea) for a portrait (pencil) at this time, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and this was sent to him while he was in Kilmainham, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. He liked this sketch much, and wrote to the paper for which it was done to this effect. When he left the prison he brought this sketch home to me, and I have it now. It hung in our dining-room till he died, and he always liked it, but I still think it a little hard and expressionless; the eyes are too large and empty. There was a painting done of Parnell years afterwards, and here also the artist failed with the eyes. This latter portrait was not, I think, done from life, but from photographs, so there was reason for the failure in this respect, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, photographs making unsatisfactory studies. The artist who painted this last picture gave Parnell blue eyes; presumably following the idea that Parnell was an Irishman, and must therefore have blue eyes, whereas the facts were that Parnell was not an Irishman, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but the son of an Englishman resident in Ireland and his American wife, and had brown eyes, not large, but with the smouldering fires in them that gave character to his cold, high-bred face.

Parnell had so many hobbies and interests in his home life that it is difficult to enumerate them all. He once said rather wearily that if he had not "taken off his coat" in the Irish cause and for the Irish people he could have been {} always happy at home working at things so much more congenial to him.

At one time he took up all the intricacies of bookkeeping in order that he might check his Irish agent's accounts, and many weeks he sat immersed in double entry, estate accounts keeping, commercial booking, etc., in the evening, while I sat near him typing replies to his letters ready for his signature. He used to threaten me with lessons in book-keeping, so that I might be ready to help him with the estate management at Avondale when we went to live there; but I felt that my duties as his extra and most private secretary were sufficiently arduous, and declined instruction in account-keeping.

Many hours were also spent in architectural drawings, which interested him greatly. At that time Brighton Station was being rebuilt, and Parnell was intensely interested in getting the "span" of the roof. He spent hours at odd times pacing the station, measuring distances, heights, depth of roof, etc., etc., and in drawing up plans in order that he might build a cattle shed on the same lines at Avondale. These plans he afterwards submitted to a well-known architect for his opinion on them, and they were returned as absolutely correct in every detail. He then reduced the whole thing to scale and had the cattle shed made from these plans at Avondale.

I well remember his look of reproach at me when I laughed while reading him a letter from his agent at Avondale the following winter. The agent said that Mrs. Delia Parnell (Parnell's mother) had arrived unexpectedly at Avondale, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and, after seeing the new cattle shed, had at once decided to give an entertainment in it. This she had done, having the cattle shifted from their comfortable {} quarters, the place boarded in, and a temporary floor laid down.

Parnell did not see that this expensive and troublesome eviction of his cattle for so frivolous a reason was in the least funny, and was very greatly annoyed at the whole proceeding. He was always most chivalrously kind to his mother, however, and his protest on this occasion was very gentle, though coupled with firm insistence, on the instant restoration of the cattle-house to its tenants.

Another of his hobbies was the "assaying" of small pieces of quartz from the stream at Wicklow, and I used to help him for hours at this, keeping his blow-pipe constantly at work, while he, silent and absorbed, manipulated the crucibles. When we went to live at Brighton, after my aunt's death, he had a furnace fitted up in one of the rooms so that he could work on a larger scale. His endeavour to obtain gold from this quartz was rewarded to a certain extent; but the working was, of course, far too laborious and expensive to be profitable otherwise than as a hobby. However, Parnell for five years worked at it in various odd hours till he had extracted sufficient gold to line my wedding ring, even though his hope of getting enough for the whole ring was not Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

When working at these things Parnell was absolutely oblivious to the passing of time, and it was with difficulty that I prevailed upon him to take sufficient exercise, or even to take his meals before they were spoiled by waiting. He would order his horse, "President," to be taken to a certain place about a half-mile from the house, at the hour he wished to ride, and then become so absorbed in the particular hobby of the moment that even I could get nothing from him but an abstracted smile and a gentle {} "Is that so?" in answer to the intimation that his horse had been waiting some two hours or more for him.

Many a day I have let him work up to the last possible moment, and then literally pulled off the old "cardigan" jacket he worked in, and forced him into his frock-coat for the House; and it happened more than once that he was due to attend a meeting in Ireland, and when I had packed his things and had the carriage at the door ready for him he would throw himself into a chair and with his slow, grave smile say, "You are in a hurry to get rid of me; I will not go yet. Sit down and let me look at you a bit, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, my Queen." I would protest that he must go, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, that he would lose the mail train. "Then I'll be no use at the meeting, for it will be over!" he would mockingly reply; and so, when the last possible chance of his being in time had vanished, he would sit opposite me through the evening talking of politics, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Avondale, the assaying—of anything that came into his head always watching me with that intent, considering gaze that was my bewilderment and my joy.

When he failed a meeting like this, where hundreds of people were waiting for him—or other appointments, private or public—I sometimes would want him to telegraph, or write, apologizing or excusing his non-attendance, but this he would never do, saying, "You do not learn the ethics of kingship, Queenie. Never explain, never apologize"; adding, with his rare laugh: "I could never keep my rabble together if I were not above the human weakness of apology."

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20 Oct,

Abstract

Inlawyers, teachers and students in the two Anglophone regions initially led demonstrations and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, which eventually involved a wider section of the population. This mobilization was against their marginalization by the Francophone-dominated government in which they were chronically under-represented in all aspects of national life: political appointments and professional training and had been treated as second-class citizens since their reunification. They argued that their vibrant Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and political institutions had been completely erased, and their education and judicial systems had been undermined and degraded, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Activists spread videos that show security forces abusing human rights (by suppressing peaceful gatherings, beating, harassing, arresting and killing protesters, burning their houses, schools and hospitals) in order to produce a counter-narrative to the ‘official story’ that main-stream media had been producing. We collected and analyzed 30 videos to better appreciate the human rights abuses. The videos provide information that cannot be provided by other types of data. They are used as ‘proofs of facts’ and they contain much more visual information on bodily movement and acoustic data. The videos show appalling images not just of how French-speaking soldiers tortured Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack but also their inability to communicate with them adequately although they share the same country.

Keywords

  • protest
  • cultural hegemony
  • human rights
  • uprising
  • videos
  • alternative media
  • Ambazonia
  • judiciary and education
  • Nanche Billa Robert*

    • Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Sciences for Development, Faculty of Arts, Letters and Social Sciences, University of Maroua, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Cameroon

*Address all correspondence to: nanchefile@omjanahindia.com

1. Introduction

It seems people everywhere are questioning the ability of traditional political actors to represent their Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and are increasingly seeking a more direct and unmediated relations to the decisions that affect their lives [1]. The Southern Cameroon-Ambazonia crisis commonly known as the Anglophone crisis revolves around the marginalization of the Anglophones and the dilution of their cultural identities especially concerning education and the judiciary by the Francophones in their attempt to assimilate them. Anglophones have therefore collectively given voice to their grievances and concerns and are demanding that something be done about them and they have taken extra-institutional actions by arming themselves to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack themselves against the government security forces who abuse their human rights by arbitrarily arresting, torturing, detaining, killing them, burning their houses, raping their women and also refusing them the right to self-determination.

The collective challenge that from the onset of the crisis was predominantly regressive, that is, a return to federation as it was from tochanged due to Cameroon government’s failure to listen to their plights. They overwhelmingly became progressive, that is, they wanted absolute independence except for their elite (parliamentarians, ministers and other prominent government workers) still clamoring for federation and a unitary state because they benefitted from the government and were afraid of losing their jobs. The question we ask is: how have Anglophones historically sustained social solidarity with their common opponent, which is the government of Cameroon, in order to attain their desired policy change? What means have they used to make their voices heard in the international scene? And finally, how have the government responded to their protest?

The rise and spread of new ICTs have transformed the way that society is organized, which of course include social movements. Internets and SMS messaging for examples have enabled activists to coordinate protest in record time, giving rise to the ‘flash mob’ phenomenon. ‘Flash mob’ is a term that originally referred to social experiments and countercultural movements to reclaim ‘public spaces’ Salmond [2]. The Anglophone movement can be dubbed as the ‘Twitter Revolution’ or ‘Facebook Revolution’ emphasizing the role of social media in diffusing videos of human rights abuses and to organize protest mobilizations both at the local and international levels.

The videos were diffused all over the world thereby creating huge impact in the international community. Diffusion is the process through which movements import and export ideas, tactics, strategies, organizational forms and cultural practices as Entman [3] puts it, by framing: a way of selecting and highlighting a particular claim to mobilize supporters, demobilize antagonists and convince observers of the worthiness of their course. The frame Ambazonian highlight is that their union with Francophone is fake and it never took place because there is no certificate of union and that they are culturally different, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, therefore the need for the restoration of their independence. Their frames are deeply rooted in local or national Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and cultural context and are more open to diffusion especially as it concerns the abuse of human rights. They use a frame that makes them to think globally and act locally, that is, they take a political action frame that links global problems with local action.

Many videos have been spread on the brutality of the security forces that disrespected the universal declaration of human rights. They can easily be downloaded from the Internet clearly showing that due to the age of Twitter and Facebook revolution, the images have been globalized in order to gain international attention from organizations and countries that matter in the world. The spreading of these videos and other information led to the shutting down of the Internet in Ambazonia for 93 days.

The objective of this work is to collect and analyze short videos and journalists’ reports for television stations using social movement theory.

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2, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Origin of the Ambazonia uprising: dominant not consensual cultural hegemony

The Ambazonia crisis is an attempt of Southern Cameroonians to break the dominant Francophone cultural hegemony. SinceLa République du Cameroun has dominated the Southern Cameroonians, which came into union with them from a weaker position with a population numerically smaller. As a result, La République du Cameroon has been making efforts not just to dominate them but to absorb them into the broader Francophone cultural system. They silently destroyed the dignity DVDFab Passkey Lite 9.4.1.9 Crack + Activation Key Full Free Download statehood of Anglophones-not by the French-speaking community at large, but by the government which was led and dominated by Francophones.

Marx and Engels [4] famously argued that, in any epoch, the dominant ideas are the ruling ideas in society that serve to maintain the dominance of the ruling classes. Those who have the means of economic production also have control over the production of ideas, and the class which is the material force of society is at the same time the ruling intellectual force. The ruling class, rules also as thinkers and as producers of ideas and regulate the production and distribution of ideas of their age. Similarly, La République du Cameroon has been producing ideas to suppress Southern Cameroonians because of their dominance over the economy, judiciary and political institutions. When the crisis started in order to dilute it, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, they produced many unsuccessful concepts such as the promotion of Bilingualism and multiculturalism, the national disarmament and demobilization and reintegration committee all headed by Anglophones and whose reports were dropped in the dustbins. Finally, they gave Anglophones what they termed ‘Special Status,’ which Anglophones rubbished as being empty. How did these two separate entities come together and form a union?

Cameroon was initially a German’s territory from to before the British invaded it from Nigeria in and the German surrendered in February After the war, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the League of Nations partitioned the colony between the United Kingdom and France on June 28,and France gained the larger geographical share. French Cameroon became independent as La République du Cameroun in January and Nigeria was scheduled for independence later that same year, which raised question of what to do with the British territory. A plebiscite was agreed on and it was held on February 11,and the British Southern Cameroon voted to join Cameroon as West Cameroon omjanahindia.com Dear [5]. To negotiate the terms of the union, the Foumban Conference was held on July 16–21,  in which the Federal Constitution was drafted. It stated in Article that “No bill to amend the constitution may be introduced if it tends to impair the unity and integrity of the federation.”

This poorly conducted re-unification was based on centralization and assimilation, and has led the Anglophone minority feeling politically and economically marginalized as their cultural differences are ignored. “On the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack September the Cameroon National Union (CNU) was created by the union of political parties of East and West Cameroon. Most decisions were taken without consultation, which led to widespread feelings amongst the West Cameroonian public that although they voted for reunification, La Republique du Cameroon was absorbing or dominating them,” Wikipedia [6].

Achankeng [7] states that although the plebiscite was an expression of willingness to associate with French Cameroon, no necessary discussions took place to arrive at an agreed document and set the legal basis of the federation. So it never took place and neither were any agreements subsequently signed between the two countries.

InPresident Ahidjo (the President of the Republic of Cameroon) conducted a referendum on the form of the state. Although the West Cameroon lawmakers heavily opposed and rejected it on the ground that it was a violation of the Federal Constitution, he went ahead with the referendum and the Federal Republic of Cameroon became the United Republic of Cameroon [8]. All these events were calculated attempts meant to incorporate a former colony into another state, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Bongfen [9] and Ajong [10] state that it abolished “all federal legislative, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, judicial and administrative institutions, and removed all guarantees that protected the rights of the minority Southern Cameroonians in the federation. Unlike during the plebiscite of wherein only Southern Cameroonians voted to decide on their destiny, the May referendum was extended to all the people of la République du Cameroun. It was ‘a creeping annexation than unification&rsquo. However, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the dissenting voices of Southern Cameroonians rejecting the centralized United Republic of Cameroon were dwarfed by the wide majority of La République, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Many Southern Cameroonians regard 20th May, - the national day of today’s Cameroon – as a day when they lost their freedom&rdquo.

InPaul Biya removed one of the stars from the flag and changed the official name of the country to the Republic of Cameroon (La République du Cameroon), which Cameroon had before her unification with Southern Cameroon. Some Anglophones such as Gorji-Dinka, Bernard Fonlon and Carlson Anyangwe from the Southern Cameroon considered it as the dissolution of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack union.

Citizens from these regions, that is, the Anglophone regions, have been mobilizing against their marginalization by the Francophone-dominated government. They complain about chronic under-representation in all issues of national life, including political appointments and professional training. They argue that since their reunification, they have been treated as second-class citizens. Their vibrant economic and political institutions have been completely erased, and their education and judicial systems have being undermined and degraded.

Gorji Dinka and Albert Mukong: Southern Cameroonian nationalists who protested the ill-treatment of their people by the central regime were arrested and detained. Representatives of southern Cameroonians in the tripartite talks of proposed a return to the federation, but the leaders of La République du Cameroon ignored them. InJohn Ngu Focha and Salomon T. Muna both former Prime Ministers of the Southern Cameroons returned to the United Nations in New York and demanded separate independence for the Southern Cameroons. The mission to the UN preceded the All Anglophone Conference (AAC 1), Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, which took place in Buea in April bringing together all Southern Cameroon citizens who unanimously called for the restoration of the statehood of the Southern Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. A second All Anglophone Conference (AAC 2) was held in Bamenda in Mayat Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the decisions of AAC 1 were reiterated and a reasonable time was given to French Cameroon to accept a return to the two state federations or Southern Cameroon would revive its statehood and independence. The implementation of AAC 1 and AAC 2 was however stalled by the brutal arrests and incarceration of the leaders of the AAC with several others escaping into exile.

The ACC was renamed the Southern Cameroons Peoples Conference (SCPC), and later the Southern Cameroon People’s organization (SCAPO), with the Southern Cameroon National Council (SCNC) as the executive governing body. Southern Cameroon National Council younger activists formed the Southern Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Youth League (SCYL) in Buea on May 28,

When they felt their demands were met with contempt and total disregard, the SCNC took their case back to the United Nations led by John Foncha and protested against La République du Cameroun annexation of their territory, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Their focus has been maintained on the restoration of the statehood of Southern Cameroon, and the government brutal repression has helped to unify them.

Police routinely disrupted SCNC activities: On March 23,gendarmes killed about 10 people in a raid in Bamenda. The police arrested between and people, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, mostly SCNC supporters as well as members of the Social Democratic Front. In the subsequent trials, Amnesty International and SCNC found substantive evidence of the government torturing and using force on them. The raid and trial resulted in a shutdown of SCNC activities. On October 1,SCNC militants took over Radio Buea to proclaim the independence of Southern Cameroon but failed to do so before security forces intervened. After clashes with the police, the SCNC was officially declared illegal by the Cameroonian authorities in Ina faction of SCNC once again declared the independence of Ambazonia Lansdorf, ed. [11].

Although Cameroon is bound by the international law and its own constitution to respect human rights and freedoms, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, many human rights have been violated in Southern Cameroon. This work pays particular attention on the cruel treatment of people who exercise the right to association and peaceful assembly. We use videos to show how these rights were violated in Ambazonia. We argue that the videos helped to globalize the crisis and attract the attention of the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack community to the severity of the killings and abuse.

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3. Data collection and interpretation

In the age of smartphones, images or video-making has become less problematic as most people even in the third world possess a smartphone with a built-in camera, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They take pictures of what is relevant to them in their daily lives. They usually film the remarkable, the extraordinary, the exceptional and not the ordinary or everyday activities [12]. From the onset of the Anglophone crisis, participants made many videos to expose the human right abuses of the military and they flooded the Internet. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack was why the government cut-off the Internet in the English-speaking areas to stop them from circulating incriminating images.

We decided then to collect 30 videos to analyze them because they provide information that cannot be provided by other types of data. They are used as ‘proofs of facts’ and as vmix 21.0.0.60 registration key is often said, a picture or video is more, and different, than a thousand words because they contain much more visual information on bodily movement and include acoustic data. Although images are specific reality constructions, ambivalent, subjective and diffuse, their interpretation must be substantiated in words [13].

The videos collection contribute toward answering a research question and are interpreted by providing verbal accounts and linked to the theoretical concept of cultural dominance and media and information communication. The questions we asked concerning each of the videos were similar to those asked by Becker [14]: What are the acts of violence and human rights abuses in each video? How can they be interpreted and linked to our theoretical concept? What insight do they generate and substantiate? What different kinds of people are there? We link observations to theoretical concepts such as status, groups, norms, rules, and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack understandings, deviance and rule violation, sanctions and conflict resolution.

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4. The Ambazonia uprising

The relationship that exists between Southern Cameroon and La République du Cameroon is one of two people, two inheritances, and two divergent mentalities: one struggles for its liberation, while the other suppresses and abuses its human rights or struggles to maintain control over it by using its mighty state military. They speak different languages with little or no rapprochement although they live in the same country. The various videos below clearly show the differences. The oppressors’ troops speak in French, while the oppressed speaks in Pidgin English. A country divided predominantly by language although language is not the cause of the Anglophone crisis: it is the history of people. This shows the struggle between the two people and languages while one is resisting the onslaught and domination, the other is trying very hard to overcome and crush them. Having been oppressed for long, the oppressed is not willing to give up and the oppressor is not willing to let her leave her unitary state, and then the struggle of two people stiffens. The government that has been in power for over 38 years does everything to suppress the uprising by sending its brutal security forces to harass the Anglophones who are striking for a just course.

According to Cameroon Concord News [15], “being Anglophone or francophone in Cameroon is not just the ability to speak, read and use English or French as a working language. It is about belonging to the Anglophone or Francophone ways including things like outlook, culture and how local governments are run, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Anglophones have long complained that their language and culture are marginalized&rdquo. They thought it necessary to protect their judicial, educational and local government systems. They wanted an end to annexation and assimilation and more respect from government for their language and political philosophies. They preferred a total separation by creating their own independent state if the government failed to listen to them.

According to omjanahindia.com [16], “towards the end ofthe two Anglophones regions were rocked by demonstrations and strikes, initially led by lawyers, teachers, students, and eventually involving a wider section of the population. They protested against what they viewed as the growing marginalization of the Anglophone linguistic, cultural, educational traditions and systems in various sectors such as the failure to use the Common Law in courts and Standard English in classrooms, as well as the improvement of their representation in politics&rdquo.

They decided to express their grievances by protesting. The protests began in the streets of Anglophone cities as thousands of Anglophone Cameroonians, from lawyers and teachers as well as irate youth, protested against the Francophone hegemony. Handfuls of videos show young men manifesting determination and strength for change in the Southern Cameroon-Ambazonia. They collaborated especially when one of them was shot because they were conscious of their marginalization. They knew the police would shoot them but they moved on, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. This shows that a disillusioned unemployed youth is very dangerous for the health of a country, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They all hungered for independence and not even federalism that some elite would talk of. Although largely, but not always peaceful in nature, these protests were met with sustained repressions from the Cameroon authority and security forces. Some peaceful protesters were killed during the demonstrations; hundreds of people were arrested and detained without trial. Our objective in this work is to analyze the confrontation between the protesters and security forces using amateur videos secretly taken by the protesters.

Cultural domination in the judiciary section

The protest began on October 6,as a sit-down strike initiated Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the Cameroon Anglophone Civil Society Consortium (CACSC), an organization consisting of lawyer and teacher trade unions from the Anglophone regions of Cameroon. Barrister Agbor Balla, Dr. Fontem Neba and Tassang Wilfred led the strike.

According to Wikipedia [17], Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, “the common lawyers of Anglophone Cameroon were said to have written an appeal letter to the government over the use of French in schools and courtrooms in the English-speaking regions of Cameroon. In an effort to protect the English culture, they began a sit-down strike in all courtrooms on October 6, Peaceful marches began with marches in the cities of Bamenda, Buea, and Limbe calling for the protection of the common law system in Anglophone Cameroon and the practice of the Common Law sub-system in Anglophone courts and not the Civil Law as it was used by French-speaking magistrates&rdquo. They equally demanded for the creation of a common law school at the University of Bamenda and Buea [18].

More so, Francophones occupied all the juicy positions in the Supreme Court. Although Francophones had little or no knowledge in English and the Common Law, most of the magistrates and bailiffs in the Anglophone zone were Francophones. Anglophones lawyers were disgruntled of the domination of the Civil Law as if Cameroon was uniquely a Civil Law country. There was equally a problem of translating the Business law for Africa (OHADA) uniform acts, CEMAC code, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and others because the Francophones wanted to assimilate the Common Law sub-system.

In Africanews Morning call [19], Barrister Bobga Harmony declared that the government of Cameroon had completely ignored them, which was a violation of the right to self-determination, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. According to him, “sinceUnity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, they have been a progressive, an inexplicable, illegal and illegitimate erosion of the common law.” He regretted that Francophones had been replacing the Common Law with the French Civil law as if Anglophones “were a conquered people.” The lawyers had complained for years through writing to competent authorities before realizing that if they did not take concrete Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, they would be swallowed up by the dominant Francophone system. So they held a Common Law conference on the May 9,which was followed by a second conference in Buea where they made a declaration reinforcing their position.

Although they had sent a communiqué to the presidency of the Republic of Cameroon, nobody listened to them. Instead of defending the Common Law lawyers, the Minister of Justice insulted them in the government newspaper: Cameroon Tribune. As a result, they protested and insisted to talk only with the president of the Republic of Cameroon or his properly mandated agent because they had exhausted all negotiation with the executive and the legislature. They had filed a petition to the national assembly and the senate and they were planning to file a petition to the constitutional council for the determination of the question of whether there had been any act of union between West Cameroon and East Cameroon. They planned to proceed to the international jurisdiction like the African Commission for Human and People’s Right, the Human Right Commission if the government did not listen to them. Bobga Harmony said “We are going to seize the international community because these are grave abuses of human rights, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The international community cannot fold its arms and allow us to be brutalized in our land,” Barrister Bobga Harmony said in Africanews Morning Call [19].

Cultural domination in the educational section

Teachers and the general public joined the lawyers in the strike. They reportedly opposed what was described as the “imposition of French in schools in Anglophone parts of the country.” According to Catherine Soi reporting for Aljazeera [20], students battled on their own at school because even private school teachers had deserted classroom in support of the public sector teachers and so many classrooms and schools across Ambazonia were empty. They wanted the government to stop sending teachers who spoke only in French or Pidgin English. Even avast premier vs pro supported the strike action because after completing school, they were unable to find jobs.

“For over fifty years Anglophone students have not been able to have a headway in Cameroon in most disciplined that bring about development: science and technology because the government has refused to train teachers for our schools,” declared Tassang Wilfred over Aljazeera ().

According to University of Buea strike Report [21], a mammoth crowd of students came out protesting in order to attract the authority of the university attention to their plights. A student carried a placard on which it was written: “enough is enough.” They had a variety of complaints: the non-payment of the 50,frs CFA that the government had promised them, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the cancelation of the 10,frs CFA penalty fees for the late payment of school fees, and the payment of fees before being given a semester result, and as it was the general cry with the secondary and high schools in the Anglophone zone, they also demanded the removal of French-speaking lecturers from the faculty of the university.

They stood in front of the Administrative Block wishing to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the Vice Chancellor to tell her their problems but instead security forces took her away and a huge number of security forces were sent to dispatch them. As they arrived, the students ran into different directions and the atmosphere became very misty because the security officers had thrown teargas and fired gun shots in the air. The students shouted no violence as they ran away for safety. Although students were beaten and arrested, it did not dampen the spirit of the strike action so the students left and marched into the street.

The white coffin revolution

According to Bamenda protest close to one hundred wounded [22], protesting residents voice other grievances, including – poor roads, no jobs and water. “On November 21,Mancho Bibixy, the newscaster of a local radio station, stood in an open casket in a crowded roundabout in the Anglophone city of Bamenda. Using a blow horn, Bibixy denounced the slow rate of economic and structural development in the city.”

“When that Chinese them di come, m-e-y they come tell we when they dig road, na we di fix’am back,” he declared his discontent with the bad state of roads that Chinese would only construct but would not repair. He showed his defiant attitude by declaring he was ready to die while protesting against the social and economic marginalization of Anglophone in the hegemonic Francophone state.

“I don tell them, if na teargas I go drink’am.”

“Let them chase me&hellip.it won’t mean anything to me,” he declared.

He emerged as a key leader in the Anglophone political movement who were among the first to be arrested and he was later slammed a year prison term (Figure 1).

In a video entitled “Bamenda Protest Close to wounded,” [22] it shows how the white coffin was carried about and a mammoth crowd of young men followed it with Bibixy himself leading.

“We can never be defeated by the police,” they declared when the police came to stop them. They rounded-up one of them and chased the others who came to stop their peaceful march. One can clearly hear a voice saying in the video:

“You no take hi gun?” asking whether he has not taken his gun.

“Cameroon must change,”

“That independent na Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack where i go start o-o,” which means: the independence will start today.

Young men came in their bikes honing while those who were on foot shouted. Protesters were all over the whole streets.

“I say… bamenda di hot yah,” they said in the background.

“We need change in Bamenda,” they said.

“whosai the police them dey where they di try their nonsense, make them come now,” they declared with determination.

Then suddenly trucks of military men arrived shooting in the air and killed a good number and wounded about a hundred.

“Jesus, they are killing us in Bamenda,” they said. Another truck arrived on which it Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack written “Gendarmerie Nationale” and it sprayed huge amount of water on a hostel: Grand Plaza; certainly where some of the protesters were hiding. The video shows how two persons hurriedly took away a shot person on a bike and some were taken and given private treatment at homes.

In a video entitled: Bamenda Boiling, they Escaped Teargas, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, on December, 8th [23], shows some young men shouting loudly and running away as fast as they could from the police who were throwing teargas on them to stop them from manifesting. Some covered their nostrils with handkerchiefs to prevent them from inhaling the toxic gas.

The struggle as well was not only between the Francophone and Anglophone but also between the Anglophone and their elite who enjoyed juice positions in the government and were not ready to resign from their positions. They were enablers: the government used them to crush their own people, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They always would preach anti-struggle campaign and would bring other Francophone authorities to fight against their people. Each time they visited the Anglophone zone, there was always a battle between them and their people. The elite wanted to maintain the status quo, while the general population wanted a change.

The video Bamenda Boys against CPDM [24] shows a comic scene where a young man brought a large catapult and took a stone to support the big stick and another one pulled the rope from behind him and then they took the catapult to confront the CPDM barons. According to Zigolo Tchaya [25] reporting for France 24, when the Prime Minister of Cameroon (an Anglophone) and the Secretary General of the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement, the party of the government in power, went to Bamenda to hold a pro-government rally with its militants to calm down the striking lawyers and the teachers’ association, who had been striking for 2 months, a group of young men burnt the CPDM party uniform of an elderly person who was going to attend the rally. The angry youth blocked the hotel where the Prime Minister and Secretary where lodging and there was a confrontation between them and the security. According to Gigova [26], it led to four deaths and several wounded and about 50 arrested. The Prime Minister, The CPDM Secretary General, the Governor of the North West region, and the national security adviser were forced to go into hiding.

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5. Government response and human rights violations

Cameroon Human Rights Report [27] states that “although the law provides for freedom of peaceful assembly, the government often restricted this right. The law requires organizers of public meetings, demonstrations, and processions to notify officials in advance and does not require prior government approval of public assemblies, nor does it authorize the government to suppress public assembles that it has not approved in advance. However, officials routinely asserted the law implicitly authorizes the government to grant or deny permission for public assemblies&rdquo.

It equally states that, “the government often refused to grant permits for gatherings and used force to suppress assemblies for which it had not issued permits. Authorities typically cited “security concerns” as the basis for deciding to block assemblies. The government also prevented civil society organizations and political parties from holding press conferences. Police and gendarmes forcibly disrupted meetings and demonstrations of citizens, trade unions, and political activists, arrested participants in unapproved protests, and blocked political leaders from attending protests.”

In the Stream: Alzeera [28], Anne Marie Befoune put it as “The strike action is a reflection of a bigger problem, people have had a lot of pains, frustration and anger in their hearts and they were just looking for the slightest opportunity to express what they feel.” The irony is that each time the security forces brutalized the protesters, they instead united against the common enemy, which was the government security forces.

Government responded by cruelly torturing and exerting inhuman or degrading treatments or punishment on demonstrators. Although the constitution and law prohibit such practices, there were reports that security force members beat, harassed, or otherwise abused citizens, including separatist fighters. Cases have been documented of how security forces severely mistreated suspected separatists and detainees [27].

Below we show videos that demonstrate gross human rights violation of the lawyer, the students and the general public.

Molestation of lawyers

The government sent over troops to thwart the Anglophone crisis. According to Zigolo [25] reporting for France 24 [25], the crisis was considered to be “a strong organized and well-coordinated violence from angry protesters and government did not want to allow that part of the country to be destroyed and the protesters too said they would not stop protesting until the government solved their problem&rdquo.

According to [29], policemen blew the ‘the men in uniform’: lawyers with their batons in Buea. The whole city was also under lockdown, monitored by Special Rapid Response (ESIR), the police and gendarmerie. There was also a strong police presence to face the demonstrators. Incidentally, the policemen were demanding that the lawyers hand over their black robes.

On November 10,the demonstration of lawyers in Buea in the Southwest region met with heavy-handed police response. Lawyers were reportedly brutalized, their offices ransacked, and their wigs and gowns seized by police. Many were injured and harassed in their cars. Their phones were Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and destroyed, and some were barred from joining the demonstrators. Police reportedly raided hotels in search for lawyers and were harassed by law enforcement officers (Figure 2).

The video entitled: Uprising 4 Police Brutality on Lawyers [31] clearly shows the commotion that took place in the Muea police station. One sees a police officer running after a young lawyer and then another lawyer is pushed into the police station by yet another policeman. Another lawyer is beaten and pushed out of the police station. The police kicks another who falls down and his watch falls off but the police pulls him up by dragging his coat. A female fat police encourages her colleague to hit the lawyer by Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack articulating the phrase in French “frappe,” “frappez-lui” over and over.

The episodes of police brutality in Cameroon were not limited to lawyers only; it extended to University of Buea students as well as the general public. Many were molested by police and disturbing videos show police officers armed with stick hitting or rolling them in water, invading students’ quarters and beating them.

Molestation against university students

The videos show appalling images of how French-speaking soldiers, who were Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack from the sufferings of English-speaking citizens, inflicted pains on them. Although they were in the same country, they could not communicate because they spoke different languages.

The video Police and Gendarmes severely torturing University Students in Buea strike [32] certainly was filmed while in the house because of the iron bars of the window, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. In it, two policemen force a student to lie down very fast: “Couches-toi” the police ordered him to lie down.

“Comment ca,” the young man retaliated by asking why.

“Couche-toi vite,” he ordered again.

“Ne parle pas,” “viens ici,” “Enleve la cle ci,” “viens d’abord ici, regarde la bas,” they continuously ordered him. Then one of them raises his baton and hits him while the other forces him to lie down while they hit him counting the number of strokes in French. The police standing by Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the baton from his colleague and asks the students to roll on the soil while he hits him with all his force. “Tourne, c’est votre pays-ci?” he asked whether it was his country. “Vous savez que vous allez gravez?” he asked while hitting him whether he knew they would go on strike.

The video entitled “2 police and Gendarmes severely torturing University Students in Buea, Buea strike [33] shows with a lot of noise in the background, two policemen harassing university students in their neighborhood. Three university students are laying down, one in a puddle and a female student is brought in and the police man brutally pushed her in the puddle.

“Attend d’abord, je vais te giffler hei,” the policeman said in French threatening to slap the girl and then the girl’s leg is pulled and is forcefully pulled in the puddle, rubbing her head in it.

“They go kill man,” they camera man exclaimed that they would kill them.

The Southern Cameroon updates: Police Brutality at UB 28/11/ [34] certainly taken from a story building shows how a group of police and gendarmes in the street of Molyko molested a young man. While one of the policemen was pulling him ahead, another one came from behind and kicked him and he fell down. It is clearly seen how one of the security officers had wounded a female student’s head, one also sees a student whose t-shirt had been torn and blood dripping from his head.

The video: Université de Buéa - les forces de l’ordre entrent dans les residences et tortuent des etudiants [35] starts with the camera woman inviting fellow students to run for safety. “Yuna enter o-o-o-h,” she invited other students. Then students are seen running very fast into their residence for safety as scores of security men followed them behind with batons. They caught some married women and hit them severely. “They go kill we that married woman them, I swear,” the camera women lamented. A woman is drawn from her house and mercilessly hit by the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack officers. “Pour les hommes faire les descendre,” an order is given in French to bring out all men. “Faire descendre tout les hommes,” the order is repeated for emphasis. A boy is removed from his house and the French-speaking security officers hit his head with their batons.

“Amenez-le, ca va,” an order is given and the boy is held from his belt.

The Centre for Human Rights and Democracy in Africa [36] reported that at least 14 student hostels were attacked that day, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. More than rooms were vandalized, their occupants tortured on the Buea (Molyko) main boulevard, and some students were asked to sing that “an Anglophone will never rule the country.” Even though most students were finally released, several of them spent 3 days in detention facilities in overcrowded cell conditions, with little or no communication with their families.

The molestation of the general public

The video Bamenda in turmoil today December,part 1 [37] shows a group of predominantly young men lamenting because a police had shot one of the protesters who wore a t-shirt with white and red lines on it, stained by blood and mud. He lay helplessly in the hands of his comrades.

“Oh my God, wait, wait. Bring he s-o, hold i hand,” they held him and he dangled in their hands while those around him lamented.

The video This is Bamenda [38] shows a group of young men carrying peace plants and marching very fast in a street in Bamenda. They were carrying a dead young man to the main street in Bamenda called the Commercial Avenue. The commentator said “Bamenda is turning into something else,” which means that many people are dying in Bamenda, and then he calls on “BBC, CNN Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Alzeera, you guys need to support us, people are dying,” he said. The spectators and the participants shouted and lamented.

“Y-e-e-u-h Bamenda, Bamenda, Bamenda, Bamenda,” he shouted several times.

“w-e–e–e-h massa,” he shouted several times again. Then the dead man is shown with a blue band that fastened him to the stick he was tied. He is being carried away by other young men marching very fast and singing: “Amba, Amba, Ambazonia.” It means they identify themselves more with Ambazonia than Cameroon.

Internet shutdown

The various videos incriminated Cameroon security forces and therefore as a result as [27] shows Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack experienced its first Internet shutdown in January for 93 days. It came after Anglophone teachers, lawyers, and students went on strike over alleged social bias Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack favor of Francophones. Education, financial, and health-care institutions as well as businesses that relied on Internet access were stunted. International bodies applied pressure on the government to restore Internet access. Despite Internet access being restored in Aprilthere were continuing reports of network instability. In Octoberthe government effected a second Internet blockade, targeting social media and apps such as Whatsapp and Facebook where such videos as those described above were sent. It continuously affected the country economically, and many citizens were forced to travel back and forth to regions with Internet access for business or information.

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6. The Ambazonian war

Two weeks into the protests, more than protesters were arrested, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and six were reported dead [39]. Throughout September, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, separatists carried out two bombings: one targeting security forces in Bamenda Quartz Africa [40], Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and while the first bombing failed, the second injured three policemen Reuter [41]. On September, 22, Cameroonian soldiers opened fire on protesters, killing at least five and injuring many more [40]. On November 30,the president of Cameroon declared war on the Anglophone separatists Sun Newspaper [42].

“I have learned with emotion the assassination of four Cameroonians military and two policemen in the South of our country things must henceforth be clear, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Cameroon is victim of repetitive attacks claiming a secessionist movement. Facing these aggression acts, I would reassure Cameroonians that everything has been put in place to take out of the dark these criminals so that peace and security reigns all over the territory.” This marked the start of a very violent confrontation between government forces and armed separatists.

Non-state actors, including local armed groups, also bear much responsibility for the violence. Separatist militias are battling government forces as well as pro-government “self-defense” forces that consist of what separatists term criminal gangs who are terrorizing local inhabitants and wreaking havoc. The military also conducts a deliberate violent campaign against civilian population. Lawyer Right Watch Canada [43], “There is evidence that much of the violence is intentional and planned, including retaliation attacks on villages by government security forces, often followed by indiscriminate shooting into crowds of civilians, invasion of private homes and the murder of their inhabitants, and the rounding up and shooting of villagers.”

According to the International Crisis Group, at least people have been killed since ; the ICG reports that at least soldiers and police officers and civilians, and close to separatists have lost their lives; and Anglophone federalists estimate – dead, and separatists estimate –10, dead.

The consequences of the war

Arbitrary arrests and detentions

The Centre for Human Rights and Democracy in Africa [44] reports that in early Januarythe Cameroon Anglophone Civil Society Consortium (Consortium or CACSC) agreed to meet with the government about the release of protesters arrested during a demonstration in Bamenda. The Consortium accused the government for shooting four unarmed youth and proceeded to declare “Ghost Towns” on January 16 and The reports equally state that, “in response, the government cut the Internet and banned the activities of two groups: the Southern Cameroon National Council (SCNC) and the Consortium on January 17, The same day, two prominent Anglophone civil society activists who headed the Consortium: Dr Felix Agbor NKongho and Dr Fontem Neba were arrested&rdquo.

On January 9,armed soldiers forcibly entered the home of Mr Mancho Bibixy, a journalist and Newscaster of “Abakwa” (a local radio program reporting on the rights of the Anglophone minority), and arrested him, along with six other activists. He was taken to a vehicle with neither shoes nor identification papers and was arbitrarily detained for 18 months and his hearings were postponed for more than 14 times.

On May 25, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack,Bibixy and his co-accused were sentenced to between 10 Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack 15 years of prison each by a military court, for acts of terrorism, secession, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack against the state, propagation of false information, revolution, insurrection, contempt of public bodies and public servants, resistance, depredation by band, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and non-possession of national identity card. He was being held in an overcrowded cell at the Kondengui Central Prison, a maximum-security prison in Yaoundé.

Between September 22 and October 17,people were arrested, with witnesses describing the detainees as being packed into jails in the South West region. In December pdf creator mac, a group of about 70 heavily armed Cameroonian soldiers and BIR sealed the village of Dadi and arrested 23 people returning from their farm or were in front of their homes.

On January 5,47 separatist activists, including Sisiku Ayuk Tabe of the proclaimed Interim Government of Ambazonia, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, were arrested and detained by Nigeria authorities in Abuja. The detainees were repatriated afterwards and imprisoned in Yaoundé incommunicado for 6 months awaiting trials. They were not given access to their lawyers nor charged with any offense.

Mass arrests and detentions have caused harsh and often life-threatening prison conditions in Cameroon, including gross overcrowding, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, lack of access to water and medical care, and deplorable hygiene and sanitation. Prisoners are transferred out of the region to other more secure areas.

Internally displaced persons (IDPS)

Several hundred thousand persons abandoned their homes in some localities of the Northwest and Southwest Regions because of the socio-political unrest. Estimate of IDPs varied depending on the source, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, with the government estimating 74, IDPs as of June, while the United Nations estimated Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, IDPs from the Northwest and Southwest as of September.

On Decemberthe Senior Divisional Officer for Manyu: Oum II Joseph asked the population of Manyu residents in Akwanga, Eyumojock, and Mamfe sub-division to relocate or they would be considered accomplices or perpetrators of ongoing criminal occurrences registered on security and defense forces [45].

By the end of Decemberthe crisis had forced mass displacement of the population in the North West and South West regions, with estimates of betweenanddisplaced persons. This represents more than 10% of the region’s population. Cameroon now has the sixth largest displaced population in the world. Many are fleeing violence as a result of raids on villages and surrendering areas. They take refuge in the forests where they lack hygiene, health services, sanitation, shelter and food. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian assistance estimates that approximately 32, Cameroonians are registered refugees in Nigeria. More than villages have been partly or completely destroyed, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, forcing hundreds of thousands of people to flee. The rate of attacks has increased steadily, usually causing significant damage. An additionally 30, to 35, people have sought asylum in neighboring countries.

Destruction of schools and villages

Separatist activists who seek an independent state for the country’s English-speaking regions began to set fire on schools and attack teachers and students to enforce a boycott they had declared on local schools. In JuneUNICEF reported that at least 58 schools had been damaged since the beginning of the crisis in Human Rights Watch documented 19 threats or attacks on schools, and 10 threats or attacks on education personnel (Figure 3).

Most children in the two regions have been deprived of the right to an education, with 30, –40, children affected. As of Junearmed separatists had reportedly attacked 42 schools, at least 36 of which were burnt down; the Cameroonian’s figure indicated that they had burnt at least schools. Rural areas are especially affected.

Anglophone villages suspected of harboring separatists or arms have been burned and pillaged in both the South West and North West regions. Homes have been burned to ashes, sometimes with their inhabitants, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. About settlements have been raided and partially destroyed by state defense forces during attempts to crack down on armed separatists. Several villages in Mbonge and Konye subdivision have been completely emptied of their population. Civilian witnesses say that army attacks are routinely followed by the ransacking of houses and shops, the destruction of food stocks, and the rounding up and mistreatment or killing of civilians, often as reprisals for their killing of a member of the defense and security forces (Figure 4).

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7. Discussions

One of the key ways social movements engage in cultural resistance is by means of the production and dissemination of multiple forms of media in order to mobilize support, to reach out for supports beyond those already in agreement with movement claims, and to increase the legitimacy of their claims and demands. Social movements operate at a considerable disadvantage when trying to influence news portrayals of issues than do their better-funded opposing groups and organization.

Anglophones or Ambazonians who are defending themselves from the Cameroon security forces that kill them are presented in the state television and other media as “terrorists” and never as those fighting for a just course, whereas as seen above, they did not start the war; it was declared on them. The main stream media equally promoted hate speech and incitement to violence, which radicalized separatist groups the more. Government officials refer to protesters in dehumanizing or incendiary terms, such as “dogs” and “terrorists” in the main stream media. When the security agents who terrorize the population are presented in mainstream media, they are considered as valiant and patriotic agents of the republic who protect the population. Did they really protect the population when they tortured them, arbitrarily arrested them, and burned their houses as seen above?

Therefore, media serve to propagandize and serve the interests of the powerful that control and finance them. The propaganda model shows that media function to represent the agendas of the dominant social, economic and political groups that exercise power nationally and globally. Therefore, social movements face difficulties in their attempts to transmit their claims and to traverse the gap between their intended messages and their target audiences.

Activists in the Ambazonian crisis created a strategy that Mattoni [47] considered as alternatives that are Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack creation of their own independent media or public forums of communication in order to communicate for a lack of interest or bias by established media. Alternatively, in the Ambazonian crisis, many videos were produced that facilitated the mobilization and production of a counter-narrative to the ‘official story,’ which indicates that there is no Anglophone problem in Cameroon and the professionalism of the security forces. The Internet makes the process of sharing easier and faster and with a potentially larger audience than ever before. These messages in the videos from the alternative media environment have made their ways into mainstream mass media like the various reports carried by BBC, France 24, TV5 Monde, etc.

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8, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Conclusion

The Ambazonia crisis was triggered by the Southern Cameroonians’ attempt to break the dominant Francophone cultural hegemony. They came into union with them from a weaker position with a population numerically smaller. As a result, La République du Cameroon has been making efforts not just to dominate them but to absorb them into the broader Francophone cultural system. They silently destroyed the dignity and statehood of Anglophones-not by the French-speaking community at large, but by the government that was led and dominated by Francophones.

Toward the end ofthe two Anglophone regions were rocked by demonstrations and strikes, initially led by lawyers, teachers, and students and eventually involving a wider section of the population. They protested against what they viewed as the growing marginalization of the Anglophone linguistic, cultural, educational traditions and systems in various sectors such as the failure to use the Common Law in courts and Standard English in classrooms, as well as the improvement of their representation in politics.

Many videos were produced showing their repressive response of the government, which were opposed to the official narratives produced by the main stream media. We collected 30 of them because they provide information that cannot be provided by other types of data. They are used as ‘proofs of facts.’ The videos show appalling images not just of how French-speaking soldiers tortured Anglophones but also their inability to communicate with them adequately although they share the same country.

References

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Written By

Nanche Billa Robert

Submitted: November 29th, Reviewed: January 9th, Published: February 24th,

© The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

5 open source alternatives to Minecraft

There's no denying that Minecraft is a favorite game for millions. And being written in Java enables it to run on a variety of platforms, including Linux. With a huge modding community, there are countless Minecraft tinkerers out there who would love to be able to get under the hood and play around with the source code themselves. Unfortunately, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the source is not available to the general public.

But there's good news. Minecraft's popularity has led to many attempts to recreate the game, and others in a similar vein, as open source software. Interested in a free Minecraft alternative? Here's a quick look at some clones and derivatives out there that you really ought to check out.

These projects are in widely varying levels of completion and serve a number of different goals. Some seek to duplicate the Minecraft experience completely, or to at least provide a very similar experience. Others are taking the voxel-based gaming concept in entirely new directions, and still others are really more of a framework to help you build your own game or creation.

Minetest

The first game on our list is Minetest. Minetest is perhaps the most complete alternative to Minecraft, which is billed as a "near-infinite-world block sandbox game and a game engine." It supports multiplayer games and subgames, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and features a number of terrain generators and different default biomes. It also features a very user-friendly API for creating Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack in Lua.

Minetest is open source under the LGPL, and is written primarily in C++ so it's fairly fast compared to some others written in scripting languages. Minetest runs on Windows, OS X, Linux, Android, FreeBSD, and possibly other operating systems as well. Check out the source code on GitHub.

Minetest

Minetest screenshot, Minetest website, CC-BY-SA

Terasology

Terasology might win the award for the most beautiful rendering engine in the pack; its shadows are both Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack and spectacular. What started out as an experiment in procedural terrain generation has turned into a full-featured game, complete with multiplayer and a number of add-on modules installed by default to let you try out different gameplay mechanics.

Terasology is written in Java and made available under an Apache license. Because of its Java-based system, it ought to run on just about any platform with sufficient power, so long as you have a Java 8 virtual machine installed.

Terasology

Terasology screenshot, Terasology code repository, Apache

omjanahindia.com

The odd one out in this list is omjanahindia.com; unlike the others, it's not a game at all and doesn't claim to be. Instead, omjanahindia.com is a JavaScript library enabling you to build your own Minecraft-style games, renderings, or other interactive widgets in JavaScript and HTML, enabling easy embedding on any webpage with no special plugins needed for any browser that supports WebGL.

omjanahindia.com is put together as a number of related projects, meaning you can use as much or as little of the code as you wish when you craft your perfect game. The main library, voxel-engine, is a fairly basic engine for rendering boxy scenes, but there are over  additional add-onsavailable. Check out the gallery for some ideas of what others have built with the engine. The main engine is released under a BSD-style license; other add-ons may be licensed differently, so it's worth checking before you make assumptions.

Screenshot of voxel-forest using omjanahindia.com

Screenshot of voxel-forest using omjanahindia.com, Jason Baker.

TrueCraft

TrueCraft is written to be very close to the original game. It is described as a Minecraft "implementation," as opposed to a clone, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and is compatible with official Minecraft server releases. The author of TrueCraft seeks to implement beta version of the original game, a time in Minecraft's development he deems "nearly perfect." A snapshot intentionally frozen in time, TrueCraft seeks feature-parity with Minecraft.

Because it is so close to the original, TrueCraft has taken great pains to avoid copyright issues by allowing code only from developers who have not decompiled or otherwise had access to the original game's source code, though those who have are welcome to contribute in other ways. TrueCraft is written in C# and is open source under an MIT license.

TrueCraft

TrueCraft screenshot, TrueCraft code repository, MIT license.

Craft

Craft is another open source voxel engine in the style of Minecraft. Development seems to have slowed or stopped, but there are over forks, many (such as the school project not2bad-craft) with major improvements, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Craft's simplicity may appeal to you if you're interested in building a game similar to Minecraft but aren't sure where to start: the game engine resides in just a few thousand lines of C code and uses OpenGL for rendering. It uses simple algorithms for terrain generation and other tasks, and everything is stored in an SQLite3 database. There's also a Python-based multiplayer server which is worth giving a try.

Craft is made available under an MIT license.

Craft

Craft Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Craft code repository, MIT license.

Other great options

Some other notable mentions you should try:

  • Freeminer is another sandbox game inspired by Minecraft and based on Minetest. As a fork, the authors seek to "make the game fun while trading off some bits of perfectionism." It has installers for Linux, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, Windows, and Android.
  • ClassiCube is a Minecraft Classic clone written in C#. It is open source under the OpenTK license, and installs on Linux, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, BSD, Solaris, Windows, Mac OS, and in a browser.

And there you have it. This list is far from comprehensive; there are many other options Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack there just waiting for you to explore, and as time goes on we'll undoubtedly see more choices emerge as enthusiasts fork these games or strike out on their own. Which one is your favorite, and which one did we leave off that you wish we had covered?

This article was originally published in It has been updated to include additional suggestions made by readers in the comments, as well as to remove a few projects that are no longer available.

A Down to Earth Design Blog

  • Exterior Paint: One Big Happy Family

    The heat, this summer, has been tough on all of us - but it can be particularly tough on your house’s paint job. Sure, I know in the spring you may optimistically think you can hold off just one more year, but by now your house may have you singing a different tune. But do not despair, houses get painted all the way into deep fall if the conditions are right. And after this summer you would think they’d have to be. 

So you’ve committed to repainting your home, and you’re up for a change. Now what? A good place to start is to step back and assess your house as a whole. What are you trying to accomplish? In general, you want to highlight your home’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses. And yes, I know that doesn’t Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack like rocket science, but sometimes it can be trickier than you think.

What are your house’s strengths? Does it have beautiful lines and you want it to stand out? Then lighter colors and a crisp white trim may be just what you need. Perhaps its strength is that it’s a beach house. Or a deck house from the 60’s. Or do you think your home’s strength is actually the way it nestles comfortably into its landscaped surrounding? Because you may want to consider an earth tone with a low contrast trim, so the house doesn’t over-power the beauty around it. 

And how about the weaknesses? It’s Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack personal, we all have our struggles. Some homes struggle with directional issues, like perhaps everyone uses the mudroom door when you want them to use the front. A pop of color can help you with that. Or your house may have a three-car garage that sort of dominates Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack curb appeal. Bright white on those doors is not the best choice here, but something darker might work. Or some homes are not blessed with nice details like wide trim around the windows and doors. Using a trim color that is closer to the main color can help de-emphasize that problem.

Which actually brings up an important point: windows. Many people have exterior window frames that they are not going to paint, typically because they are made of a no-maintenance vinyl or aluminum, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. But those traktor pro 3 crack windows 10 Free Activators still need to be recognized as a color, especially if the trim around the windows is not very wide. Because if you paint your thin trim one color and your vinyl windows represent another color, the whole thing starts looking sort of spindly and anemic. You can take a drive and see what I mean. An easy approach is to match the window frame color to the color of the trim. And if that throws off your whole vision, then make them at least friendly cousins.  

You can tell already it’s a bit of a dance you’re having with all the pros and cons. In summary, I usually identify the main highlights of your home and then also its main challenges. And I figure out those two areas and let the rest of the house sort of follow along, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I hope that makes some sense, because I don’t want to lose you before we’ve even had a chance to talk about color. 

Almost every home uses at least two colors. But most can use quite a few more. And I’m not talking about the “painted lady” victorians, I’m talking about your standard home. The stars of the show are, of course, the color for the main house color and the trim. When you first start thinking about what to paint your home, these are the two colors that you’ll be thinking about. But there are lots of other areas that may demand attention.

Take a walk around your house and note all the textural changes. You may notice your clapboard walls next to your cement foundation. Maybe you have shutters, or some paneling around a bay window, or some sweet shingles at the roof’s gable. There may be decking that needs new stain, or the ceiling of your farmer’s porch (which, if you are a true New Englander, you will paint a very light robins egg blue.) And then there is the front door, which can be tucked away sedately by using something like a black or burgundy. But it’s also an opportunity to show your personality - so if that’s you, go have at it. It’s easy to change if you don’t like it.

The trick is to enjoy the freedom of using all the colors that you need… but making Corel VideoStudio Ultimate License key look like you used just a few. To do this you must employ a little restraint. First of all, accent colors are accent colors and should be used very sparingly. And use them in intuitive locations so that it looks natural and is, honestly, sort of invisible to the casual viewer. And second of all, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, your colors should all work together like they are part of a family. When you lay out your swatches on a white piece of paper, they should look like good friends. I mean they will be hanging out next to each other for seven years, give or take, so they darn well better get along. 

And now, finally, it’s time to pick your colors. But come to find out, there are, oh, about eleventy-seven-gazillion of them to choose from. So narrow down your playing field. You can take lots of drives to identify houses you like, and even freak out the owners by knocking on their door and demanding paint names. Or you can also just ask your sister what she used on her exquisite home. Yes, you can flip through magazines and troll for pics online - but it’s really better to work with something more concrete than that. But you can google something like: “designers best house colors”, and you’ll get some curated lists that might get you pointed in the right direction. 

And visit a paint store. Get a bunch of samples strips to take home and think about. Sometimes, high end “paint and decorating” Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack will have a designer on staff that can help you. And if not, you can peruse the paint brochures. The paint companies are always offering suggestions for groups of colors and they present them in various brochures. 

A couple words of practical advice, and we’ll be done. When you collect swatches from the paint store they usually come on a strip with more colors in the same family. Cut off the ones you are interested in so you are only looking at those. It gets so distracting if you don’t. Flat colors look best on house walls and satin on trim - just trust me on that one. Think about how your paint colors will look with your foliage in all seasons - and take the color of your neighbor’s house into account as well. And be aware that paints fade over time - so if you are on the fence… go with something a tiny bit darker. And my last remaining snippets of advice? Swatch, swatch and make sure you swatch. Get solid coverage with two or three coats and swatch in a place where you can also paint the trim right next to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack too, so you can see how those colors are working together. 

Look at us, we’ve done it! And you’ll know you’ve done a good job when strangers walk by and say, “What a beautiful home.” Because that’s what you want. You really don’t want anyone saying something like, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, “That’s an interesting color.” because we both know that’s not quite a compliment. 

And trust me, I use the same barometer on my self when I’m getting dressed for a fancy soiree. If someone takes my coat and says, “Wow that is certainly a festive sweater.” I know it’s pretty much time to slink home. So please, learn from my mistakes, and also, remember to swatch.

  • The Power of The Pause

    Things Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack more slowly in August. I watch as the vacation weeks roll through the workforce in my industry, and even the plants seem to be taking a break in this drought. On my end, I find it harder to hustle-about at the same somewhat manic pace that I do at other times Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the year. And it’s good for me, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I’m actually not less productive, just on less of a high-alert. High alert mode sneaks up on me, and I don’t even know I’m doing it until I slow down a little. August is a good reminder to do that. That less Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack be more. That sometimes just making the space for a new perspective, is all we need. Because the new perspective might actually be out there waiting for us, it’s just waiting to be invited in. 

    

I have these clients, they are a couple that Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack worked with for a while last winter. This couple is purchasing the house that the woman grew up in, and it has good bones but needs to be updated from top to bottom. That sounds simple enough, but like every other major project, there ends up being lots of moving parts. This new home needs to accommodate not only their young family, but also her aging mother who is experiencing some health issues. And when my client looked ahead, she saw there was a potential need to accommodate her father and siblings as well - even if just for short stints. She was taking over the family home, and she felt that came with a responsibility. I was touched by that and I wanted to help.



    But the project snowballed - which is not unusual when working on an older home with lots of deferred maintenance. Some big ticket items reared their heads like HVAC, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, electrical work, carpenter ants, and a septic system that might be failing. And the smaller ticket items (can we even call them that?) started to add up too. Toss into the mix two working parents, two young kids, covid outbreaks, other health issues, and the daunting task of needing to empty that family house to make way for the renovations. Renovations that they were increasingly doubtful they could afford. It was all just too much, and that very nice Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack reached a tipping point and called to say they were putting the project on hold. 



    I recognized this as the right decision at the time, but I still struggled with it a bit. Because, selfishly, I like my projects to move along on a linear path: Meet new client, plan new project, construct new project, see family enjoying new project, and finally, me basking in the glow of a job well done. But honestly, very few major goals August 5, 2021Free Activators life plod along that way. My clients were wise to get off that freight train that was barreling down a twisty path towards something that they hadn’t properly figured out yet. And yes, they oh so nicely asked me to get off that train too, and looking back I’m grateful to them for it. My job is to give them what they want, and if that goal is unclear I can’t possibly do my job well.



    Pauses can come along at all different stages of a project. I have another client that is also pausing as they consult with an architect about their elevator. Pauses can happen while waiting for permits, or inspections, or land surveys, or conservation committee Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They are frequently groaned about. (Turns out it’s not just me that craves a linear path.) But sometimes what we may initially perceive as an obstacle can actually offer us the space we need to see something in a new way.



    My clients got back in touch with me in early summer, and I could sense their clarity of thinking and fresh perspective right away. She and her husband were able to prioritize what they needed, and they were also ready to let some things go, which they just couldn’t do before. We came up with solutions that just felt right. And that’s such an important slice of the pie. If your budget is limited, you really need to have the conviction that you are making the right decisions. And figuring that out may just take a little time. 



    So what did my clients end up compromising on? Well, there’s a giant chimney going through three floors that they chose to live with, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, although it would have been great to have it removed, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. We also simplified their kitchen, the mudroom, the basement build out and we didn’t add a portico to the exterior that would have looked really nice. But they dug deep to afford a lot of great features. They wanted this house to be both a wise investment and a forever home. So no flimsy materials or laminate counter tops or vinyl flooring. And yes to replacement windows, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, a good HVAC system, and a gaggle of home maintenance issues that the house was crying out for. They kept their upstairs laundry, a large shower for their primary bath, and a basement that will be finished in a very simple manner to offer them flexibility down the road. 



    Life is filled with unexpected pauses that are so easy to dismiss as unfortunate events. Like taking time off from college to earn money to pay for it. Or spending several weeks on the couch because of an ACL. Or nursing a parent back to health. Or the pause that comes with the brand new baby Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack your arms, when you look down and know your life will never be quite be the same. For me, those were all turning points that I wouldn’t change a thing about. My joke used to be, “Ok God, you now have my full attention. I’m really listening.” And hopefully I’m better at listening now. My knees would certainly appreciate it.

    

My clients, with the family abode? Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, we’ll all have to stay tuned for the end of that story. Projects like these take a while. And that’s ok, because pauses are good, right? Right! I just may need a gentle reminder of that when September rolls around, but for now… I’m really listening.



    — This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Counting Sleep

    How nice it was to have the Fourth of July back in full swing. It’s the holiday of choice for these parts, and in my town the parade starts at 10am. Personally, this seems like an ill-advised hour for me to be arriving in last year’s red white and blues and have a mimosa thrust into my hand. But tradition is tradition and I don’t see this one changing any time soon. 



    There is another tradition that arrives with the guests that join us. It’s the need for extra sleep space, and how far do we go to accommodate them? It’s a tricky business, so I find it helpful to break the overnight guests into three categories. 

    

Category 1 is for hosting “Guests of Honor.” This category is reserved for elderly relatives, or maybe one of your kids that just had a baby. They get a bonafide guest room and, if they are lucky, maybe a bathroom too. I won’t talk too much about them here, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack they are pretty much all set. I mean, in a pinch you might even vacate your own room for them, right? They get the best of what you have.



    Category 2 is otherwise known as “The Onslaught,” and I think most of us have experienced this at one time or another. These guests are the six college friends that came home with your son, whose names you never really quite got straight. These are the work friends that came for a beach weekend with your daughter, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, when you know she’s been looking for another job. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the thrice removed cousins that were ‘“just passing through.” They are the guests that, although the loveliest of people, may arrive at the last minute and may very well be empty-handed. It’s ok, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, we won’t take it personally. 



    And Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, “Come on in!” and “Of course you can bring your friends!” or relatives, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, or pet chinchilla. You’ve got a generous heart, and these types of visits come with their own set of silver linings. But for sleeping, these folks get air-mattresses, single trundle beds, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, a pull out, or even a makeshift bed Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack couch cushions under the dining room table. (Which is where I ended up during a memorable cape weekend many many years ago.)



    Just think about it as if you are running a European hostel, where the accommodations are simple Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack where house rules apply. Figure out what yours are, but an example is deflating the air mattresses and folding the blankets into a stack in the morning. It’s all up to you of course. But please don’t buy bunk beds Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack these folks, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, or convert your family room into permanent sleeping berths in anticipation of visits like these. They are really just so lucky to have whatever you choose to offer. 

    

Lastly there is Guest Category 3, or ”Our Loved Ones,” and these folks may require some special care, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Maybe they are your children or your mother or your college friends. But these are bed spaces that deserve some of your attention. Give them nice linens, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and maybe some cut flowers - even if you have them sleeping under the dining room table. 



    There is lots of practical advice for housing these special Category 3 folks. Like outfitting your office with a murphy bed (much more comfortable than a pull out,) or creating a dormitory in that room over the garage, or in the attic or the basement. These are the guests that you might actually buy a bed frame for. Because you love them and you really want them to come back.



    Other sneaky sleep spaces can be found in sheds, garages or even boathouses. I see this done a lot in vacation communities. They empty out their storage areas when the weather gets warm and they convert these spaces into guest houses. I slept in one on the Vineyard - a converted shed. Yes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, it was a chilly tiptoe to the bathroom in the main house - but it was worth it because the shed was so thoughtfully outfitted. I honestly appreciated the privacy and just tried not to drink a bunch of water before bed. 



    The wall mounted “mini-split” heating and air conditioning units really lend themselves to taking unused spaces and making them functional for your needs. They are not dirt cheap, but depending on your situation, they may be worth the investment.  

    

And these found spaces? You don’t have to fully renovate the whole room… maybe just spray it all white, throw down an area rug, clean the windows, install the screens, and then thoroughly de-cobweb. The nice linens and your quality pillows will do the rest. When you’re done, cover everything with sheets, turn off the mini-split and be ready for the next round of guests that roll through. 

    

As for impractical advice? Well, I have an embarrassing amount of ideas. Like putting a vintage airstream under a tree in the back yard… Or building a tree house for a guest house… Or putting up some “glamping” type tents on wooden platforms… Or what the heck? How about buying land and setting up a series of A-frames (they come in kits! I could build one for each child!) And don’t even get me started on houseboats. Honestly. 



    See how easy it is for my inner crazy to leak out? But ultimately my point is this: Go the extra mile for Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack special guests. Find them some space. Give them nice pillows, clean sheets, and a cut flower. And then they will forgive your inner crazy too.

    — This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket

  • Taming that Multi-Tentacled Monster

    Getting going on a home remodeling project can feel deceivingly simple in the beginning. Clients usually know they want certain things, like to renovate a kitchen and to add a family room for instance. That’s easy enough to envision, right?

    But there’s more. How about that furnace? Is it up to the task of heating this extra square footage? And how will you marry the new concrete foundation with your old field stone one that is, whoops, failing in some areas? How will those new double paned windows look next to your existing ones with the aluminum storms screwed to their frame? If we’re adding a new roof to the addition, should we also do the rest of the roof since it’s over 25 years old? You can see how this simple project is starting to turn into a monster.

    But there’s still more. Even setting aside those non-negotiable structural and utility issues, there will be plenty of other areas that will be calling for your aesthetic attention, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. New paint can make old paint feel very drab. The nice new trim you like may not match the rest of the house and you want the downstairs to look cohesive. Or how about that newel post that’s chronically loose? Or that painted ’s paneling in the laundry room - is it time to finally get rid of that?

    I sometimes refer to this process as “project sprawl”, but the term doesn’t sit well with me. It sounds too negative and infectious. There is absolutely nothing wrong with this process, and in fact there are many things right about it. When managed properly and efficiently you are fully prepared for the project as it gets underway, and you should be getting more bang for your buck, not less. So let’s add a mudroom to that family room for instance. Maybe you can’t afford a fancy built-in, but you can get the framework built and add some closets for a relatively small increase in cost. A simple bench with hooks will be good for now. You can do the fancy version when you get your next promotion.

    I know it can feel counter-intuitive to be adding additional items to your renovation list, after you’ve maybe just learned you need a new furnace. But when your project begins, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, there you will be, with all kinds of skilled workers traipsing through your house and disrupting your routines. There is honestly no better time to think big picture and add a few more things to your list, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Assuming, of course, you can afford it.

    At the beginning of any project, one of my first client goals is to create a Scope of Work document. It’s where I take that wooly-booger of a project with all it’s tentacles and sub-projects, and break it down into groups with clear, outlined steps. It is sort of a master plan. And if you have been overwhelmed by this project - this is when you will start feeling better. The Scope of Work ensures that we are all (me, my client, the contractor and his subs) on the exact same page. It’s the document I use to get estimates with. And it is clear enough to ensure that, with multiple estimates, everyone is pricing the same thing.

    If you work with someone like me, the Scope of Work document will include “before” and “after” floor plans with dimensions marked. It will have notes for the electrician, plumber, woodworker or wallpaper installer. It will be detailed enough to obtain comprehensive estimates, even though I haven’t yet started designing the space in a significant aesthetic way. I’ve got to do just enough work to know the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack stuff. Like how big that family room is, and that I want a wall of tile here, or two sconces there. But I don’t want to start billing my design hours until we can look at some prices and see if that impacts our Scope, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. So it’s a little bit of a push-me-pull-you phase until the scope and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack get finalized.

    This is my business. I have a methodology, design software, and trade professionals I can call on Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack advice. Those of you doing it on your own may bring other things to the table. But I know you’ve got ingenuity, resourcefulness and (hopefully) some Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack - so pull together your own Scope of Work. It may not look like mine, but as a DIYer, any steps you take towards creating a similar type of document will benefit you. Even if it’s just a list. It’s like every other important project matlab 2019a download crack Free Activators take on in life - don’t skimp on the planning phase.

    So go buy some graph paper and colored pencils. Draw your existing space and map out your addition. Think like a contractor who needs to estimate this project - what will they need to know? And same goes for your electrician, or plumber. Lean on good friends who have been through a renovation and can share what they’ve learned. Stuck on HVAC questions? Get a professional out to pick their brain. Google stuff. Take notes. Gather pictures. Stay organized. And most importantly, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, stick with it. Your wooly booger multi tentacled monster can indeed be tamed, but you have to roll up your sleeves Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack wrestle it to the ground.

    Will a good Scope of Work eliminate all surprises? No, that unicorn doesn’t exist in the world of renovation, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. But with the proper planning and research, the surprises can be significantly reduced. And you will have a system in place as to how you will address them when they do arrive, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

    Last weekend I proudly attended my third child’s graduation from art school. She started school somewhere else, thinking she wanted something else. My ex and I cohabitated the graduation events with politeness and good cheer, but I was still struck by the change in how we all now define family. The graduation itself was scheduled as a two hour event and went for four hours instead. Yeesh, there is just so much in life we can’t plan for. But a renovation project? Now that’s something I can plan the crap out of. And I think you can too.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Flowers, Forsythia and Fiddleheads

    We are smack in the season I like to call Not Quite Summer. Do you know how I knew for sure? I was in the city the other day and everyone’s ankles were out. Everyone’s! WinDataReflector Free Activate ones, brown ones, hairy ones (note to self on grooming) and yes even my pink freckled ones. I guess it’s the part of our bodies that we are willing to first expose to our fickle New England weather. I exposed mine for a client meeting the other morning and they just kept screaming up, “We’re freezing!!! We’re not ready!” So I covered them up for for my next appointment, but the sun came out and, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, “We’re boiling down here!! Let us out!” After that I pretty much changed into my sweatpants. Not Quite Summer Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack be a little exhausting for me.

    But I know I’m alone. Most of you LOVE the muddy ground and the forsythia and crocuses and daffodils popping out. (It occurs to me, that those plants are sort of the ankles of mother nature.) And even I am not immune to their charms. They are such great harbingers of the promising summer before us that they can warm even my crotchety soul.

    So what do I do to embrace this shoulder season? Well, for one, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I celebrate an old friend: the humble, ever-cheerful, frost-resistant pansy. For me they pack a punch Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack a small price tag. Yes they get straggly by the end of June, but honestly, who cares? You’ve still gotten maybe six good weeks of good cheer out of them (with a little deadheading) and that’s a pretty good return on investment. And when they are past their prime, I just shift them to a back corner and give some other showy annual the center stage for those summer months. They don’t seem to mind. They all get a turn.

    Pansy’s I don’t re-pot. (Their life span is so short - I try to not to get too emotionally invested.) But I do re-pot every other flowery annual that I grab from a garden store, or HomeDepot or even the supermarket. I break up that root ball and let them soak up some water, then let them spread out in a larger pot. They’ve all been over-fertilized at the store, so to me it’s like loosening their belts a notch after a big Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. It lets them settle in and encourages growth. With the right conditions they will double in size really quickly.

    The overall look for container gardens seem to go one of two ways. If you’re feeling creative, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, you can look for unusual flower and color combinations and strive for a creative balance of different heights, densities, and foliages. The results are stunning even though, to be honest, I’m not the best at it. But I have friends who really are - and I’m a big appreciator of what they can pull off. I do notice that this method requires some extra maintenance however. Certain plants do better than others, and my talented friends pop in a little of this and fill in with a little of that to keep their window boxes looking robust throughout the summer.

    But me? I’m a salty, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, practical, busy New Englander. So I tend to get the hardiest plants I can find and maybe just in one color. Even boring old white. Lots of white run-of-the-mill geraniums, super petunias, impatiens or verbenas - nothing fancy here. I’m after the ones that are hard to kill. I might break it up a little with some colorful foliage from a potato plant or coleus. But all of it is easy peasy, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I do take the time to re-pot, and deadhead, and fertilize, and water regularly. But those plants? Some of them last until the first hard frost without much fussing. And I love the overall look, so for me that approach is a big win.

    How about bringing some of that outside in? It’s past the time when we can force the forsythia and azalea into blooming Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but truth be told, I try to force just about anything. I have the best luck taking cuttings from skinny little growths that are just starting to reveal their leaves. Inside I put them in water and if I hit it right, I get to watch the leaves come out. No blossoms here. But honestly, anything green and growing makes me pretty happy this time of year. I was at the pet store the other day and bought three little pots of grass. It’s supposed to be for your cats to eat, but I shoo mine away. Those cheerful little pots of optimism are gracing my windowsill and they are PDFMate PDF Converter Professional mine.

    If you get out in the woods at all you’ll notice the ferns starting to unfurl, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They are sort of amazing to watch because they start out as these tight little spirals, and then get taller as they start to uncurl, and finally spread out into what will be a large fern leaf with all it’s little sub-leaves in there, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. It’s just a miracle of nature I think. They call them fiddleheads (which is fun to say) and sometimes you see them all curled up in the produce section, but I can’t bring myself to eat those baby ferns. It just doesn’t seem right.

    Additionally, I know there is a lot of internet pressure to give your whole house a “Spring Refresh.” Something about those postings bring out my sullen and uncooperative side. I guess I don’t like being told what to do, and honestly who has the time to refresh their whole house in FaceGen Modeller Pro Crack a thorough manner? So I dig my heels in a little on that, but I will admit to a swap-out of a few key accessories. I choose just a few places with high visibility. Your places may be different, but I bring out some linen pillows Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack my couch and maybe a new Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack table display, or some cuttings for my windowsill. AlI spots that bring me joy. So go ahead and do it. But do it for you, not because you’ve been guilted into some weirdly competitive game of Spring Refresh.

    Ok, so here’s one last things. (But to be clear, I’m not guilting you into Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Get your hose and broom out and give your seasonal spaces a thorough welcome back shower. Hose down those corners and walls and get rid of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack residual pine cones and (heaven forbid) christmas wreaths. It’s Not Quite Summer, but be ready, because Summer is Coming! (Which actually might be a nicer name for this season.) So hose off everything. Hose off your back patio. Hose off your lawn furniture. Hose off last fall’s cobwebs. Hose off last winter’s Covid. Hose off your ex-husband. Hose off your cat. Heck, hose ME off. And if you did, I thank you for it. Turns out I actually did need that spring refresh.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Survival of the Fittest?

    On any given day, as an interior designer, I may be invited in to someone’s home to talk about how that home is working for them and how it is not. It’s an introductory meeting and I do them all the time, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but I’m still struck by their intimate nature. I mean, I’m not only asking you to share your home with me, but I’m also asking you how you live in it. And how we live? Well that’s a cornerstones of how we define ourselves as humans. I’m honored to be part of that conversation and even more honored if I’m hired for the project.

    Each home is as different as their owners are - yet there seem to be questions that are common to all. The first thing most potential clients wonder is, what do interior designers actually do? And then they wonder if they really need one. And if they do, they wonder if I’m the right one for them. All great questions. I just wish there was a one-size-fits-all answer.

    In general, I think the most important thing to keep in mind is that the designer-client relationship is all about the right FIT, and an introductory meeting is a great way to assess that, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Don’t ignore your first gut instincts. Did your designer communicate clearly? Were they on time and professional? Do they seem generally knowledgable about their field? Were they listening? Did they ask questions? Did you like them? This is a relationship you may be embarking upon — you need to make sure it will work for you. You can also google additional questions regarding experience, references, billing practices, etc. Those questions are important too. But don’t ignore those first impressions.

    To be honest, as an interior designer on an introductory meeting, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I’m running through a list of questions of my own. Like you, I too am trying to tap into my gut instinct about the fit. But I’m also asking myself if I fully understand your aesthetic. And if what you are trying to accomplish is realistic. And is this project one hundred percent in my wheelhouse, because if it’s not then someone else could do it better, faster, and cheaper - and that’s who you should be working with. Basically, do I think I could go into your home and be a rock star - because that’s what every client deserves. And happy clients lead to a pleasant work environment. And pleasant work environments lead to beautiful results. And beautiful results lead to referrals. So it’s all a process that I take very seriously.

    But do you actually need me? Well, sometimes yes and sometimes no. It’s an easy yes if I’m talking to a couple of scientists (for instance) with no creative sense because they’re busy coming up with vaccines and saving lives. If that’s you, I can really help. I’ll look at your home holistically to make sure my recommendations are in line with your needs. I’ll provide 3D drawings so you are able to visualize the results. And I’ll add a level of thoughtful detail into that design which will elevate your project beyond what you could have Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack on your own. Additionally I can manage the construction process, handling the details and making sure your contractor has everything they need, and that your crew is smiling. I can’t completely eliminate the stress you’ll feel living through a substantial renovation, but I can certainly make it easier. So, yes, I say to potential clients like these. I have this one fabulous skill set, and you have a completely different, but equally as fabulous, skill set. So let me help you achieve good design, and I’ll leave the vaccines to you.

    The question is a little trickier when my potential client seems to be capable and knowledgeable and expresses an interest in doing some stuff themselves and also wants to save money. (You GO all you adventurous DIY-ers!) If this is you, you really might not need me. I might offer you some advice and encourage you to, well… go have at it. Especially if I don’t think your budget can afford me, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I don’t want to be like the grinch reaching down and taking your last can of who—hash! I want more for you than that. So roll-up-your-sleeves, arm yourself with a good contractor and lots of pictures of what you want, and keep your design as simple as possible. There is so much free design advice out there between Pinterest, and Google, awesome sales people, and friends with great taste. Will it be a part-time job for you? Absolutely. But that’s how sweat equity gets earned.

    There are certain situations that I think hands down really benefit from design help. One of them is if you are living in a tricky house. These homes may be tricky just because they have an open floor plan where all the elements really need to work together. But they can also be houses with problems. Maybe you live in a rambling post-and-beam, and you want it to be more homey. Maybe it’s making sense of an unfortunate addition. Maybe it’s taking a spec house with it’s cheap finishes and making it feel more custom. These problems are tough for me to tackle, and I’m a design professional, so Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack go it alone. I mean, the stakes are high, right? This stuff isn’t cheap. And keep in mind that you’re also protecting the investment you made when purchasing your home. So get some help and get it done right.

    Other situations where I think it would be silly to go it alone? Large projects are in that category. Like when you want to renovate that house before you move in. There are just so many moving parts to manage. Or a high-end project — when you desire a level of design that you just simply need a design professional to help you achieve. Or a make-it-go-away project like updating some bathrooms in a second home. Or an investment project when the goal is to get it on the market as quickly as possible. There’s help out there for all that.

    The good news Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that an initial introductory meeting is usually just that. You’re not getting married. You’re not even committing to a series of dates. Just follow your gut and do your research, and don’t settle for anything less than a rock star. It’s the same advice your mother would give before you go on that blind date. And you know your mom is always right.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Light’s Out, New England

    Here we are. A whole new year thrust upon us. And almost as proof of this, there is the subtle change of landscape that I witness every year about this time. Our holiday lights are slowly coming down, and for me, it’s an adjustment. A spot that was once bathed in sparkle, is now just - well, I guess its true self. We are putting the lights away until next year. So it’s official. It’s time to get back to the business of being salty New Englanders.

    I spent an odd amount of time this year looking at house lights and wondering about the personalities of the people that put them up, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. For instance, in my town there is no shortage of the tasteful white lights that outline the roofs and house edges. I picture an engineer at work there. That person has calculated the length of their roofline and coordinated it with the length of their tasteful, matching lights. They might also add a candle in every window. It’s a crisp no-nonsense approach that I appreciate, and when there are multiple houses adorned this way it feels oh so New England.

    Conversely, there are also the homes with lights that look almost partially installed. Like the motivation was there on a warm December afternoon, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, but then some of the strands didn’t turn on and it started to get dark and cold, and oh well, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, maybe we’ll just highlight that one little shrub this year. If this is you (and it has been me) I’m here to say that I appreciate your effort! No it didn’t quite pull together this year like you thought, but nonetheless you bravely turned on that string of lights every night, and probably made that shrub feel pretty good about itself in the process. Don’t worry. You’ll get ‘em next year.

    Then there are those go-big-or-go-home gamblers that have the giant blown-up, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Santa’s on their front yard with a blower at his feet. I get the appeal. These cloth sculptures offer a big statement with minimal headaches and just a little bit of space needed to store it away when the party’s over. But how minimal is that headache? Because the WOW-factor that comes when they are operating properly, seems to be pretty well counter balanced by how SAD they look when they are deflated on the front yard. Like maybe Santa got involved in a horrible accident and is now laying flat on the lawn in his worst pair of underwear for all the world to see. Oh Santa, how the mighty have fallen! I avert my gaze as I drive by.

    Probably the least festive to me are the short-cut lights. These busy folks throw a netting of lights over a shrub or two, and maybe some icicle lights on their porch. They are all about bang for their installation-buck. Their lights technically say Happy Holidays, but when I drive by I suspect somebody’s heart is just not in it. (And by the way, don’t believe the packaging. That netting isn’t fooling anyone.)

    But how about the more-is-more houses? What’s up with these folks? Do they go so over the top because they are just over the top themselves and they love it all so much that climate change, traffic, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and their electric bill will not deter their instinct to go all-in? Because I’ve got respect for that kind of commitment. But part of me wonders if perhaps that process has taken on a life of its own, and if they are left feeling a little bit burdened by the responsibility. I mean, are the kids and grandkids all grown, and has arthritis kicked in, but darn it they bought that shed to store all that stuff in and by now the neighbors are asking and so up it goes year after year? Are they putting it all up not because it brings them joy, but because they can’t figure out a way to stop? I find it all a little unsettling, and I tend to drive by those homes like they’re a crime scene on a dark night. I drive by slowly, to take it all in, but I also lock the doors because it feels like just about anything could happen there.

    My ex-husband used to put up lights that he would string into the shape of stars or snowflakes. It was a labor-intensive project involving bungee cords and scaffolding, ladders and string. He enjoyed the artistic expression of it, and that was sweet to see. They looked great at night, but during the day it had a little bit of a “backstage” quality that leaned towards messy to my eye. And also, if one of the strings gave out then nobody could really tell what was going on, night or day. So it was a delicate affair that took a good amount of fiddling and adjusting, probably a little bit like our marriage.

    Oddly, the lights that have spoken to me the most this year are those put up by the quirky single-stranders. Now at first glance you may confuse them with the partially-finished folks, because their trees can look a bit sparse. But they are not at all alike. The single-stranders tend to use lights in a color, which alone can be refreshing. And they tend to spiral the strand loosely around the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of a medium sized tree, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. The lights cling from one branch to the next creating a swoopy shape that the tree dictates. It looks almost like a giant hand reached down and gently looped that tree with lights from above. The spiraling swoop ends when the the string of lights do. And when I drive by I can almost here a quiet “tah-da” being issued from those branches. Their sweet simplicity buoyed me through the holiday season, and I’m sorry to see them go.

    There are Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack types of lights to consider. How about the projected images of snowstorms that we see now lighting up the fronts of houses? (I haven’t figured those people out yet, but the effect is pretty enough.) But time is short and my rustic, unadorned New England landscape beckons.

    But I don’t know, is that bare landscape really unadorned? Just take a walk on the beach at sunset, or step out onto your porch to experience the softness and quiet that comes with an evening snowstorm. I think it’s still sparkly out, It’s just coming at us in a different way.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • It's the time of year when I quote from my favorite holiday special, A Charlie Brown Christmas. Lucy says to her blanket-toting little brother, “You think you’re so smart with that blanket. What are you gonna do with it when you grow up?” Linus replies, “Maybe I’ll turn it into a sport coat.” Which, besides cracking me up, is actually pretty wise. During the holidays we want the comfort and security that some of our old habits and traditions can provide. So like the blanket that Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack wants to turn into a sport coat, I’d like to honor some of the unsung heroes of our holiday decor. A time to pause over the humble work horses that can frequently go without acknowledgement. 

    For starters, I present you with my first candidate, THE HURRICANE VASE. Hurricane vases were so named because you put candles in them during a (wait for it) hurricane. But for my purposes any tall clear glass vase will do. For some undefinable reason - everything you pop into them looks better than it did on it’s own. Start by popping in some greens and a pinecone. Poof! Instantly those humdrum ingredients take on a whole different light. And guess what? It works on everything! Like twigs, or Christmas ornaments, or candles, or cranberries, or an Elf on the Shelf, or twinkly lights, or candy canes. Once they are in the vases - they look curated somehow. Like a collection. You can group them on the end of a mantle, or display them in a line down your table runner. Anything goes. Some of my favorite hurricane vases came from the dollar store - just classic, simple, glass columns. I’m sure they sell beautiful ones at PotteryBarn too, but they don't have to be fancy.

    Another work horse worth honoring is THE GARLAND. Yes, we twist it around the railings on our front porches but it's also a great element to bring inside. It doesn't take up too much room, it brings instant holiday cheer to every place it graces, and it smells good too, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. (Don't you wish you could say that about all your holiday house guests?) And, sure, put it on the mantle or down the stair railing. But also try it in unexpected places like around a curtain rod, or inside a bowl, or frame the bathroom mirror with it. Even let the kids have some. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack see. For quality, there is the standard HomeDepot variety, and then there are also drop-dead gorgeous ones that you can buy from specialty shops if your budget allows. Me? I usually "hook up" an inexpensive variety with additional greens, or ornaments, or pinecones, or driftwood… even matchbook cars. Honestly it doesn't matter. Just grab your glue gun and florists wire or twine, and have at it.

    And while we’re at it, let's give a very honorable mention to that other kind of garland. The ones your kids can string, made out of popcorn and cranberries, or pom-poms and paper cut outs. I personally like these on the sparse side, with their string showing between the items, but I honestly love them all. Even those paper chains made from construction paper. I'm just a sucker for anything home made.

    I’d also like to call out a very effective holiday faststone capture 9.3 full crack in my arsenal: a can of WHITE SPRAY PAINT. You know how I said everything looks better in a hurricane vase? Well just about anything can also Internet Download Accelerator Pro 6.19.5.1651 Crack + Keygen 2021 better painted white too. Yup, right down to that Elf on the Shelf or even your cat. Don't be shy. You can spray them carefully on all sides for % coverage (tricky with the cat), or just hit them with a little spray to look more like snow. But the addition of the white brings some unity and calm to a dangerously chaotic time of year for decorating, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I like the matte finish, but shiny works too.

    And here I present you with a humble area of the home often overlooked for holiday festivities. It’s YOUR CEILING. I used to host a large family Christmas Eve dinner. It was a big Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that our whole family participated in, and our tablescapes were different every year. One year I had the kids cut little paper snowflakes out of tracing paper. We dipped the edges in glitter, and literally just hung them from the ceiling with string and scotch tape. (I did, however, discover the hard way that tall candles and hanging paper are not a good mix So, safety first everyone!) But I've also woven twigs or a garland around light fixtures, or tied individual ornaments over the curtain rods, or hung something green that I can call mistletoe in the foyer. The best tools to aid you in this venture? Those removable, adhesive hooks and maybe some battery-operated fairy lights. 

    One of my last unsung heroes is, surprisingly, THE PLASTIC TUB. My hat is off to the tub as it keeps our Christmas items safe and dry and insect-free for eleven months of the year. And for that last month of December? They do double duty by holding all the decorative items that our holiday decorations have displaced. Because this time of year, it's so easy to slip from "cozy and festive" into "chaos and clutter.” So don’t be shy about editing. You have a tub for that. And don’t worry, the other stuff will all come back in January.

    Did I say that was my last hero? Because I have one more. MOM. And yes, yes, yes - Dad’s too! And also grandparents and teachers and nice neighbors and kind strangers. I have a place in my heart for all of them! But Mom’s are frequently the directors of this well orchestrated event known as The Holidays. And like most things parenting related, it’s beautiful and messy and exhausting and rewarding and heart-felt all at once. 

    And so, fittingly, I’ll honor those maternal directors with one more quote from A Charlie Brown Christmas. It is said by my hero, Lucy Van Pelt. She’s frustrated with the short attention spans of the pageant crew. She wags her finger and yells at them, “Listen, all of you! You've got to take direction! You've got to have discipline! You've got to have respect for your director!” Lucy turns around and sees that Snoopy, behind her, has been mimicking her motions and is ruthlessly mocking her. Lucy pauses and says to Snoopy in a low voice, “I oughta slug you!”

    Ahhh, the heartfelt roller coaster of emotions that mark holidays! I’ve certainly been there. But Lucy doesn’t actually Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Snoopy. And there she is singing with the other children at the end. So if she can do it, so can I.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Consider The Kitchen

    Professionally, it’s been a streaky year for me. Last spring I hit a point where I was working on twelve bathrooms at one time. This fall, it seems to be all about kitchens. Both rooms are sort of cornerstones of my business in their own way, but the design process for each couldn’t be more different. 

    Bathrooms can be like little isolated works of art. It can be fun to do something bold, or even cute, or even themed. (Which is not typically my jam, but for a bathroom? Sometimes crazy enough to work.) So if your powder room strays just a bit from the general aesthetic of the rest of the home, it can be forgiven. Its doors are usually shut and most homes have more than one. So go ahead and paper the walls with your ’s post card collection, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. A bit much? Maybe, but it’s ok because your other bath could be all about nuanced textures and restrained neutral tones. See? Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack can all work out.

    Kitchens are an entirely different animal. And by animal I mean more like Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack large, hairy, wooly-booger of an octopus. For starters, kitchens are almost always doing double duty. On any given day mine can double as a home office, conference room, homework center, dog kennel, or therapist’s office. Additionally, think about the tasks that I ask my kitchen to facilitate; the cooking, prepping, storing, cleaning, cooling, and heating of food. And with all that going on, what do we usually want our kitchens to look like? We want them to look calm and organized and stylish and friendly of course. And we also want it to just blend right in to the rest of the house - especially for open floor plans.

    Impossible? Not at all. Just a little bit of a sudoku - perplexing in its way, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack so satisfying to wrestle to the ground. When my kids were young, I used to call my kitchen Command Central - and to be honest I still think about them that same way for my clients. So how do I tackle this octopus of a task and bring order back to Command Central? Well, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the same way I clean up big splattery messes (minus the cursing.) I work from the outside in. 

    For the early stages of a kitchen design, I start with very broad strokes. Most clients want to talk right away about the finishes that they like. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that’s a good thing. It’s all information, and a big part of my job is collecting it at this stage. But what I really want is to just get my client talking. I like to see their existing kitchen and the rest of their house, and hear what they like and don’t like about them. I like to know what problems they are trying to solve with this renovation and what their general aesthetic is. What’s their lifestyle? What are their must-haves and their hates? And I also talk about practical concerns, like when they want to start construction.

    I make a point to keep my first set of sketches very loose. I’m mostly looking at work flow, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, function, and architectural changes. Maybe we add some windows over here, or take out a wall and expand over there. Maybe we can add this island if we run cabinets along that wall. Let’s make sure the dishwasher will be located near Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack storage. Let’s keep that refrigerator convenient to the cook but also accessible to the rest of the house, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. And let’s tuck a pantry in next to those wall ovens. Keeping my sketches loose and easy to change facilitates a free flow of ideas, for both me and my client, and that’s where the best solutions come from. I make sure I am listening carefully and willing to pivot as needed.

    From there, my plans get tightened up. I incorporate standard cabinet sizes, and nail down issues like adequate traffic patterns, window sizes, and door swings. And that coffee Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that can be closed off with a garage-like door? Well this is when I figure out exactly what that might look like. 

    And finally we circle in further to discuss materials and finishes. It’s at this stage that we nail down cabinets styles, granite, tile, lighting, hardware, and flooring. Plus, paint colors, window treatments and artwork. But remember the goal. It was calm, organized, stylish and friendly. Making all those decisions will FEEL complicated, because they can be, but at the end they shouldn’t LOOK complicated. It should all feel so cohesive that people come in and just say it looks great, and then want to BE in the space. Because there really is no larger compliment than that. (And poof, that splattery spill is all cleaned up!)

    So if you are doing this on your own, be your own client. Complete the steps, do your research, work with quality vendors and builders, and probably use some design restraint. (Which doesn't mean you must go all-white.) Keep careful records along the way to document the details. (Hello Pinterest.) So you'll be able to check that the finish of your faucet will go nicely with the finish on your cabinet hardware.  

    So, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, for me? Which do I like more, kitchens or bathrooms? My answer is the classic: I like them both in different ways. (Gosh that was frustrating to hear as a child.) And now I hear myself say it more and more about all kinds of things. Like sunrises or sunsets, favorite colors, cats or dogs, spring or fall, sour dough or whole wheat. Honestly, sometimes life is just an embarrassment of riches because they are all pretty great in their own way. So I stand by my answer. I like them both. Even if I still think my mother liked me best.

    – This article was first published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • The Art of Finding Your You-ness

    As some of you may know, my design mantra is all about putting your “you-ness” into your home. So it may surprise you that as a designer, my first priority is not your you-ness, but it is that your room be functional. Let’s take your bedroom for example. Is it a space that is conducive to sleeping, nesting, resting, dressing… even romance? Can you easily access your clothing and view your outfit? Is there a handy place for books, remote controls, and charging cables? I need room for a yoga mat in mine. Your needs will be different. But all that? That’s what I think your bedroom’s first job is.

    Capturing the “you-ness”? That’s it’s second job. And I know many struggle Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that vague term, but your you-ness can be as simple as a list of your Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Like I must have that colorful crocheted blanket because it was my mother’s, or I must have jewel green wall paper because even the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack of it makes my toes curl. Or perhaps your you-ness is in family photos, or a collection of driftwood, or baseballs, or an ancient stuffed animal. There are no rights or wrongs here, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. It just takes a little bit of thoughtfulness about yourself, and figuring out what makes you happy. Which is not a bad exercise in general, or so my Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack keeps telling me. (And you’re welcome. I’ll bill you later for the session.)

    Let’s use artwork as an example because it’s one of the easiest ways to incorporate your you-ness into your home. It instantly adds interest and color and personality and depth. You may be able to list the people you know that have artwork that you like - because it can be that memorable. Or if not, figure it out. Go to a museum or the library and see what you respond to. Don’t grace your walls with fill-the-space art like a vacation rental furnished at the Christmas Tree Shop. Don’t hang poorly framed art of daisy’s or ships that you inherited from your uncle that mean absolutely nothing to you. Choose artwork that is an expression of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack thoughtfulness about yourself that my therapist just demanded. It is a % you-do-you Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and what could be better than that?

    But first, take a deep breath and prepare yourself for the fact that any kind of artwork is an investment. I mean any kind. Tastefully framing that old postcard? A surprising investment. If you approach collecting art frugally, your biggest expense will be for proper framing. But DO NOT skimp on proper framing. Save your money until you can do it right. It’s that important. If you go to a local frame shop you’ll get expert advice and service at a bit of a higher price. But if you are confident in your tastes, go ahead and try a discount frame store and save a few dollars. But be warned, at both places you will spend more money than you expect. Trust me. It just adds up. But it’s totally worth it for all that the fabulous you-ness you are expressing! And also just for how great it feels to have art in your home, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. It really is pretty great, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. And so grown up.

    So here’s the good news. Art is everywhere and everything can be art!! But first you need to unlock your inner curator. Make a point of noticing and appreciating loveliness…anywhere. You’ll find it in restaurants, coffee shops, other peoples homes, on the street, or in your child’s eyes. You just have to make a point to see it. And while you’re at it, take note of how it’s displayed too. It’s just practice. I remember when my son was young, he unknowingly demanded this same thing of me. And I will never look at construction equipment the same way again. To this day, I still see a giant crane, or scaffolding on a building, or even those big trucks that spit out the jersey barriers through my son’s eyes. He taught me that. So you can do this.

    And where to find it? There are the easy, traditional, and sometimes expensive avenues - going to galleries Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack art openings. Nothing could better and it’s an important industry to support, but I know it can be overwhelming if you are just starting out. But try it. Go to a local art show anyway. You’ll be amazed at what you can get for a few hundred dollars. Maybe a small painting already framed. Maybe some signed prints. Or maybe you just practice noticing the loveliness there. Keep an open mind and stretch a little. It’s actually fun and it won’t take up your whole night, and again, you feel so grown up after.

    When I started collecting, I haunted the thrift stores and yard sales. I never ignored the stack of mis-matched paintings that leaned in the corner or against a tree. Yes, it was usually a pile of poorly framed old ships and daisy’s, but every once in a while you’ll find a cool old map or poster, or just a painting that speaks to you. It’s like panning for gold! It’s a little addictive and I’ll still do it today. Do you want to up your game? Go to some of the higher end consignment or eclectic antique stores, and look at that same stack of paintings in the corner. It’s the same idea, but with less stuff you don’t want, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. And of course there is Etsy and Ebay. I found a treasure trove of vintage Russian nationalist posters on Ebay that I framed for a software company and put in their lunch room, which was sort of a joke about the desired work ethic. They were a big hit, but who knows what you’ll find. Just check and make sure Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack are getting real, signed art or authentic original posters - not the printed duplicates that are all over the internet.

    And lastly? Embrace the art around you. Consider articles of clothing, keys, your kid’s art (but don’t overdo that category), pages from old children’s books, albums from the 70’s, a collection of wheels mounted on the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, bottles of hot sauce on a shelf. For heavens sake, I have a collection of hands! Clearly anything goes!

    And by the way, let me finish what I started with that list of priorities for your bedroom. Guess what comes up as the low ranking third priority? (And to review, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, function was number one and you-ness was number two.) It’s the actual design of the room. The thing that most people hire me for actually comes up third on my list of priorities! It still ends up being the bulk of the job: the architectural details, the paint, the furniture the window treatments, all the soft and hard furnishings. But it should act like the glue that holds those first two priorities in place. Then you have all: function, personality and style.

    – This article was first published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • The Wild West of Choosing a Contractor

    My friend’s son is Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack married - and I think it makes everyone in our group feel a little bit older. But it got me to thinking about that first house that we owned, on that dead-end street where we all raised our kids. Our house needed some work, and I was young and absolutely baffled by how to go about hiring someone. I turned to an AOL chatroom for guidance (I told you I was young,) and I got the same list there that you would probably get if you googled the topic today. It would tell you: Ask for referrals from friends (although I was new to the area.) Call their references (which I did, but the reviews were SO glowing I was suspicious.) Discuss their billing practices (but I had nothing to compare it to, remember? No experience.) So yes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I did that due-diligence, but I didn’t feel like I was any closer to having a comfort level with how I was going to get the work done.

    Today, as a designer, I use contractors all the time and even still it’s nerve-wracking to try out someone new, although my list of questions have improved, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. I think my strongest tactic is to just to engage them in conversation. It’s important to get a sense of how they operate on that basic level, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Are they tired and rushed and terse with their responses? And if so does this make them a bad contractor? No it doesn’t, but depending how YOU operate, it might make them a bad fit.

    Jumping back to my younger years, I finally did choose a builder. He ended up being the brother of a neighbor, so that made me feel better. And he did beautiful work, but he was a little bit of what I now call a cowboy. He rarely returned my calls, I never really knew when he was going to show up or leave, and things would get done with details in place that we had never discussed. Plus he would pop sudden Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack on me like, “Where are those door handles that I need to install right now?” I remember I wanted to change directions on my project, which I was nervous about telling him. I didn’t leave my house all morning in the hopes of catching that cowboy so we could talk. When he still wasn’t there at pickup time Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack my kids, I called a neighbor to cover for me and left her with frantic instructions to call me RIGHT AWAY if she saw his truck pull in. I honestly think I would have left my kids in the middle of the highway in order to catch him. I was at my wits end.

    The project got done, but yeesh, the stress, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. What the young Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack needed was to think more about what MY needs were for that project. I was inexperienced. I needed to work with someone who was organized and a good communicator, and I should have been Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack about utilizing those same qualities myself. I needed to share that I was new to this. That I needed some help with managing my expectations. That I had a gaggle of young kids that made it really difficult to make split second decisions and for me to pick out materials on the spot. With that kind of a conversation I probably would have intuited that my cowboy was maybe not be the best fit for me.

    That would have been a good list of criteria for me back then. My list is is different now, and yours will be different too. That contractor cowboy might be perfect for you if you were, say, doing some maintenance on your second home when you weren’t there. Or if you were quickly improving an empty rental property. You wouldn’t care about their daily schedule so much, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and you might want someone who could solve some of those details on their own – someone with a high capacity to “make it work.” You would need to be extra careful that you were comfortable with their aesthetic of course, but sometimes cowboys can be just what you need. They just need to be in the right corral.

    Right now, my contractor criteria doesn’t change too much as I switch from job to job. I went a skilled professional that will complete the job on time and within the budget, all while offering service with a smile. (Are you familiar with the joke where you add: “pick any two” to that list of three?) Because yes, I do want it all. And I’m willing to pay a premium for it too, within reason. My contractor can make or break my client relationships, so I choose carefully.

    But what are some other tips to help you choose your contractor? As I said, my biggest goal is just to get them talking - even in a mathematica software chatty way helps. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack like to use contractors that are from this area, and even better if they have family here. I like them to be invested in the community because then their reputations usually matter to them. Plus, they will have a better handle on the local, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, quality, subcontractors that I’d also like them to use (like plumbers and electricians.) And they should, of course, be properly licensed and insured. So go ahead and google them or ask for their credentials.

    I usually ask for references from their last job - not a job of their choosing. And keep in mind, I’ve been called a number of Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack as a reference, and I do what I think most people do. I talk about the positives. I wait to be specifically prompted before I’ll offer up anything negative. So if you were calling me? You’d have to get me talking.

    Ask questions about the contractor like: What do you see as their strengths? Weaknesses? Were they on schedule? Under budget? What was the process like? Were people arriving and leaving at predictable times? Did the crew seem to get along, or were tensions high on the job site? Did they clean up after themselves? Were there any conflicts? How did those get resolved? And the very vague but handy: Is there anything else you think I should know? But do it all in a Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, conversational tone. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack one likes to feel like they’re being grilled, and these days those contractors are interviewing you just as much as you are interviewing them.

    And in the end, no matter what you do, it’s still a leap of faith to enter into that contractor relationship. And it is a relationship like any other. It takes a certain amount of thoughtfulness and courtesy and clarity to make it work along the way, so it’s worth taking the time to be a good customer. Even for the cowboys.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • A Warm Hand on Your Cheek?

    I’m writing this on Mother’s Day and I’ve just received, and sent, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, some wonderful texts from and to the mother’s in my life. 

    I’m struck by the broadness of the category. I hope those without offspring know they can celebrate it too. A few years ago, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, my sister told me that she thinks mothering is more of a transitional gray area than black and white. She has found different mothers for herself along the way, and she has noticed (and wants) her kids to do the same. I know I’ve felt that – on both the giving and receiving end. The instinct to metaphorically (or literally) wipe a nose or to place my warm hand on someones cheek, or to be held in a similar way myself. 

    So with the spirit of universal mothering in mind, I offer you below some good old fashioned design advice. (And don’t forget to eat your vegetables.)

    keep your efforts in perspective and be reasonable
    Over the years, I’ve found my advice often falls into the category of fix-it-and-forget-it. It’s what I want for my friends and my clients and for you too. Set up a good system, do the maintenance needed, get it done - and then just live in your home until you do another push. That’s what I do. And as my next “push” grows near, and my baseboards get dinged up and the varnish on my wood floors starts to look threadbare, I buy candles and entertain in the evening! Because everything looks better in candlelight. Even me. And you will too! The point being, don’t sweat it. Don’t stop sharing your home with your friends and loved ones. Otherwise, your home starts owning you, instead of you owning your home.

    If it ain’t broke…
    Another piece of advice I've offered repeatedly is, "If you love what you have going on – don’t change a thing." If your home is full of love and laughter, if you have chaotic bookshelves but you love every single book like they're your own children, if you entertain freely and often, if there is space for you to live in your home the way you want to live, if your home is a haven to you and your housemates and you can’t wait to step foot through the door… Please, don’t change a thing. THAT is better than any design Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack I can give.

    Get your nose out of the design websites
    It’s a good reference, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, sure, but after you’ve done your research let your passions guide you, not someone else’s website. This is easy advice for those of you with a “knack” for design, but harder for those that feel like they just don’t have it. And to you I say: stay part of the process. Hire out as you need, but share your passions and your tastes and needs. That bedraggled chair in the corner that only your dog sleeps on? Don’t be afraid to put that on your must-keep list. Be true to your style of living and to your loves and your hates. Keep your “you-ness” in your home because that’s what homes are all about.

    I remember helping out at the kid’s preschool where skills like standing-in-line and taking-turns were developed. FaceGen Modeller Pro Crack were the kids that listened easily and could wait quietly, and they were usually clustered at the front of the line. But I always rooted for the kids in the back of the line. They had ants in their pants and wanted everything NOW. Plus that’s where I always found my youngest daughter. But I related to them, and knew they were just born different. That what comes easy to some does not come easy to others. Not better or worse, just different. Which brings me to my final piece of motherly design advice.

    Keep your homes judgement free. God knows I can’t help you with all the aspects of that goal, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I'm a work in progress myself. But as your surrogate design-mother for this moment in time, I offer you absolution. There is no right way or wrong way. The way your house looks does not make you a good or bad person. The skill set that you have for maintaining your home, or the lack of it, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, is eclipsed by all your other fabulous skill sets that are way more important. So, let me place my warm hand on your cheek and say: What your are is enough. What you’ve done with your home is enough. Now go outside and have some fun.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Time to Sweat the Small Stuff

    I was visiting my daughter over the weekend - she’s at college in Providence. Seeing her apartment always reminds me of some of my own when I was her age and renting in Boston. It’s heady stuff – getting those early apartments. Oh the possibilities, the promise, and the adrenalin surge of undeniable autonomy! But, holy moly, what we put up with. Bedrooms without closets or windows, train noise that made the glasses in the sink rattle every eleven minutes, walk-ups where you had to walk up and up and up and up.

    I lived briefly in a crowded house on the Cape that had only one toilet, which was broken. So in order to make it flush you had to go back-and-forth, and back-and-forth to the kitchen tap with your gallon jug to fill the tank, and then finally flush your poo. “Wow,” you say, “that’s a lot of work.” Yes, it most certainly was. And, believe me, it did not happen near as much as it should have.

    But we were young, and adaptable, and our lives were filled with promise, even if our apartments weren’t. That was then, but what’s our excuse now? Because I see some of the same adaptable nature at play in many of the houses I’m asked to look at.

    I had a client a while ago that hired me for a kitchen and bath renovation. Her home was lovely and my project would make it even more so. But as we walked around I noticed that the newel post was wiggly and one of the stair treads was cracked. She complained that there was no place in the foyer to hang coats, and she hated the metal shelving that was in her master closet, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. We’ve all been there. We all have our own lists. But here she was, about to embark on a sizable, and disruptive renovation – and it didn’t occur to her to put these other items on the list.

    As a professional, I charge flatly by the hour, so I have no horse in the race when it comes to the size of the renovation. And I’m very aware of the discomfort my clients feel when their projects (and their budgets) bloat. So I tread lightly on this topic. But I also know from experience that there is just no better time to be further disrupted by your renovation, than when you are already being disrupted by your renovation.

    With my client’s project, she already had workers traipsing in and out of her house, and she was already down a kitchen and a bathroom. (I know, it sounds horrible.) But think of the specialists she was going to have at her fingertips: carpenters, electricians, plumbers, tile installers, floor refinishers and painters too. It just makes sense to find out how much extra it will be to add an electrical outlet here, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, or install shelving there, or to swap out that almond sink you hate in the half bath. There is just no better time.

    But I do hear you. “What about the budget?” you are asking. This is an excellent point, and of pivotal importance. Extra work costs extra money – there is just no way around it. But after a sizable, disruptive renovation you have earned the right to that ahhhhhh-this-was-so-worth-it feeling at the end. And it’s hard to feel that way when you are walking around creating yet another list of projects. Plus, that brand new kitchen at the center of your home? It has now set the bar a little bit higher for the rest of the rooms. Suddenly the paint job that you thought was “fine” is now looking dated and dull. Or you are kicking yourself for not refinishing all the floors when you did the kitchen. So yes, these extra details are more expensive, but they are also more integrated into that so-worth-it exhale than you might think.

    One thing I do for clients that helps out with this whole business, is to create a “Scope of Work” document. When I do one professionally I include pictures and layouts, but you could do a simplified version for yourself. Yours could be as simple as just making a list. It’s a great exercise for you and your partner to think about your house as a whole and to prioritize your projects. The point is to agree upon and outline the major projects you want to complete, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and to add any maintenace “extras” at the end, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. That sounds easy, right? Well, it can be… or sometimes not, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. But worth it regardless, because not only are you gaining Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack on the scope of your project, but you’ve also created a great document to obtain estimates with. Because when you are getting quotes from more than one contractor you need to make sure, financially, that you are comparing apples to apples.

    By the way, I’m not immune to the pull of adaptation over resolution when it comes to my own home projects. I’m the one that steadied a wobbling radiator with a stack of pennies. I lived with a wire coming out of my bedroom wall for years before I realized it wasn’t connected to anything and I could just pull it out and patch the wall up. If my pipes rattle at full water pressure, I just adjust the stream until it stops. Is it our Yankee-ness? Or just human nature? We will never know for sure. But I know I’ve matured. All of my toilets have been working for years.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Houseplants: Some In’s and Some Out’s
    I have this client that I really like. Why? Well, for starters, she and her family are very nice - deep in their bones nice. And she approaches the aesthetics of her home with both an open-mindedness and a decisiveness that is just such a pleasure to work with. But one other thing I really like is her collection of happy, unusual, well-groomed and thriving plants scattered throughout her home.

    I know what a feat that is - because those living things need to be welcomed into your home with some of the same care you might give a new baby. They won’t wake you in the middle of the night, or throw up breast milk onto your dress shirt in the morning - but they are a commitment for sure. And when done right they add to that quality you want in a home. The quality of “Life Happens Here”.

    I say this because, I will now confess, I am a little bit of the Angel of Death to many houseplants that have crossed the path of my interior design business. I know, I know. It’s almost like saying I kick puppies, right? But hear me out. Say I’m with a client or a friend who is showing me their house - and a common complaint is that it just doesn’t feel “pulled together” in that home-magazine way they strive for.

    With clients it’s easier, because they are willing to pay for change, but for friends that want to do it themselves? Well, it’s tricky advice to give. They start talking about new couch pillows and should they buy all new furniture? But I look around and I frequently see some of the same familiar culprits which really should be addressed as a first step. (Spoiler alert, yes, some houseplants have been harmed in this process.)

    The culprits that keep you from figuring out your room’s needs aren’t terribly exciting. You know them already, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. They are all based around clutter and deep cleaning. When my kids were young, I would stand in thier doorway with a dinosaur in one fist and a sassy little Barbie gown in the other and demand of them, “These items need to find a home!” Because if there is not a home for Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack the unexpected dribs and drabs that daily infiltrate your very existence - then you’ve already lost the battle.

    Other common clutter culprits? Well, those old book-club paperbacks aren’t doing you any favors, and sometimes (the Angel of Death has arrived…) neither are your house plants. Yes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, be very afraid you silly, boring, struggling, dusty, unsentimental, plastic-potted, unhealthy, unattractive or ridiculously unwieldly houseplants. I’m coming for you.

    You know the ones that have to go - you might even own some. They are those giant (and to me a little creepy) spider plants - and some of their ridiculously prolific offspring which seem to get tucked into yogurt containers and old coffee mugs nearby. They are the sad orchid bases, still in their plastic pots and praying for re-growth.

    I had a friend that dutifully saved a (now) massive holiday poinsettia for years. Its pot was still wrapped in that optimistic green tinfoil, and it had grown so much it was now dwarfing the table it was on and gobbling up every ounce of sun from its window. And here my friend is, showing me this room that nobody uses because it’s too dark and too small. I cautiously ask her where she got the poinsettia. “Oh, my neighbor put it out after Christmas a few years back,” she answers. (Shhh… if you listen closely you can hear the beat of the Angel’s wings in the distance.)

    But let’s talk a moment about how to do houseplants right. First off, buy the plants that you love from a plant store, not the supermarket or HomeDepot. And learn about them. Where do they need to live? Do you have a spot like that? Are they heavy shedders? Do they need misting? Or are they hearty and can take a week or two with no attention? Be realistic about you skill set and habits and buy a plant accordingly.

    Secondly, always re-pot. Or at the very least put the plastic pot into a nicer pot, and then put enough of that moss on top to fool The Angel. And lastly, think of your plant when you purchase it as a little piece of architecture. Do you want tall and spiky? Soft and foofy? Lazy and drapy? They all strike such wonderful unique profiles, so celebrate that and choose carefully. And don't for get to cluster - usually in groups of 3 or 5.

    After that the proof will be in the pudding as they say. Not all plants make it. But have a special, out of the way place for struggling plants. They all deserve a chance to survive, but let them struggle with honor in a back hall - not front and center in the family room. I hope my family does the same for me when my Angel starts beating its wings nearby. Come visit me in a quiet back room. Just do me a favor, and put a plant in the window.

    – This article was originally published in Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Manchester Cricket

  • Some Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack Advice
    It’s January, and what should we be doing with our homes? Oh let’s see… checking our weather stripping, analyzing our heat loss, watching for ice damns. Ugh… such drudgery.

    Me? Cozy, cozy, cozy! That’s all I want. Wake-me-when-its-over cozy. Burrow-in-for-the-winter cozy. Puffy socks and sweet hot beverages and being glad the holidays are over and all that stuff is stored away. ("Nice to see them come, nice to see them go," as my father used to say about them.) Yes, balance has been restored and all is well after the anarchy of the season. I wish I could say the same for this wounded and wonderful country of ours, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

    Am I good at getting cozy? You bet! But not for myself of course. I’m the mother of four. I became an expert by getting cozy for them. I remember my oldest being sick as a child. He'd be on his bed all flushed and damp, and I’d swoop in and put my hand on his forehead, froof-up his comforter, and tuck in his special stuffed animal. Plumping his pillows up behind him I'd declare, “Young man, I’m going to get you some ginger ale.” And on my way downstairs I'd hear him call after me in a small wavering voice, "With a bendy straw?” Yup. Of course I had them. And after he kept down some liquids and was dreaming of a world with calmer seas - that’s when I knew I’d cozied him up but good.

    So as we embark on probably the longest, deepest winter months of our lives, I am offering up just a few tricks of my trade.

    Cozy tip #1: An undersized comforter cover. Sounds weird and lumpy and not right - but it’s the same trick designers use with couch pillows - we stuff a larger insert into a smaller case. Just trust me and try it.

    I’m divorcing. And amidst the pain and disbelief of a failed marriage after so many years, there came one silver lining. My almost-ex and I were polar opposites on mattress goals. I think we both compromised over the years until neither of us was actually happy with our bed - which is probably an apt metaphor for the Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

    But when I moved into my own place I got a Serta Pillow Top with the emphasis on the pillow top. No memory foam here. No it-expands-after-it-gets-delivered. No it-will-take-a-few-weeks-to-break-in. This mattress came as a big poofy rectangle. And the top is deliciously soft. Couple that with a linen duvet cover a size smaller than my actual duvet…. and…. nirvana. Just ask my damn cats, because I can’t get them off my bed. Honestly. They tuck themselves into the folds and then somehow they triple in weight, so that when I try to shake them off, they just anchor in and roll with the waves. My marriage should have had some of that same commitment.

    Cozy tip #2 Be thoughtful about your couch blankets - and this gets personal. But if you are using a discarded blanket from your daughter’s room, or a wool heirloom that needs to be dry-cleaned - you are doing it all wrong. I’ll share with you my criteria - but you total av antivirus mac crack have your own. For me, I have lots of kids and lots of pets and lots of ins and lots of outs. My number one criteria is washability. Because, in my house, we are a messy bunch. We have happy hours at the coffee table and lingering coffee’s at the same place in the morning. And I see the spills and the lazy I-don’t-want -to-grab-a-napkin wipes. And so do they. And all of us can relax in knowing that these blankets are easily and frequently washed. My second criteria is based on tactile appeal. I’ve been partial to some high quality fleece ones lately, but sometimes in the summer I swap them out with thin cotton quilts. I don’t worry for a second about color coordinating with the couch (I don’t particularly like that blanketed couch look anyway.) I go for pure function, and stuff those blankets into a big basket, keep them clean, and just let it roll, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. But like I said, that’s me. You do you.

    Cozy tip #3 This is one of the few self care regiments that I do adhere to: no cold feet. Slippers for everyone are available - even for my kids that don’t “live” here. And you know what else? Even though it’s awful for my floors and I’m sure not very Marie Kondo, I let the shoes stay on throughout the house. If that keeps the toes warm and the good cheer flowing, it seems a small price to pay.

    And as the head of household keeping all kinds of crazy hours sitting at my desk? Well, I splurged on a twelve dollar hot water bottle. Sometimes I put it under my feet at my desk. Sometimes under the covers at night, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. It’s not exactly a husband, but it also doesn’t complain about my pillow top mattress.

    Like I said. These are my tips. Yours will be different - but you get the idea. Because no matter how you do it - cozying up beats the heck out of installing weather stripping.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Hello? It's Your Home Calling
    So there went Valentine's Day. And what are the chances of this almost divorced, hardworking, under-appreciated, mother of four being sparky about a holiday that truly only works for so few people in the universe? You're right. The chances are slim.

    But it all got me to thinking - what are some little Valentine gifts we can give to our hardworking, under appreciated and often taken for granted homes? And I don’t mean the chocolates and the roses (for your home that would be paint and getting the floors done.) I mean the thoughtful little things we do to make another feel seen, acknowledged, and appreciated. Speak to me, homes. I’m here for you. What are your top ten requests?

    #1. Your home wants you to take out the kitchen trash and give the closet, the cabinet, the bins and anything even close to touching these items a good antiseptic rub down.

    #2. Your home also says, "Please put something nice on your windowsill." Something that you will enjoy when you are Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack out, and when you are looking in too. A shrine. To you, and Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack your home.

    #3. Some homes report there is still holiday stuff about?? It’s ok. No judgment. Just take it down. It’s over. It’s time. (And yes, you’re welcome.)

    #4. Yes, that includes the front door holiday wreath. Yeesh!

    #5. But maybe not so fast on the small white Christmas lights.? My mom kept hers up year round, because they made her feel celebratory. She liked anything that sparkled. If that’s you go for it. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack don’t keep them up for the whole year… But, sure, let them linger during these dark winter months. If you like them, your home will too.

    #6. Some homes are asking for you to vacuum your furniture. That’s right - take the cushions off, vacuum both their sides, plus get in all the crevices of the frame (yuk). And then jump around on those cushions like a lunatic. Go get your kids to help! It resets all that muscle memory built into the foam and feather inserts. I mean, you know how you feel after a deep tissue massage, right? I think we could all use a little plump-up like that right now.

    #7. We’ll lump these next items together - it will seem like less work that way. But give your foyer, your coat closet or coat rack, your junk mail bin, your key bowl, your front porch, your basket of pine cones, the dirt and ice and grime on the floor, the boot rack… Give it all a little love. It’s almost like brushing your teeth before a date. This is the entrance to your home - have it represent you well.

    #8, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. This one’s important: homes like living things. It is an amazing truth that an abandoned property deteriorates at a much more rapid pace than when a family is living in it, even when that family does absolutely no maintenance. So bring some outside in. Flowers or orchids or a rosemary plant.

    I’ve had my paper whites up since December. I just can’t part with those long green leaves even though they are now flopping over and I’ve had to create a pretty ingenious leaf band tied around their middles to prop them up. Go outside and clip pretty branches, evergreen leaves, driftwood, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, berries. It will make you and your home feel better.

    #9. I’ve got a home in the back yelling at me, “Hey, set the table now and then!” Yes, you're right, I've lost my mojo. I really do need to do that more.

    # And lastly, (and all your homes are in full agreement) - cultivate joy. Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack kids went to a local preschool, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, aptly called MagicYears. I had ten years between my oldest and youngest, so I spent a fair amount of time on the play-ground of that preschool - helping out or waiting for the kids to get released.

    Early on I noticed this brave little tree that someone had planted as a thank you gift. I thought that tree didn’t stand a chance. I mean it really started as a springy twig, but the kids gave it all the respect they would give a more seasoned tree. They congregated around it, and strategized below it, and climbed it, and attempted to hang upside-down off it’s one poor little extended limb. I sort of silently thanked it for it’s service and promised to pay it a visit in the compost pile when it was finally resting there. But over the years, surprisingly enough, that little tree thrived. Sort of like my uterus in fact, as I kept turning up with a new baby in tow.

    So cultivate joy. Have a pillow fight. FaceTime a friend. Keep up your sparkly lights. Live, dance, love, cry - like you mean it. With fearless abandon. Even in the face of everything. Maybe because of all we are facing. There is really no better time to figure out a way to celebrate than this moment right now. Because homes, and all of us really, like living things.

    – This article was first published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • A Quick Fix Can Sometimes Be Just What You Need
    See you later It’s so nice to see you go, that I almost feel bad. I was on an elevator once when someone brought on an ancient service Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack that looked so sweet as he entered, but that made my eyes water by farting his way up to his floor. As he was being led out, he looked up at me as if to say, “Sorry lady, I’m just doing what I do.” was a little like that for me.

    So in response, I’m looking toward some home projects that offer quick fixes and instant gratification. And what is your strongest ally when it comes to that? Paint of course! It’s affordable, relatively easy, and the results have a huge impact. Take on a small fun project, and pick a spot that will be make you Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Be bold! Have fun! If you hate it - you can just paint it back. Use a cheerful hibiscus, or a summer sky blue, a warm tomato-soup red, or a jewel green – just something that you love.

    And where to paint? Just about anywhere. Paint the door to your basement, the back panels of your bookcase, the cabinets of your kitchen island, the ceiling of your bathroom, the bench in your mudroom, your stair risers, your cat - anything is fair game. Because it’s just paint! Is it a little risky? Yes. But that’s why the projects are small. Unleash that beast for a weekend and just see where you land.

    And guess what? Wallpaper is back IN and it’s going everywhere. It can go on all the same surfaces I listed for the paint - including certain types of furniture and your cat. There are tons that are peel and stick for easy install and removal. And you’ll also find all different kinds of wall decals - which is a very low commitment way to get that wallpaper look when you apply them carefully and evenly spaced. Google it all, and plan carefully - even if it is just a small weekend project.

    I remember a tumultuous time in my early twenties, when I went to my regular hair appointment and on the spot decided to go from long hair to a pixie cut. And when she was done and sweeping up my long locks from the floor, I stared into that mirror and felt that tumult still in my belly and thought, “Well, I guess it wasn’t the hair.” So, yes, break out of your comfort zone - but in the process make sure you’re not doing any lasting damage that will be difficult to undo. This is not the time to take down a wall, or paint that family heirloom. And don’t really paint the cat.

    One last idea to look into? Peel and stick tiles - they are self-adhesive pictures of tiles. These work best when you match the size of, say, that 4” x 4” baby blue tile backsplash, with a 4” x 4” tile sticker. You put them on individually and leave the grout. And within a few hours you can, poof, be Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack a Mexican cantina or an Italian grotto or in a hipster coffee shop - it’s up to you. (I Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack they had these when I was apartment hopping in Boston years ago.)

    They aren’t exactly cheap, but they’re not that expensive either for the impact they offer. Supposedly some are good for high traffic and wet areas – which I have trouble believing, but try them out and tell me what you think. They are perfect for a powder room or backsplash. You’ll find lots of them on omjanahindia.com with before and after pictures and reviews. And you can buy just a few at first, to try them out.

    
Does any of that help? Did it distract you for even just a minute from the fact that New Years Day was really just like any other quarantine day? I hope so. We are told there is a light at the end, but so far all I see is tunnel. So while we’re all here, let’s tile-sticker the hell out of that tunnel. And maybe the cat too.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Breaking Bread and Breaking Convention
    I recently had some friends over for dinner. I thought we’d eat in the living room, and had our chairs all set up. But my guests came in as a group and while I was busy with the bustle and the greetings and the coats, they all plopped themselves around my dining room table. It was so organic and so perfect that I just quietly swapped the buffet setup for place settings, and took a seat myself. There was wisdom in that collective, unspoken urge to sit together - and I certainly wasn’t going to argue.

    But dining rooms (or dining areas) in general, have polarizing forces. They are either working overtime for meals, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, work, crafts, homework, card games, cookie decorating, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, science projects, and even diaper changes. Or they are never used at all. There they sit, housing Aunt Betty’s complete Queen Ann dining set. It’s begging you to throw a formal dinner party, but yeesh, that kind of meal is so much work. Just take a look inside Betty’s buffet cabinet - it’s loaded with items Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack need to be polished and ironed and hand washed.

    Now I’m not knocking the formal meal. I’m just a fan of using spaces. Do you throw formal dinner parties frequently? Do you love the excuse to take out the wedding china and polish up the silver? Are the formal soirees that you throw lively events where people linger at the table longer than you anticipated? If you answer yes, well then don’t change a thing. That’s everything dining rooms were made for - it doesn’t matter what your entertaining style is. But if you answer no, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack you may want a dining area that is more reflective Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack who you are and how you like to entertain.

    Let me do some of you a favor. As your interior design fairy I wave my magic wand and hereby release you from that old dining set. Yes, yes, yes, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, I know it’s sturdy as heck, and hey look at that inlay, and they sure don’t make them like they used to, and we got it on our honeymoon and we’re saving it for the kids. I’ve heard it all before. But none of those are reasons good enough to keep something that doesn’t represent you accurately. Plus, that “heirloom”? None of the kids want them, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Understandably, it’s not nice to burden the next generation with the same furniture that never really worked for you.

    A million years ago, when I was in design school, I presented three ideas for an assignment and was very proud kaspersky internet security 2019 key free 1 year serial my work. My professor noted that although they were pretty, they didn’t address an important problem that the assignment presented. And he told me to (literally) go back to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack drawing board. I spoke with him Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack class and got all blustery and defensive about my approach. He cut me off and looked me square in the eye and said, “Creating good design means you sometimes have to kill your own children.” That stopped me in my tracks, and obviously I never forgot it.

    I share that story to prepare you. You: “Well, what would I do with it?” Me (buckle up): “If you are lucky you may be able to sell it for a fraction of its value.” There I said it.

    There are high-end consignment stores, and of course Craig’s List, and also donation. But there is little to no market for these pieces. I can hear some of you gasping for air, so let me pause here to gently remind you that not knowing what to do with a table you don’t like (or anything for that matter,) is not a good enough reason to keep it. Because if you do, then that furniture owns you - not visa versa, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack.

    And holy Covid, global warming, and the politics of today! Life is so short!!! Live your life as your most authentic self! And there is no better starting point than to update the place where you break bread and connect with other humans. I declare the contract that you had with that old furniture null and void. You are FREE!

    I’m going to manifest this for you. I’m picturing your old table gone and your new dining area taking shape. It has padded comfortable chairs and accessories unique to you. There’s a new wall color and less formal drapes, and you find your family gravitating to that spot to work or play or eat. Maybe the room is now better set up for multi-function use - it could double as a project area or an office. And maybe you find yourself sipping a cup of coffee in there, simply because it’s a place where you want to Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack could be better than all that, you ask? Well, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, in my opinion, decorating your table for the seasons is the icing on the cake. My Halloween decor includes plastic rats and glitter skulls - but find your own groove. There is so much to choose from in the fall. Gourds, and twigs with berries, and branches with their turning leaves still attached. Pinterest abounds for inspiration. Or go to the dollar store, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Turns out, plastic rats are surprisingly low priced.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Extending the Life of Your Hardworking Kitchen
    My friend sent me a picture of her amazing fall hydrangeas, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. Aren’t hydrangeas something?Look at ALL those flowers they produce, and for such a long time. (What are they eating? Because I’ll have what they’re having.) And right when most of the other plants are thinking about grabbing their winter sweaters and curling up, these flowers are still evolving - turning colors only mother nature can invent. “Don’t count us out yet,” they say, “It’s getting chilly, but look at us out now!”

    I thought Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack those hydrangeas as I was talking with another friend over the weekend. She’s a fabulous cook and was excited about breathing some new life into her year old kitchen, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. (“Don’t count me out yet!” that kitchen calls to me.) She tells me about it, and starts with the thing that excites her most - the new island. She’ll finally get seating in the kitchen and more storage and more counter space and she can’t wait. And then she pauses.

    “Well, the formica counters look awful too.” she continues. “And the kitchen cabinets are working ok but I don’t like the look. Maybe I'll paint them Definitely new hardware… The floors are a mess… And I always did want to knock down that wall into the living room.”

    There it is. It’s what I call project sprawl - and it’s very real and can be overwhelming. Where do you start? And just as importantly, where do you stop? I talk to clients about this same thing all the time - especially with bathrooms and kitchens. Where is that tipping point? When are you just putting good money into a bandaid that would have been better saved for a more complete renovation?

    Are you thinking: Oh, those predatory designers (or contractors) - aren’t they always just trying to soak you for more and more billings? And for sure, do your homework to make sure you are working with reputable people. But good professionals aren’t invested in your project in that way.

    For me, it’s just my job to talk about your options. I’ve never heard a client say - oh I wish we had done less, but I have heard them say they wish they had done more. That is assuming, of course, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, that they can afford it. Because the other part of a my job is to work within a budget, plan properly for the future, and to make sure you are getting the biggest impact for your dollar.

    Ok, back to my friend’s kitchen - do I crush her dreams of getting that kitchen updated? Well, she has shared a few telling facts. The kitchen is 26 years old, it has formica countertops, she really wants an island, and she loves to cook. So, me? Her designer friend? I’m guessing her cabinets are nearing the end of their life-span. She’ll probably want a stone counter which is an investment, and does it really make sense to put that on top of your 26 year old cabinets? And the island that started it all? Traditional built-in ones certainly aren’t cheap. And the last damning tidbit? She shared that she’s always wanted a different layout. Beep, beep, beep! In my view, that tipping point reached, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. (“Sorry,” I say to that ’s kitchen.)

    But in the mean time, she still wants to give it a facelift. What areas can she improve while saving the real money for her dream kitchen? Well, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack can take on the affordable projects that won’t lock her into something down the road. I suggest a freestanding island, with as many of the features as she can easily afford - something she might be able to sell later. The cabinets? Yes, she can paint them herself - but beware, painting them is truly a labor of love. There are all kinds of designer hacks for this stuff - just give it a Google.

    Yes, to a new wall color. And go ahead and put in a new light fixture and faucet and cabinet hardware, but choose carefully so you can hopefully re-use them down the road. If you are putting off that renovation for years, go ahead and refinish those floors - I’m sure your other ones need some love too. Counters? Only if you must. But if you do, get creative and don’t spend more than a few hundred dollars. (Ikea butcher block perhaps?) I’ve saved my final yes for some of that peel and stick backsplash tile that I think usually download axure rp 8 cracked horrible. Just promise me you’ll use the simplest one you can find.

    And there you have it. Just in time to make me some cookies!

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • Keeping the Embers of Summer Burning
    Here I am looking at the start of my favorite month, which I’ve named Septober for the second half of September and the first half of October. Yet I find myself melancholy at the close of this summer. I tend my wounds left by the months of Covid restrictions, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, the wounds of a failed marriage, and the bittersweet taste of my kids launching into this world of uncertainty. I find myself down the vacuous cavern of my half empty glass and think, if I jumped in there - would I really hit water?

    But those feelings, like everything else these days, are fleeting. This morning I did jump into that glass - and there it was. Half full! And the water was fine. More than fine. It was delicious and buoyant and filled with hope. And looking up into that big half empty cavern above? I see sunshine. Bring it on Septober. I’ve got big plans for you. And I’m not finished with my outdoor-socially-distanced-appropriately-sized-small-gatherings yet, so your brisk weather doesn’t scare me. All I need is a good fire pit!

    Fire pits can be bought, built-in to your landscape, or spontaneously created with a Webber-type coal grill and some insta-burn wood from There are many features to consider, but let’s break it down into the two Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack categories first: gas or wood. I think there tends to be a knee-jerk nod toward the romance of the crackling wood and the burning flame - but one only has to remember sitting downwind of a roaring campfire to know some of the pitfalls.

    When I was in high school I went to a beach bonfire and I was so hell bent on sitting near that bohemian college-boy, that I plopped down square in the path of the twisting smoke. I sat there blinking my eyes and trying to “act natural” as I willed myself not to cough or wince when the embers burned their way through my sweater. The college boy finally did notice me, but he laughed at my plight, and that stung most of all. For days, that smokey smell would re-ignited itself in my scalp whenever I broke a sweat. An acrid reminder of my unrequited love.

    Long way of saying…. don’t rule out the gas fire pit right away. Gas fires can be high on style and there are plenty that are easy on the pocketbook. They are so easy to light that you might turn it on just for your morning coffee, and their flame is adjustable to your climate or the time of day. In general they don’t give off the same amount of heat as a traditional fire can, but their smoke-free flame is predictable and the heat is reliable and environmentally friendly.

    But that gas fuel supply does take some planning. For a permanent fire pit, you’d want to have a gas line installed by your licensed plumber. But for a portable solution you just need to plan a way to stash that tank. Some models address this issue and incorporate the gas storage into the design. Just shop around.

    But for some there is absolutely no replacement for the actual burning log. It snaps and pops, it smells like camping, and then there are the marshmallows. Creating a built-in variety can be a pretty rewarding DIY project. A quick early morning google and a trip to HomeDepot can get you up and running that same night. (But please, safety first, and look into permits too.) Or that same trip to HomeDepot can supply you with any number of pre-made models. For me, I’m limited on patio space, so I got one that has a wide border for tipping your feet against, a dome-shaped screen to control the embers, and a top so that when it’s not in use it just operates like a coffee table. But you figure out the features that work for you.

    If you want your fire pit to be in the middle of your seating, you may want to consider some sort of chimney. They help to prevent that full throttle face of smoke from my cautionary tale above. There are those gourd shaped fire pits called chimera’s. They’ve got that groovy vibe and they do control the smoke - but you miss out on some of the enjoyment of the flame. But there are other chimney solutions out there that are built into domed screens. They claim to give you the best of both worlds, but your guests will be the ultimate judge.

    So fear not, my compatriots with melancholy hearts like mine. Help is on the way. And it comes in the shape of a fire pit. Break out the marshmallows.

    – This article was originally published in The Manchester Cricket.

  • He Said She Shed
    Why is it a she-shed and not a he-shed? Because us women have given you your man caves. And we also know that even if we had a basement woman-cave… we would still be found. There needs to be wet grass and gravel between you and someone wondering where the mustard is. And even then, there are no guarantees.

    We had our first shed put up when the kids were young. We went through one of those shed companies that comes to your house and puts up this little mini-house in about a blink of an eye. I swear I went up to change a diaper and I came down and there it was.

    Our first house was about square feet. My youngest daughter, and bonus baby of four, spent more than a few nights swaddled in a laundry basket next to my bed. My office was a converted closet. The “play room” for the kids was an uninsulated back hall. (Bundle up kids!) Real estate was a coveted commodity in our house, for sure.

    So, after the magic shed fairies left, and the baby went down, I tiptoed out back to check it out, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack. And there it was, a 10 x 12 empty space! I had never seen anything so glorious. And make no mistake - that space was spoken for. We had the Big Wheels, scooters and lawn gear all piled up ready to go in it. But just for that one, childless, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, quiet moment I laid down on that floor and considered the possibilities. I remember the smell of the pine, Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack, and the lazy drift of the construction dust settling in the sunlight and I thought, “This is all I need. Truly all I need.”

    Blink again, and my shed is stuffed with the detritus of our lives - it was spoken for, my needs didn’t stand a chance. But that ahhhhh moment? That is at the heart of every she-shed. It doesn’t matter if it’s an office, a reading nook, or a yoga studio. The exhale is just built in. And here we are, looking at probably another Covid winter of working/schooling/doing everything from home - don’t you want one? Summer’s almost over, you better get busy.

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Unity Pro 2020.1.9 Crack

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